INTRODUCTION (Agenda Item 1)
The Workshop on New Trends in Wood Harvesting with Cable Systems for Sustainable Forest Management in the Mountains was held from 18 to 24 June 2001 at the Forestry Training Centre in Ossiach, Austria, at the invitation of the Government of Austria and under the auspices of the Joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Technology, Management and Training. There were more than 100 participants from the following 26 countries: Austria, Bolivia, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Equatorial Guinea, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Morocco, Netherlands, Peru, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA.
The participants were welcomed on behalf of the Joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee by the past Chairman, Mr Paul N. Efthymiou, who opened the Workshop; on behalf of FAO by Mr Joachim Lorbach; on behalf of IUFRO by Mr Hans Rudolf Heinimann; on behalf of the Forestry Training Centre, Ossiach, by Mr Johann Zöscher; and on behalf of the Government of Austria by Mr Gerhard Mannsberger, Director General, Forestry Department.
ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA (Agenda Item 2)
The Provisional Agenda was adopted.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS (Agenda Item 3)
The following Chairpersons were elected:
|Paul N. Efthymiou (Greece)||Items 1, 2 and 3|
|Rudolf Heinrich (Austria)||Item 4|
|John Garland (USA)||Item 5|
|Philip Owende (Ireland)||Item 5|
|Peter Schiess (USA)||Item 6|
|Rien Visser (USA)||Item 6|
|Hans Rudolf Heinimann (Switzerland)||Items 7 and 8|
|Joachim Lorbach (FAO)||Items 9 to 11|
INTRODUCTION TO AUSTRIAN FORESTRY (Agenda Item 4)
Rudolf Heinrich opened Agenda Item 4. The following topics were presented:
Sustainable forest management as a basis for a steady supply of high quality wood and lumber: An introduction to Austrian forestry presented by Gerhard Mannsberger
Forestry in Carinthia presented by the President of the Forest Association of Carinthia. Christoph Habsburg-Lothringen
Activities and programmes of the Austrian Chambers of Agriculture and Forestry for Forestry in Austria presented by Thomas Stemberger
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CABLE SYSTEMS (Agenda Item 5): Planning and organization of work; application of systems; productivity and costs of cable crane operations; evaluation of environmental impacts using cable systems; and post harvesting assessment.
John Garland opened Agenda Item 5. The following presentations were made:
IUFRO Programme on Global Forest Information presented by Heinrich Schmutzenhofer
Skyline logging systems presented by Othmar David
Forest cableways in Shelterwood System presented by Premysl Horek
A guided tour of the forest equipment exhibits was made with Rudolf Heinrich. The following equipment was on display in the Training Centre grounds:
Günter Sonnleitner provided a guided tour of the Forest Training Centre facilities.
An excursion was made to Ossiacher Tauern to see a demonstration of forest cable equipment (see Annex 1).
Philip Owende continued with Agenda Item 5 and the following papers were presented:
Aspects of mechanical engineering for cable systems presented by Walter Huettner
Multi-criteria evaluation of thinning operations in steep terrain presented by Karl Stampfer
Optimal line lengths when skidding wood with the Syncrofalke Cable Crane in Slovenian conditions presented by BošKošir
Skyline yarding distance modelling for logging in mountains presented by Ján Tuček
Time analyses on Koller K300 Mobile Skylines in Artvin Region presented by Tolga Öztürk
Structure of cost and performance of a Koller K300 Yarder presented by Gerhard Rieger
Work performance of Koller K300 Cable System on difficult terrain in Turkey presented by Metin Tunay
Gantner Skyline for timber extraction in Turkish forestry presented by Mehmet Eker
Cable logging opportunities in the Appalachian Mountains presented by Rien Visser
Helicopter logging in the Slovak Republic presented by Valeria Messingerová
The forest machine CD-Rom and careful, quiet timber forwarding with plastic chutes presented by Wilfried Pröll
Winch uses in work with extralight cable systems in south-central Italy presented by Paolo Calvani
Timber extraction technologies in Croatian mountainous selection forests presented by Marijan Susnjar
Timber production is changing - demands and changes in Austria presented by Hubert Dürrstein
Efficiency problems in harvesting small-dimensional wood presented by Paul N. Efthymiou
USE OF CABLE SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT (Agenda Item 6): Requirements for roads in the use of cable systems; use of cable systems in combination with other extraction machines, and cable systems in combination with wood processors.
