Zero tillage development in tropical Brazil
The story of a succesful NGO activity
John N. Landers
Tropical Natural Resources Management Specialist
Wageningen University and Research Centre
Wageningen, The Netherlands
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© FAO 2001
Abbreviations and Acronyms
The Case Study
Background to the Founding of the NGO and its Early Activities
Analytical Discussion of Specific Aspects
The Adoption Process of Zero Tillage
The mechanisms Involved
Factors Impeding Adoption
Sources of Resistance to Adoption of Zero Tillage as Official Policy
Changes in Rural Credit and Extension Focus.
Clubes Amigos da Terra.
Developing and Disseminating Technical Information
On-farm Research and Pilot Projects
Applicability of ZTAT experience to small farmers.
Growth of Zero Tillage Promoted by Technical Events and Training
Promoting Partnerships for ZTAT Activities
Financial Aspects of ZTAT Operations.
Policy and Environmental Considerations
Reducing the Pressure to Clear New Land
Notes on How to Incorporate Zero Tillage into Rural Development Projects
Reversion to Conventional Tillage
Decline in Second Phase Activities of CATs
How to Convince the Environmentalists to Support ZTAT?
How Indispensable are Key Personnel?
What is Needed to Expand ZT Concepts to the Semi-arid Region of Brazil?
The Evolution of Zero Tillage in Brazil
Functions of Crop Residues in Zero Tillage
Pre-Conditions For Adoption Of Zero Tillage
Principal Zero and Minimum Tillage Techniques in Brazil
Cover and Winter Second Crops
Current Organizational Structure of ZTAT
Institutional framework for SINRM in Brazil
Example of CAT Participation in On-Farm Research
Economic Aspects of Zero Tillage
Mechanisms Involved in Zero Tillage Adoption in the Brazilian Tropics, in Approximate Order of Importance.
Responses to the Question "Why don't farmers adopt Zero Tillage?"
Responses to the Question "What are the topics on which you need more information?"
Priorities for Technical Information According to Class of Respondent
A Comparison between the Environmental Impact of Zero Tillage/Conservation Agriculture and that of Urban Areas in Brazil.
Box 1: The Features of Zero Tillage/Conservation Agriculture
Box 2: A Condensed History of ZTAT
Box 3: Why the slow research response to tropical ZT (up to 1995)?
Box 4: Historical Note
Box 5: Benefits Generated for Society by Adoption of Zero Tillage
Box 6: Sustainable Integration of Natural Resources Management (SINRM)
Box 7: Common Expectations and Actions Required for ZT in East/Central Africa
Box 8: What the Farmer Loses by Working his Soil
Expansion of the Zero-Tillage Area in Brazil and in the Cerrado (wet/dry tropical savannah region).
The Principal De-compaction Zone for Adoption of Zero Tillage
A Management route to lower use of agricultural chemicals
ZT is the Gateway to Sustainability
Current organizational structure of ZTAT