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REFERENCES

Dykstra, D.P. & Heinrich, R. 1996. FAO Model Code of Forest Harvesting Practice. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 92-5-103690-X. 85 pp.

Gerwing, J.J., Johns, J.S. & Vidal, E. 1996. Reducing waste during logging and log processing: forest conservation in eastern Amazonia. Unasylva 187, 47: 17-25.

IUFRO. 1995. Forest work study. Nomenclature. Test Edition valid 1995-2000. International Union of Forestry Research Organisations WP 3.04.02. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Operational Efficiency, Garpenberg, 16 pp.

Neville, T. 1993. National Forestry Development Guidelines. Prepared by Tim Neville MP, Minister for Forests. Endorsed by National Executive Council, Port Moresby, September 1993, 31 pp.

NFS. 1993. National Forestry Development Guidelines. National Forest Service of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, September 1993, 34 pp.

PNGFA. 1993. Forestry (Amendment) Act - 1993. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, PNG, April 1993, No.3 of 1993, 48 pp.

PNGFA. 1995a. Key Standards for Selection Logging. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, PNG, April 1995, 33 pp.

PNGFA. 1995b. Planning, Monitoring and Control Procedures for Natural Forest Logging Operations under Timber Permit. Incorporating: Key Standards for Selection Logging in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, PNG, November 1995, 111 pp.

PNGFA. 1996a. Papua New Guinea Logging Code of Practice. The Papua New Guinea Forest Authority and the Department of Environment and Conservation, PNG, April 1996, 72 pp.

PNGFA. 1996b. National Forest Plan for Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, PNG, May 1996, 44 pp.

PNGFA. 1996c. Procedure for the Identification, Scaling and Reporting (including Royalty Self-assessment) on Logs Harvested from Natural Forest Logging Operations. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, National Forest Service, PNG, September 1996, 34 pp.

SBLC. 1989. Environmental Plan. Talasea, Hoskins, Kapiura and Ania-Fulleborn Timber Areas. Part One: Environmental Plan for Talasea, Hoskins, Kapiura and Ania-Fulleborn Timber Area. Stettin Bay Lumber Company Pty Ltd (SBLC), Buluma, Kimbe, WNBP, 117 pp.

SBLC. 1999. Project Statement (Part 1) for the Period from 1999 to 2004, Project Year 10 to 15 and Five (5) Year Plan (Part 2) for the Period from 1999 to 2004, Project Year 10 to 15 for Timber Permit No. 14-52. Ania Fulleborn Project, West and East New Britain Provinces. Project document submitted by Stettin Bay Lumber Company Limited (SBLC), Buluma, Kimbe, WNBP, April 1999, 50 pp.

SBLC. 2000. Annual Logging Plan for Year 11 (2000) and Annul Review Report for March 1999-February 2000. Prepared and submitted by Stettin Bay Lumber Company Limited (SBLC), Kimbe, WNBP, March 2000, 59 pp.

VFP. 1990a. Environmental Plan. For the Project Agreement relating to the Vanimo Timber Areas. Volume One. Vanimo Forest Products Pty Ltd (VFP), Vanimo, Sandaun Province, 66 pp. (+ Appendixes covering about 100 pp)

VFP. 1990b. Environmental Plan. For the Project Agreement relating to the Vanimo Timber Areas. Volume Three. Vanimo Forest Products Pty Ltd (VFP), Vanimo, Sandaun Province, 17 pp. (+ Appendixes covering about 100 pp)

VFP. 1991. Forest Working Plan. (Five Year) 1991-1995. For the Project Agreement relating to the Vanimo Timber Areas. Volume One. Vanimo Forest Products Pty Ltd (VFP), Vanimo, Sandaun Province, 123 pp (inclusive Appendixes).

VFP. 1999. First Review, Five Years Forest Working Plan. Year 2000-2004 (Inclusive). Vanimo Timber Resource Project. Vanimo Forest Products Pty Ltd (VFP), Vanimo, Sandaun Province, 34 pp . (+ Appendixes covering 54 pp)

VFP. 2000. 2000 Annual Logging Plan and 1999 Annual Accomplishment Report. For the Project Agreement Relating to Vanimo Timber Project. Vanimo Forest Products Pty Ltd (VFP), Vanimo, Sandaun Province, 22 pp . (+ Annexes covering 69 pp)

Wells, C.H. 1999. An Assessment of the Implementation of Codes of Logging Practice in Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. RAS/97/330, Working Paper No.11, SPC/UNDP/AusAID/FAO Pacific Islands Forests & Trees Support Programme, Suva, Fiji Islands, 72 pp.