Peter Schiess opened Agenda Item 6. The following papers were presented:
Production of fuel chips from logging residue at cable landings presented by Raffaele Spinelli
Relation between forest roads and extraction machines in sustainable forest management presented by Tibor Pentek
Cable crane utilization in the close-to-nature silviculture in the Upper Piave River Valley (Belluno Province, Northern Italy) presented by Raffaele Cavalli
Implementation of cable logging requirements in environmentally sound road construction presented by Robert Robek
Characteristics of the cable yarding system application in the Ukrainian Carpathians presented by Sergiy Zibtsev
Rien Vissser continued with Agenda Item 6 and the following papers were presented:
Current trends in cableway systems in the UK presented by Colin J. Saunders
Is there a role for cable extraction on low gradient sensitive sites? presented by Philip M. Owende
Road management strategies to reduce habitat impacts - a case for engineered cable yarding operations and harvest schedules presented by Peter Schiess
Approaches to the design of forest cable systems presented by Hans Rudolf Heinimann
Optimization of cable harvesting equipment placement and road locations using digital terrain models presented by Woodam Chung
New algorithms for solving large-scale transportation planning problems presented by Woodam Chung for John Sessions
Wood harvesting and sustainable forest management in Morocco presented by Mohammed Ellatifi
Communal forest management in Chiquiacá, Bolivia, presented by Gabriela Gutiérrez Pérez
Forestry operations in Cajamarca, Peru, presented by Luis A. Novoa Robles
Presentation of the Austrian Federal Forests Joint Stock Company and the Millstatt Enterprise presented by Günther Tragatschnig
An excursion was made to the Austrian Federal Forests Enterprise, Millstatt, with Günther Tragatschnig to see a demonstration of cable machinery developed and produced by the Enterprise (see Annex 2).
USE OF CABLE SYSTEMS AND NORMS FOR WORK SAFETY (Agenda Item 7): Safety and health in cable crane operations; accident prevention, training and extension in cable crane operations.
Hans Rudolf Heinimann introduced Agenda Item 7. The following papers were presented:
The use of cable cranes in South Tyrol in the light of recent legislation presented by Claudio Pollini
The basis for productivity improvement in cable harvesting from human resources presented by John Garland
Occupational safety and health of forestry workers of cable harvesting in Turkey presented by Seca Gandaseca
USE OF CONTRACTORS IN CABLE CRANE OPERATIONS (Agenda Item 8): Business contracts; work organization; work control and post-harvesting assessment
Hans Rudolf Heinimann introduced Agenda Item 8. The following papers were presented:
Employment of contractors in cable crane operations in Austria presented by Hubertus Fladl
Development of mechanized logging presented by Johannes Loschek
View of the contractor for forest companies presented by Anton Streif
Natural forest protection programme and timber supply and demand in China presented by Shouxin Xie
OTHER MATTERS (Agenda Item 9)
No other matters
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Agenda Item 10)
a) The Workshop agreed that cable systems in combination with a suitable road network are an environmentally friendly technology that support sustainable forest management in mountainous terrain. Cable systems are a key to extraction of wood from steep sites and other sensitive areas that are unsuitable for ground-based systems.
b) The meeting concluded that there is a wide variety of cable harvesting technologies and systems suitable for both developed and developing countries.
c) It was considered important that appropriate technologies and related training in cable systems be offered to developing countries.
d) It is important that the reported performance of cable harvesting systems is comparable. Some standardized data items are necessary.
e) While cable harvesting may be more complex and expensive than other harvesting systems, it is a viable solution to harvesting steep and difficult terrain as a means of sustainable forest management and social development.
f) There is a need for more studies on newly developed cable systems in mountainous terrain. The factors to consider in these studies include: costs, productivity, soil and water, occupational health and safety.
g) This Workshop was found interesting and useful and it was agreed that future meetings should be organized pertaining to the use of cable and other harvesting and transport systems on difficult terrain, as well as on sites with low-bearing capacity.
