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1 A similar estimate of the number of people who depend on small-scale fishing can be deduced from Safina (1995: 52), who suggests that about 200 million people worldwide depend on fishing for their livelihoods. His figures do not distinguish small- versus large-scale fishers, nor do they distinguish primary producers from others who depend on the fisheries for the livelihoods. Yet, if his figures are accurate and pertain to both primary producers and others who depend on fishing, and assuming that approximately 95% of the people who depend on fishing are involved in small-scale approaches, then from his figures we may deduce that worldwide around 190 million people depend on small-scale fishing.

2 Fisheries officials wishing to explore and measure the strength and importance of occupational pride, tenacity, and cultural identity in small-scale fishing communities are urged to consult the following publications: Annex 10.3 of this report by Freeman, Binkley and Thiessen (1990), Gatewood (1989), Gatewood and McCay (1988), Peace (1991), Poggie and Gersuny (1974), Pollnac and Poggie (1978), Pollnac and Poggie (1979), Pollnac and Robbins (1972), and Pollnac and Ruiz-Stout (1977).

3 Readers are encouraged to review the following regarding problems posed for small-scale fishing people by the worldwide animal-rights movement: Einarsson 1990, concerning sealing in Iceland; Freeman 1991, 1997, and Annex 10.3 of this report by Freeman, regarding native people living in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions; Government of Japan 1997, regarding small-scale whaling communities in Japan; McGoodwin 1997, discussing the problem generally in small-scale fishing cultures; Northridge (1984), Wenzel (1991), and Wright (1984), sympathizing with Newfoundland's sealers; and Busch (1985), Davies (1979 and 1989), Mowat (1972 and 1984), and Watson and Rogers (1982), representing animal-protection views that eventually led to the demise of sealing as an important component of rural Newfoundlanders' subsistence economies.

4 Much of the discussion appearing in Section 5 concerning rapid assessment stems from Pido, Pomeroy, Carlos, and Garces (1996), whom the author gratefully acknowledges.

5 Researchers should exercise caution when relying on statistical information about small-scale fisheries that they obtain from secondary sources. This is because of the difficulties entailed in conducting an accurate census of fishing people who are often dispersed over areas having difficult access, who may move around with different fishing seasons, and who may distribute their catches at multiple locations.

6 Useful suggestions concerning how fisheries officials may help the members of small-scale fishing communities to establish and operate effective organizations appear in Ben-Yami and Anderson (1985).

7 On inception, the complete name for this program was Special Programme on Food Production in Support of Food Security in Low Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs).

8 According to the FAO Committee on Fisheries (FAO 1995b), "LIFDCs are those countries that have a negative trade balance in cereals over the previous five years and a per caput income equal or inferior to that used to determine eligibility for IDA/IBRD funding (i.e. US $1305 per caput GNP in 1992). According to the FAO-sponsored High Level Panel of Experts in Fisheries, "LIFDCs are countries which had a negative food trade position during the period 1992-94 and a per caput income equal or inferior to that used to determine the eligibility for IDA/IBRD funding (i.e. US $1465 per caput GNP in 1995). In addition, the country should have designated itself as a LIFDC" (FAO 1998: 1). Among the 78 countries which have been identified as LIFDCs, 43 are in Africa.

9 Regarding the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), among the member-states of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), 11 have been identified as LIFDCs, and in 6 of these fish provides over 50% of the animal protein in the diet. The 11 members of AOSIS which are LIFDCs are Cape Verde, Comoros, Guinea Bissau, Kiribati, Maldives, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

10 These projects include: Aquaculture for Local Community Development (ALCOM), based in Harare, Zimbabwe, and active in Southern Africa; Coastal Fisheries Management in Bay of Bengal (BOBP), based in Chenaii, Madras, India, and active in countries surrounding the Bay of Bengal; and Programme de Développement Intégré des Pêches Artisanales en Afrique de l'Quest (IDAF), based in Cotonou, Benin, and active in West African countries.

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