FAO Animal Health ManualNo. 12
Cover
MANUAL ON PROCEDURES
FOR DISEASE ERADICATION
BY STAMPING OUT


Contents


Text prepared by

William A. Geering
Consultant, EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group, FAO, Rome
Former Director, Animal and Plant Health,
Bureau of Resource Sciences and Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer,
Australia

Mary-Louise Penrith
Assistant Director, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa
and Consultant, African swine fever epidemiology
and control, FAO, Rome

David Nyakahuma
Associate Professional Officer (Early Warning),
EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group, FAO, Rome

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


ISBN 92-5-104585-2


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Foreword

Stamping out is a recognized and proven strategy for rapid elimination of an introduced exotic disease or other emergency livestock disease. The crucial elements of stamping out are:

Stamping out is often the most cost-effective strategy. The disease eradication campaign is shorter and achieved for a lower overall cost and there is a shorter waiting period before the country can be recognized as free of the disease and resume export of livestock and animal products.

Several social, economic and other factors need to be evaluated before stamping out is selected as the strategy for a disease contingency plan. These include:

(In this context it should be noted that vaccination is not available for some epidemic livestock diseases and stamping out is the only viable option. African swine fever is such a disease. At the other end of the spectrum, for some diseases stamping out is unlikely to have much effect. This particularly applies to insect-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever and bluetongue.)

(Whilst stamping out is likely to be less costly and more efficient overall, it may be quite resource-intensive in the short term.)

Well organized veterinary services that have the full political support of the government are crucial to the success of the disease-eradication campaign. The full support of other services such as the police, army and public works is essential. The final important element is prior preparation of a comprehensive contingency plan for the disease in question.

This manual does not discuss strategic issues. For these, reference should be made to the FAO Manual on the preparation of national animal disease emergency plans and manuals on preparation of contingency plans for specific diseases such as rinderpest and African swine fever.

This is a procedures manual: how to carry out important activities in a disease stamping-out campaign. It is divided into three parts:

  1. Destruction of animals
  2. Disposal procedures
  3. Decontamination

This manual cannot take into account different circumstances in all countries. It is therefore important that countries use it as the basis for preparing their own manual tailored to suit their requirements and resources. Where possible, an attempt has been made to take into account the circumstances in developing countries and to suggest procedures based on experience of eradication in countries with limited resources.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, © FAO 2001


Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements

Part 1: DESTRUCTION OF ANIMALS

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2
ORGANIZATION OF DESTRUCTION

Action plan
Selection of destruction site
Order of destruction

Chapter 3
METHODS OF DESTRUCTION

Firearms (rifles and guns)
Captive-bolt pistols
Pithing
Other physical methods
Gaseous agents
Injectable agents

Chapter 4
DESTRUCTION OF VARIOUS SPECIES

Cattle and buffalo
Sheep
Pigs
Goats
Horses, donkeys and mules
Deer
Birds
Dogs
Cats
Rats, mice, guinea pigs
Rabbits
Primates
Fish
Circus and zoo animals

GLOSSARY

Part 2: DISPOSAL PROCEDURES

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2
SELECTION OF DISPOSAL METHOD AND SITE

Disposal on the IP (or DCP)
Disposal off the IP (or DCP)

Chapter 3
METHODS OF DISPOSAL

Burial
Cremation
Incinerators
Pit burning
Rendering
Composting

Chapter 4
ITEMS REQUIRING SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

Milk and dairy products
Hatching eggs and hatchery waste
Effluent
Wool and mohair

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES
Training resources

Part 3: DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2
KNOW THE ENEMY - THE EMERGENCY DISEASE AGENT

Disinfectant susceptibilities of important disease agents
Disinfectant/chemical selections for particular viruses
Epidemiological considerations affecting decontamination procedures for particular viruses
Comparison of amplification, persistence and resistance of important infectious animal disease agents

Chapter 3
WEAPONS: DISINFECTANTS AND CHEMICALS FOR INACTIVATION OF EXOTIC VIRUSES AND DISEASE AGENTS

Introduction
Selection of disinfectants
Safety precautions

Chapter 4
BATTLEFIELD STRATEGY - DISINFECTION PROCEDURES

Personal decontamination
Property decontamination
Vehicle and machinery decontamination

Chapter 5
AREAS OF SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

Animal effluent
Dairy equipment and milk storage tanks
Animal feed
Specialist equipment on the IP and DCP

Appendix 1
EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST

Personal equipment
Decontamination site: IP or DCP
Property decontamination
Vehicle decontamination: LDCC, road control points and road and rail transport

Appendix 2
SUPPLIERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF DISINFECTANTS

Appendix 3
PRACTICALITIES OF DECONTAMINATION WITH FORMALDEHYDE GAS

GLOSSARY

ABBREVIATIONS

REFERENCES
Video and training resources
OIE publications

Acknowledgements

This Manual of procedures for disease eradication by stamping out is based on The destruction of animals, Disposal procedures and Decontamination operation procedures manuals of AUSVETPLAN (second edition, 1996). AUSVETPLAN is a series of technical response plans that describe the Australian approach to an exotic animal disease incursion. The procedures are adapted in this manual to apply to eradication of foci of serious infectious diseases of domestic livestock in any country where they may occur.

The permission of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Commonwealth of Australia, to use these documents as the basis for the preparation of this manual is gratefully acknowledged.

The original AUSVETPLAN Operational manual for destruction of animals was drafted by Drs L. Pryde, J. Galvin, R. Gordon, J. Murray, M. Riley and R. Webster. Disposal procedures was drafted by Drs L. Pryde, J. Galvin, R. Gordon, R. Hadwin, J. Murray, M. Riley and R. Webster. Decontamination operation procedures was drafted by Drs. G. Abraham, J. Morrison, C. Mayberry, B. Cottam and R. Gobby. The work of these authors is gratefully acknowledged.