To the Joint Committee:
a) There is a continuous need for technical developments and associated information on exchange/training in the area of cable harvesting. Cooperation among scientists, managers, practitioners, contractors and workers is especially necessary for cable harvesting. There is a need to also consider low-tech extraction systems for future workshops.
b) Regional demonstration workshops on cable logging should be supported in order to introduce them to countries in transition and to developing countries. Private-public partnerships should be created between donor countries, suppliers of machinery and users in countries of need.
c) More work should be done within the framework of the Joint Committee towards improvements in wood harvesting - operationally combined with new developments and interactions in technology, information, employment needs, sustainability, multiple use, certification, biodiversity and land use conflicts.
To Member Countries:
a) Because of the scarcity of resources and human expertise regarding cable harvesting within individual countries, it is essential that regional and international cooperation exist. Centres of expertise in cable harvesting should be identified and supported as national priorities and in international agreements.
b) Legal provisions for harvesting on steep slopes should be reviewed so that restrictions for steep slope extraction may be adjusted to enable low impact harvesting technologies.
c) Forestry administrations and services of Member Countries should study the reform of the Austrian (ÖBF) Federal State Forests as an example of a modern, efficient and successful transformation of a State forestry administration.
d) Since site conditions are diverse and subject to varying levels of technical, economic and social constraints, each country/region needs to define suitable options in tree harvesting and extraction.
e) Issues of personal safety must be adequately addressed.
To Forest Research Institutes and IUFRO:
a) There appears to be a need for improved statistical methodologies within research projects, as well as improved methodologies in analysing tensions and loads of cableways. Information exchange among scientists on these topics would be mutually beneficial in the field of cable harvesting.
b) Research on cable logging for small-sized timber in mountainous terrain should be carried out.
c) Forest research institutions should strengthen their research activities in designing new harvesting systems with an integrated systems approach through a holistic study of the respective production chains from the stump to the final end-use products.
d) It is important to strengthen the network of research groups in this area.
ADOPTION OF THE REPORT (Agenda Item 11)
The draft report was prepared by the Secretariat, and the conclusions and recommendations were adopted.
For the host country, Rudolf Heinrich thanked the participants for attending the Workshop, preparing papers and posters, for the stimulating discussions during the different sessions and for the conclusions and recommendations. Finally, Paul N. Efthymiou, on behalf of the Joint Committee, and Joachim Lorbach, on behalf of FAO, thanked the participants, the host country and all support staff for their active contribution to the successful outcome of the seminar. Participants were presented with Certificates of Attendance.
An excursion was made to the Bistum Gurk Forest Enterprise with Joachim Gfreiner, who made a presentation on the use of tracked harvester and cable systems (see Annex 3).
A final excursion was made to Klagenfurt and the Hochosterwitz Castle.
