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Appendix 1. Basic parameters used for the Dipterocarp Forest Growth Simulation Model (DIPSIM)

Aspect

Specifications for the CBA analysis under harvesting system

CL

RIL

No. of harvesting units

21

21

Forest type

Primary MHDF

Primary MHDF

Net operable area

34,078 ha

34,078 ha

Simulation period

40 years

40 years

Annual allowable cut

55,377 m/y

20,447 m/y

Minimum economic cut

30 m/ha

15 m/ha

Maximum number of trees harvested

20 trees/ha

10

Minimum cutting limits

For Dipterocarps: 60 cm

For non-Dipterocarps: 45 cm

For Dipterocarps: 60 cm

For non-Dipterocarps: 45 cm

Silvicultural treatment intensity

No treatment

No treatment

Logging damage

Dbh 10 20 cm: 53%

Dbh 20 40 cm: 58%

Dbh > 40 cm: 56%

Dbh 10 20 cm: 29%

Dbh 20 40 cm: 32%

Dbh > 40 cm: 21%

Utilisation Factor (UF)

75%

80%

Quality Factor (QF)a

50%

65%

Log waste (LW)a

20%

0%

Explanation:
CL = Conventional Logging System
RIL = Reduced-Impact Logging
MHDF = Mixed Hill Dipterocarp Forests
a DIPSIM considers neither a Quality Factor nor a correction factor for log waste. After the simulation the predicted potentially commercial volume was therefore reduced by the Quality Factor and the correction factor for log waste.

 

Appendix 2. Summary of average costs of Conventional Logging (CL) and Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL), by activity

Operation

Harvesting system

CL

RIL

Cost

Cost

[RM/ha]a

[RM/m]

[RM/ha]

[RM/m]

Training

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

153.40

5.53

Transportb

0.00

0.00

11.95

0.43

Equipment

0.00

0.00

2.71

0.10

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

168.06

6.06

Skidtrail alignment

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

46.97

1.69

Transport

0.00

0.00

3.45

0.12

Equipment

0.00

0.00

1.48

0.05

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

51.90

1.87

Skidtrail mapping

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

1.75

0.06

Transport

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Equipment

0.00

0.00

0.04

0.00

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

1.78

0.06

Tree markingc

       

Staff

n.d.

n.d

53.18

1.92

Transport

n.d.

n.d

2.76

0.10

Equipment

n.d.

n.d

3.69

0.13

Subtotal

22.25

0.5

59.63

2.15

Data analysis, digitizing (GIS Unit)

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

1.49

0.05

Transport

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Equipment

0.00

0.00

4.75

0.17

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

6.23

0.22

Review of Forest Harvesting Map

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

2.01

0.07

Transport

0.00

0.00

0.27

0.01

Equipment

0.00

0.00

0.07

0.00

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

2.35

0.08

Harvesting/Skidding

       

Salary and wages

161.91

8.43

107.94

3.89

Fuel. oil and lubricant

378.27

3.64

253.08

9.12

Repairs and maintenance

375.22

8.5

245.33

8.84

Capital cost

305.61

6.87

273.23

9.85

Subtotal

1,221.01

27.44

879.59

31.70

Damage assessment

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

14.49

0.52

Transport

0.00

0.00

0.85

0.03

Equipment

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.00

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

15.45

0.56

Compliance assessment

       

Staff

0.00

0.00

14.39

0.52

Transport

0.00

0.00

1.38

0.05

Equipment

0.00

0.00

0.21

0.01

Subtotal

0.00

0.00

15.98

0.58

Total

1,243.33

27.94

1,201.06

43.28

Explanation:
a Cost per ha of net operable area.
b Average transport distance per day for all field activities: 100 km; fuel consumption 25 l.
c Costs for tree survey (not tree marking) under CL were estimated (Forest Officer Jonathan, personal communication), no breakdown possible.

 

Appendix 3. Average costs per day for staff under Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL), by activity

Operation / Position

Basic salary

Jungle allowance 

Food allowance 

T&T Claim FDS

Number of persons

Total per day

[RM/m]

[RM/d]a

[RM/d]

[RM/d]

[RM/d]

[n]

[RM/d]

Training

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

1

113.18

Surveyor; Samling

1,718.00

75.24

18.00

8.00

1

101.24

Labourers; Samling

14.00

8.00

8.00

9

270.00

Total

11

484.42

Skidtrail alignment

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

2

226.35

Surveyor; Samling

1,718.00

75.24

18.00

8.00

2

202.48

Labourers; Samling

14.00

8.00

8.00

6

180.00

Total

10

608.83

Skidtrail mapping

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

1

113.18

Total

1

113.18

Tree marking

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

4

452.70

Surveyor; Samling

1,718.00

75.24

18.00

8.00

2

202.48

Labourers; Samling

14.00

8.00

8.00

6

180.00

Total

12

835.18

Data analysis, digitizing (GIS Unit)

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

0.00

1

48.18

Total

1

48.18

Review of Forest Harvesting Map

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

1

113.18

Total

1

113.18

Damage assessment

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

3

339.53

Surveyor; Samling

1,718.00

75.24

18.00

8.00

3

303.72

Labourers; Samling

14.00

8.00

8.00

4

120.00

Total

10

763.25

Compliance assessment

Crew leader & assistant crew leader; FDS

1,100.00

48.18

0.00

0.00

65.00

2

226.35

Labourers; Samling

14.00

8.00

8.00

8

240.00

Total

10

466.35

Explanation:
a Assuming 274 working days per year.