Winkler, N. 1997. Environmentally Sound Forest Harvesting, Testing the Applicability of the FAO Model Code in the Amazon in Brazil. Forest Harvesting Case-Study 8, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 84 pp.

Appendix 1. List of tree species

No.

Species code

Commercial name

Scientific name

1

AGA

Kauri pine

Agathis

2

AGL

Aglaia

Aglaia

3

ALB

Albizia Brown

Albizia procera

4

ALH

Alstonia Hard

All except A. scholaris

5

ALW

Albizia White

All except A. procera

6

AMB

Amberoi

Pterocymbium beccarii

7

AMO

Amoora/Pacific Maple

Aglaia cucullata

8

AMW

Almond White

Alphitonia

9

ANT

Antiaris

Antiaris toxicaria

10

ARH

Hoop Pine

Araucaria cunninghamii

11

ARK

Klinki Pine

Araucaria hunsteinii

12

ASG

Ash Scaly

Ganophyllum falcatum

13

ASH

Ash Hickory PNG

Flindersia ifflaina

14

ASP

Ash Silver Papuan

Flindersia amboinensis

15

ASS

Ash Silver/Ash Silkwood

Flindersia schottiana

16

BAL

Balsawood

Ochroma lagopus

17

BAS

Basswood PNG

Endospermum

18

BEP

Beech PNG

Nothofagus spp.

19

BEW

Beech Wau

Elmerrillia papuana

20

BIP

Birch Pink

Schizomeria

21

BOM

Bombax

Bombax ceiba

22

BOS

Box Swamp PNG

Tristania suaveolens

23

BOW

Boxwood PNG

Xanthophyllum papuanum

24

BTC

Brown Tulip Oak

Heritiera trifoliolata

25

BUR

Burckella

Burkella obovata /B. sorei

26

CAD

Candlenut

Aleurites moluccana

27

CAG

Canarum Grey

Canarium oleosum

28

CAH

Camphorwood PNG

Cinnamomum

29

CAL

Calophyllum

Calophyllum

30

CAM

Campnosperma

Campnosperma brevipetala

31

CAN

Cananga

Canaga oderata

32

CAR

Canarium Red

Canarium indicum

33

CEH

Celtis Hard

Celtis philippinensis/C. latifolia

34

CEJ

Cedar Java

Bischofia javanica

35

CEL

Celtis Light

Celtis nymanii/C. kajewekii

36

CEM

Cedar Mangrove

Xylocarpus papuanum

37

CEP

Cedar Pencil

Palaquium warburgianum

38

CER

Cedar Red

Toona sureni

39

CHR

Chrysophyllum

Chrysophyllum roxburghii

40

CLL

Carallia

Carallia brachiata

41

CLP

Celery-Top Pine

Phyllocladus hypophyllus

42

COR

Cordia

Cordia dichotoma

43

COW

Coachwood PNG

Ceratopetalum succirubr.

44

CRY

Cryptocarya/Medang

Cryptocarya

45

CWW

Cheesewood White/Milky Pine

Alstonia scholaris

46

CWY

Cheesewood Yellow

Nauclea

47

DAC

Dacrydium

Dacrydium nidulum

48

DIL

Dillenia

Dillenia papuana

49

DRY

Drypetes

Drypetes

50

DUA

Duabunga

Duabunga moluccana

51

DYS

Dysox

Dysoxylum

52

EBO

Ebony

Diospyros ferrea

53

END

Endiandra/Medang

Endiandra

54

ERI

Erima

Octomeles sumtrana

55

EUH

Euodia Heavy

Euodia bonwickii

56

EUL

Euodia Light

Euodia elleryana

57

FIG

Fig PNG

Ficus

58

FLA

Flacourtia

Flacourtia

59

GAG

Garo Garo

Mastixiodendron pachyclado

60

GAL

Galbulimima/White Magnolia

Galbulimima belgraveana

61

GAR

Garuga

Garuga floribunda

62

GLO

Glochidion

Glochidion

63

GME

Gmelina/White beech

Gmelina muluccana

64

GON

Gonostyllus

Gonostylus macrophyllus

65

GOR

Gordonia

Gordonia papuana

66

GUW

Gum Water

Syzigium spp.