Excursion in the afternoon of 19 June 2001 to the
Forest District Ossiacher Tauern of the Forest Enterprise Millstatt
Austrian Federal Forests Joint-Stock Company (ÖBf/AG)
Experimental and Training Forest Area of the FFTC-Ossiach
|14.00–14.30||Bus ride to Ossiacher Tauern-Waldbauernstraβe. Short walk through the stand.|
|Excursion point 1||Sledge winch Gantner HSW 80, gravity system uphill, assortment method Carriage Stuefer HSK 2002. Skyline tensioning device Seik with integrated dynamometer.|
|Excursion point 2||Mature tree directional felling, delimbing and bucking with chainsaw, extraction by agricultural tractor Steyr 9094 Forst with radio-controlled attachable winch Hauselberger Tiger DSU/WH 80 V.|
|Excursion point 3||Thinning operation, felling, delimbing and bucking with chainsaw, extraction by wheeled skidder Iwafuji T 30.|
|Excursion point 4||Downhill extraction with Konrad Forsttechnik Woodliner (monocable system), assortment method in a selective cut.|
|Excursion point 5||Uphill extraction with Koller K300, gravity system, carriage Koller SKA 1 Z assortment method in a selective cut|
|Excursion point 6||Uphill extraction with Larix 3 T, carriage KOS, running mainline all-terrain system, assortment method in a selective cut|
|Excursion point 7||Uphill extraction with Konrad Forsttechnik Mounty 4000, gravity system, carriage Mayr-Melnhof Sherpa-Mot, full tree method Woody 50 processing head on hydraulic knuckle boom loader|
|Excursion point 8||Uphill extraction with Koller K 501, gravity system, carriage Koller MSK 3, assortment method, hydraulic knuckle boom loader to manipulate logs (trees) at the landing|
|17.30–18.00||Return journey by bus to Ossiach|
Excursion to Ossiacher Tauern on 19 June 2001
Silvicultural data from the forest management plan 1994–2003
|Excursion point 1, 2 and 4:||Sub-compartment 121 b 1|
|Production forest, rotation 100 years, exposition N, average slope 25°, altitude 800 m, brown soil on silicate bedrock with rich nutrient content and fresh, vegetation type SF, total area of stand 3.6 ha, age 95 years (100 percent spruce yield class 14), density 09, 769 m3 standing volume per hectare.|
Silvicultural measures: on 3.5 ha selective cut with small clearings to enhance natural regeneration, expected volume 450 m3, whole stem method with wheeled skidder.
|Excursion point 3:||Sub-compartment 121 b 2|
|Production forest, rotation 100 years, exposition N, average slope 25°, altitude 800 m, brown soil on silicate bedrock with rich nutrient content and fresh, vegetation type SV, total area of stand 2.1 ha. age 20 years (90 percent spruce yield class 14, 10 percent larch yield class 8), density 10, at present approximately 170 m3 standing volume per hectare.|
Silvicultural measures: None, thinning initiated for demonstration only, will be thinned during next 10 year period
|Excursion point 5, (1), 6:||Sub-compartment 121 g 1|
|Production forest, rotation 100 years, exposition N, average slope 25°, altitude 700 m, brown soil on silicate bedrock with rich nutrient content and fresh, vegetation type SF, total area of stand 14.9 ha, age 75 years (100 percent spruce yield class 13), density 09, 591 m3 standing volume per hectare.|
Silvicultural measures: on 7.0 ha secondary thinning, with small clearings to enhance natural regeneration, expected volume 500 m3, full tree method with skyline.
|Excursion point 7, 8:||Sub-compartment 120 e|
|Production forest, rotation 100 years, exposition N, average slope 25°, altitude 700 m, brown soil on silicate bedrock with rich nutrient content and fresh, vegetation type SF, total area of stand 10.4 ha, age 70 years (100 percent spruce yield class 13), density 09, 550 m3 standing volume per hectare.|
Silvicultural measures: on 6.0 ha secondary thinning (was done at the beginning of this management period), expected volume 400 m3, assortment method with wheeled skidder/tractor and southern part with skyline.
FORESTRY TECHNIQUE OF THE AUSTRIAN FEDERAL FORESTS JOINT STOCK COMPANY
The forestry technique companies of the ÖBf/AG operate in:
At present, three forest technique companies are run as profit centres:
Out of the 230 employees:
The annual productivity of the three companies averages:
Forestry Technique Company St. Johann
With about 100 employees, this is the largest forest contractor for harvesting and forest road construction in the regions of Salzburg, Tirol, Carinthia, Vorarlberg and Bavaria. Together with our other two companies in Steinkogl and Hütteldorf, they represent by far the largest enterprise of this kind in Austria and neighbouring countries.