 

Appendix 4. Average equipment costs per day under Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL), by activity

Operation / Cost centre

Cost per unit

Unit

No. of units

per day

Cost per day

[RM]

[n]

[RM]

Training

All weather writing paper

0.38

sheet

8.0

3.04

Pencil

0.75

piece

1.0

0.75

Rubber

1.50

piece

1.0

1.50

Plastic flagging

0.12

m

10.0

1.17

Diameter tape

2.00

1)

1.0

2.00

Tape

0.83

2)

1.0

0.83

Suunto compass

0.39

3)

1.0

0.39

Suunto clinometer

0.48

4)

1.0

0.48

Total

10.16

Skidtrail alignment

Spray

7.50

tin

2.0

15.00

Plastic flagging

0.12

m

6.0

0.70

Tape

0.83

2)

1.0

0.83

Suunto compass

0.39

3)

1.0

0.39

Suunto clinometer

0.48

4)

1.0

0.48

Fuel

1.79

l

1.0

1.79

Total

19.19

Skidtrail mapping

Pencil

0.75

piece

0.5

0.38

Rubber

1.50

piece

0.5

0.75

Ruler

0.32

5)

1.0

0.33

Graph paper A3

0.32

sheet

3.0

0.96

Total

2.42

Tree marking

Spray

7.50

tin

5.00

37.50

All weather writing paper

0.38

sheet

6.00

2.28

Pencil

0.75

piece

0.50

0.38

Rubber

1.50

piece

0.20

0.30

Plastic flagging

0.12

m

10

1.17

RIL tag

0.08

piece

80

6.40

Nails

0.10

piece

80

8.00

Diameter tape

2.00

1)

1.0

2.00

Fuel

1.79

l

1.0

1.79

Total

59.81

Data analysis, digitizing (GIS Unit)

Map production

800.00

6)

1.0

800.00

Total

800.00

Review of Forest Harvesting Map

All weather writing paper

0.38

sheet

1.0

0.38

Pencil

0.75

piece

0.2

0.15

Rubber

1.50

piece

0.2

0.30

Diameter tape

2.00

1)

1.0

2.00

Suunto compass

0.39

3)

1.0

0.39

Suunto clinometer

0.48

4)

1.0

0.48

Total

3.70

Damage assessment

Pencil

0.75

piece

0.5

0.38

Rubber

1.50

piece

0.5

0.75

Plastic flagging

0.12

m

5.0

0.58

Paper A4

0.03

sheet

3.0

0.08

Diameter tape

2.00

1)

1.0

2.00

Tape

0.83

2)

1.0

0.83

Suunto compass

0.39

3)

1.0

0.39

Suunto clinometer

0.48

4)

1.0

0.48

Total

5.49

Compliance assessment

Pencil

0.75

piece

0.5

0.38

Rubber

1.50

piece

0.5

0.75

Plastic flagging

0.12

m

10.0

1.17

Paper A4

0.03

sheet

25.0

0.68

Diameter tape

2.00

1)

1.0

2.00

Tape

0.83

2)

1.0

0.83

Suunto compass

0.39

3)

1.0

0.39

Suunto clinometer

0.48

4)

1.0

0.48

Total

6.67

Explanation:
1) = Unit price: RM 180.00, assuming 90 days useful life.
2) = Unit price: RM 75.00, assuming 90 days useful life.
3) = Unit price: RM 285.00, assuming 720 days useful life.
4) = Unit price: RM 350.00, assuming 720 days useful life.
5) = Unit price: RM 30.00, assuming 90 days useful life.
6) = Total cost data input, map production, including depreciation of hardware and software (GIS-Unit).

 

Appendix 5. Average productivity under Conventional Logging (CL) and Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL), by activity

Operation

Harvesting system

CL

RIL

Productivity

Productivity

[ha/d]a

[m/d]

[ha/d]

[m/d]b

Training

-

-

3.9

103.9

Skidtrail alignment

-

-

13.5

359.7

Skidtrail mapping

-

-

67.4

1798.7

Tree marking

n.d.c

n.d.

16.9

449.7

Data analysis, digitizing (GIS Unit)

-

-

33.7

899.3

Review of Forest Harvesting Map

-

-

58.4

1558.8

Harvesting

       

Felling and log extraction

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

Skidtrail preparation

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

Damage assessment

-

-

54.7

1461.4

Compliance assessment

-

-

33.6

899.3

Explanation:
a Productivity in relation to net operable area
b Average: Total volume extracted per total net production area divided by total number of crew days per activity
c No data available or data inconsistent
Note: Figures on productivity are based on the data obtained from 13 RIL blocks only; that is why the average harvesting volume amounts to 26.8 m/ha instead of the total average of 27.8 m/ha for 17 RIL blocks

 

Appendix 6. Gross volume of 21 harvesting units under Conventional Logging (CL) and Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL); five-year intervals

Years after logging

Gross volume [m/ha] under harvesting system

CL

RIL

0

333.3

333.3

5

304.5

321.3

10

282.7

318.5

15

263.3

323.6

20

259.8

320.9

25

247.4

319.1

30

229.6

317.2

35

225.7

316.6

40

196.3

317.4

Explanation:
Net production area: 39,103 ha
Net operable area: 34,078 ha
Annual allowable cut (AAC):
CL: 55,400 m/y
RIL: 20,447 m/y
Data obtained from Dipterocarp Forest Growth Simulation Model (DIPSIM) simulations.

 

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