67

HAY

Hardwood Yellow

Neonauclea

68

HEK

Hekakoro

Gluta papuana

69

HEN

Hernandia

Hernandia

70

HER

Heritiera

Heritiera

71

HIB

Bulolo Ash

Hibiscus papuodendron

72

HOH

Hopea Heavy

Hopea iriana/H. glabrifolia

73

HOL

Hopea Light

Hopea forbesii/H. papuana/H. similis/H. celtidiflora

74

HOR

Horsfieldia

Horsfieldia

75

IRS

Ironbark Scrub

Bridelia minutiflora

76

IVW

Ivorywood PNG

Siphonodon celastrineus

77

KAK

Kasi Kasi

Xanthostemon spp.

78

KAM

Kamarere

Eucalyptus deglupta

79

KAN

Kandis

Garcinia latissima

80

KAP

Kapiak

Artocarpus

81

KEM

Kempas PNG

Koompassia grandiflora

82

KEW

Kerosene Wood

Cordia subcordata

83

KIN

Kingiodendron

Kingiodendron

84

KIS

Kiso

Chisocheton

85

KWI

Kwila

Intsia

86

LAB

Labula

Anthocephalus chinensis

87

LAP

Lapome PNG

Teysmanniodendron ahernianum/T. bogoiense

88

LIB

Libocedrus

Libocedrus papuanus

89

LIT

Litsea/Medang

Litsea

90

LOP

Lophopetalum/Perupok

Lophopetalum torricellense

91

MAB

Mangrove Black

Bruguiera gymnorhiza/B. parviflora

92

MAC

Macaranga

Macaranga aleuritoides

93

MAH

Malaha

Eucalyptopsis papuana

94

MAK

Manilkara

Manilkara kanosiensis

95

MAL

Malas

Homalium foetidum

96

MAM

Mangrove Milky

Exoecaria agallocha

97

MAN

Mango

Mangifera minor

98

MAS

Maple Scented

Flindersia laevicarpa

99

MAT

Maniltoa

Maniltoa

100

MAW

Mangrove White

Avicennia marina

101

MER

Mersawa PNG

Anisoptera thurifera

102

MGB

Brown Mangrove

Lumnitzera littorea

103

MIG

Milkwood Grey

Cerbera floribunda

104

NEO

Neoscortechinia

Neoscortechinia

105

NEU

Neuburgia

Neuburgia corynocarpa

106

NUT

Nutmeg

Myristica

107

OAP

PNG Oak

Lithocarpus/Castonopsis

108

OAR

Oak Red

Lithocarpus celebicus

109

OAS

Oak Silky

Finschia chloroxantha, Grevillia papuana, Helicia spp., Stenocarpus spp.

110

OAW

Oak White

Castonopsis acuminatissimo

111

OPS

Oak Pink Silky

Oreocallis wickhamii

112

OSC

Oak She

Casuarina

113

OTH

Others

 

114

OWT

Oak White Tulip

Pterygota horsfieldii

115

PAN

Pangium

Pangium edule

116

PAR

Paratocarpus

Paratocarpus venenosus

117

PAS

Parastemon

Parastemon versteeghii

118

PER

Pericopsis

Pericopsis mooniana

119

PIM

Pimeleodendron

Pimeleodendron

120

PLA

Planchonia

Planchonia papuana

121

PLB

Plum Busu

Maranthes corymbosa

122

PLR

Planchonella Red

Planchonella torricellensis

123

PLT

Plum Tulip

Pleiogynium

124

PLW

Planchonella White

Planchonella kaernbachiana

125

POB

Brown Podocarp

Decussocarpus

126

POD

Podocarpus

Podocarpus spp.

127

POH

Highland Podocarp

Dacrycarpus imbricatus

128

POL

Polyalthia

Polyalthia

129

QUA

Quandong

Elaeocarpus

130

ROS

Rosewood

Pterocarpus indicus

131

RWD

Oriomo Redwood

Adinandra forbesii

132

SAG

Satinheart Green

Geijera salicifolia

133

SAH

Saffronheart

Halfordia

134

SAP

Satinwood Pink

Buchanania

135

SAS

Sassafras PNG

Dryadodaphne

136

SEM

Semicarpus

 

137

SIL

Silkwook Maple

Flindersia pimentelania

138

SIW

Siris White

Ailantus integrifolia

139

SLO

Sloanea

Sloanea

140

SPO

Spondias

Spondeas cytherea

141

STE

Sterculia

Sterculia

142

TAU

Taun

Pometia pinnata

143

TEM

Tetrameles

Tetremeles nudiflora

144

TER

Terminalia

Terminalia spp.