In joint operation, these three companies can manage unforeseen tasks - as repeatedly occur in nature-quickly and efficiently, as demonstrated after hurricane “Lothar” in the year 2000 in Switzerland, with a salvaged timber volume of 70 000 m3.
The annual volume of timber harvested by the St. Johann Company is around 250 000 m3, of which around 200 000 m3 are harvested within the ÖBf/AG, and 50 000 m3 for third parties. Approximately 50 percent is cable logging, and 50 percent is logged with skidders.
Forest road construction and maintenance
Approximately 40 km of new forest roads are constructed every year. The annual maintenance and repair of forest roads is 140 km on average.
Our employees have years of experience in logging and forest road construction and maintenance. They are well trained and receive further training at the internationally recognized forestry training centres in Austria. They work with modern machinery and will gladly inform you about the company's varied services.
Excursion in the afternoon of 21 June 2001 to the
Austrian Federal Forests Joint Stock Company (ÖBf/AG)
Forest Enterprise Millstatt
Forest District Gerlitze - Hütter
Logging operations with tower yarders and processing units in mountainous forest
|14.00–15.00||Bus ride via Treffen - Gerlitzenalpenstraβe - forest road to “Haus Enzian”, into forest sub-compartment 146 n|
|15.00–15.45||Excursion point 1 Tower-yarder with processing head PKM 6 working in a selective cut to favour regeneration, full tree method, felling by chainsaw, uphill extraction, delimbing and bucking with processing unit (Excursion group stays on the road.).|
|15.45–16.00||Short downhill walk on the road to forest sub-compartment 146 q|
|16.00–17.00||Excursion point 2 Tower-yarder with processing head PKM 10 thinning and selective cut to favour regeneration, full tree method, felling by chainsaw, uphill extraction, delimbing and bucking with processing unit (Excursion group can walk into the terrain via a footpath to observe the felling and choker setting activities.).|
|17.00–17.30||Short uphill walk on the road to board the bus|
|17.30–18.30||Return journey to Ossiach|
The harvesting activities are carried out with equipment and staff of the Forsttechnik St. Johann der ÖBf/AG (one of three forest harvesting and road construction enterprises within the ÖBf/AG) which operates several tower yarders, 21 wheeled skidders, processors, harvesters and forwarders, as well as equipment for forest road construction and maintenance. They are the most important forest contractor in the regions of Carinthia, Salzburgh, Tirol and southern Bavaria.
Silvicultural and technical data on the Excursion of 21 June 2001
|Excursion point 1:||Sub-compartment 146 n 1 - data from the forest management plan 1994–2003|
|Production forest, rotation 140 years, exposition NW, average slope 30°, altitude 1 500 m, soil on silicate bedrock with moderate nutrient content and moderately fresh, vegetation type AHD, total area of stand 2.0 ha, 80 percent of age 130 years (80 percent spruce yield class, 6 and 20 percent larch yield class 7), 20 percent of age 70 years (100 percent spruce yield class 6), density 09, 395 m3 standing volume per hectare.|
Silvicultural measures: on 1.5 ha selective cleaning (negative selection) and take out of upper canopy over existing regeneration, enhance natural regeneration, expected volume 250 m3, assortment method with skyline.