145

TET

Tea Tree

Malaleuca leucadendron

146

TRC

Trichadenia

Trichadenia philippinens

147

TRI

Tristiropsis

Tristiropsis

148

TUL

PNG Tulipwood

Harpullia

149

VAT

Vatica

Vatica raasak

150

VIT

Vitex

Vitax cofassus

151

WAB

Wattle Brown

Acacia aulacocarpa

152

WAL

Walnut

Dracontomelon dao

153

WAR

Wattle Red

Acacia crassicarpa

Ania-Kapiura Area

Set-Up M38/SBLC

Work Elements

%

Classification

%

 

%

Felling (MW)

28.20

Main work Time (MW)

49.42

Work

90.55

Bucking/delimbing (MW)

21.22

   

Time

 

Location of tree (CW)

12.49

Complementary Work Time (CW)

19.63

(WT)

 

Felling preparations (CW)

7.14

       
 

Productive Work Time (PW)

69.05

   

Instructions / cruising (PL)

---

Preparatory Time (PT)

5.57

   

Considerations (OP)

5.57

       

Repair time (RT)

---

Service Time (ST)

11.32

   

Maintenance time (MT)

8.00

       

Refuel time (RF)

3.32

       

Site clearing (AW)

3.03

Ancillary Work Time (AW)

4.61

   

Cut free saw (AW)

1.58

       
 

Supportive Work Time (SW)

21.50

   

Rest time (RP)

5.63

Work-Related Delay Time (WD)

8.87

Non-

9.45

Personal time (RP)

3.03

   

Work

 

Delays (IT)

0.21

   

Time

 

Disturbance Time (DT)

0.58

Disturbance Time (DT)

0.58

(NT)

 

Workplace Time (WP)

100.00

Basu-Leitre Area

Set-Up BL14/VFP

Work Elements

%

Classification

%

 

%

Felling (MW)

21.98

Main work Time (MW)

46.88

Work

93.83

Bucking/delimbing (MW)

24.90

   

Time

 

Location of tree (CW)

7.38

Complementary Work Time (CW)

12.57

(WT)

 

Felling preparations (CW)

5.19

       
 

Productive Work Time (PW)

59.45

   

Instruction (PL)

0.94

Preparatory Time (PT)

4.04

   

Considerations (OP)

3.10

       

Repair time (RT)

---

Service Time (ST)

14.58

   

Maintenance time (MT)

11.17

       

Refuel time (RF)

3.41

       

Site clearing (AW)

0.84

Ancillary Work Time (AW)

15.76

   

Cut free saw (AW)

14.92

       
 

Supportive Work Time (SW)

34.38

   

Rest time (RP)

3.92

Work-Related Delay Time (WD)

4.98

Non-

6.17

Personal time (RP)

0.65

   

Work

 

Delays (IT)

0.41

   

Time

 

Disturbance Time (DT)

1.19

Disturbance Time (DT)

1.19

(NT)

 

Workplace Time (WP)

100.00

Basu-Leitre Area

Set-Up BL14/VFP - Sub-Sample 1

Work Elements

%

Classification

%

 

%

Attach log - cable (MW)

16.11

Main work Time (MW)

54.58

Work

99.43

Winching (MW)

5.05

   

Time

 

Skidding (MW)

25.13

   

(WT)

 

Unhook (MW)

4.27

       

Landing operation (MW)

4.02

       

Going empty on skidtrail (CW)

9.27

Complementary Work Time (CW)

32.65

   

Location of logs (CW)

23.38

       
 

Productive Work Time (PW)

87.23

   

Instructions / cruising (PL)

---

Preparatory Time (PT)

4.10

   

Considerations (OP)

4.10

       

Repair time (RT)

1.04

Service Time (ST)

1.04

   

Maintenance time (MT)

---

       

Refuel time (RF)

---

       

Clearing of landing (AW)

---

Ancillary Work Time (AW)

7.06

   

Blading marked skidtrail (AW)

1.61

       

Roadside clearing (AW)

1.93

       

Others (AW)

3.52

       
 

Supportive Work Time (SW)

12.20

   

Rest time (RP)

---

Work-Related Delay Time (WD)

0.19

Non-

0.57

Personal time (RP)

0.19

   

Work

 

Delays (IT)

---

   

Time

 

Disturbance Time (DT)

0.38

Disturbance Time (DT)

0.38

(NT)

 

Workplace Time (WP)

100.00