On 0.5 ha clear-felling with previous selective cut and wounding of soil to favour natural regeneration, expected volume 300 m3, full tree method with skyline (measure needs additional permission from the forest authority).
|Equipment used: PKM 6 tower yarder with processing unit Steinkogl KP 50|
|Manufactured by ÖBf Bau- und Maschinenhof for uphill yarding in gravity system with slack pulling of mainline by auxiliary line. Mounted on a 2-axle truck with 240 hp engine. Fully equipped weight of the unit is 18 tonnes.|
The 3-drum winch aggregate is driven by hydraulic motors. Tubular mast of 8 m height with 2 main anchor ropes, attachable landing platform usable on either side of the carrier. Mounted on the rear end is a hydraulic knuckle boom loader Penz 13000 with the KP 50 processing head. Skyline 600 m/18 mm, mainline 700 m/11 mm compacted, auxiliary line 700 m / 6.5 mm, carriage ÖBf type U 2 with time controlled clamping devise and 2 tonne capacity.
Radio controlled mainline drum permits continuous yarding while processing as the feller/choker setter commands the movements of the carriage.
Range of use is from secondary thinning (AMD >16 cm) to final harvesting in full tree or tree part method. Set up time with 2 workers 4–10 hours, depending on length of installation and number of constructions. Productivity: 4–7 m3 per hour depending on tree size and yarding distance. Continuous removal of processed logs is required.
|Excursion point 2:||Sub-compartment 146 q 1 - data from the forest management plan 1994–2003|
|Protection forest, rotation 120 years, exposition SE, average slope 30°, altitude 1 300 m, soil on silicate bedrock with moderate nutrient content and moderately fresh, vegetation type SF, total area of stand 1.5 ha, age 130 years (90 percent spruce yield class, 8 and 10 percent larch), density 09, 527 m3 standing volume per hectare, grade of canopy cover 9, stand stability moderate.|
Silvicultural measures: on 1.2 ha selective opening with small group felling (femel) to initiate and favour natural regeneration, expected volume 200 m3, assortment method with skyline (measure needs additional permission from the forest authority).
|The cable corridor traverses also 146 q 3, a stand 40 years old where a thinning (approximately 30 percent of the standing volume) is prescribed, and reaches down into 146 q 2, a stand 100 years old which was not to be worked during this management period, but because of the present work will be utilized partly in the form of selective opening (protection forest).|
|Equipment used: PKM 10 (prototype) tower yarder with processing unit Strenab 60, manufactured by ÖBf Bau- und Maschinenhof for uphill yarding in gravity system with slack pulling of mainline by auxiliary line; mounted on a wheeled excavator Liebherr 922. The excavators bucket arm was modified to a telescopic boom (jib) carrying the Strenab 60 processing head. Fully equipped weight of the unit is 30 tonnes. All drives are powered by hydraulic motors; 3-drum winch aggregate, tubular mast of 12 m height with 6 main anchor ropes. Strong trees are needed for supports and anchoring (also other anchor types) to withstand the heavy strains originating from this large piece of equipment. Skyline 800 m/ 24 mm, mainline 1 000 m/14 mm compacted, auxiliary line 1 100 m/8 mm, carriage ÖBf type U 5 with time controlled clamping devise and 5 tonne capacity.|
|Used for uphill yarding in final cut full tree or tree part method. Good forest roads with compacted surface are needed to support this heavy type of equipment, as well as adequately dimensioned bridges. Set up time with 2 workers 10–15 hours, depending on length of installation and number of constructions. Productivity: 7–10 m3 per hour depending on tree size and yarding distance. Continuous removal of processed logs is required.|
General Information on the
Ossiacher Tauern Forest District of the Millstatt Forest Enterprise
Austrian Federal Forests Joint-Stock Company (ÖBf/AG)
Experimental and Training Forest Area of the FFTC-Ossiach
The experimental and training forest area of the Federal Forestry Training Centre (FFTC) Ossiach comprises the forest Compartments 107 to 125 of the Millstatt forest enterprise - ÖBf/AG. The total area is 606.3 ha of which 574.5 ha is forest land (excluding roads etc.). It is situated at the northern slope of the mountain “Ossiacher Tauern” at an elevation of 500 m-1 000 m above sea level. During the summer it is heavily frequented by tourists and throughout the year by inhabitants of nearby towns. The recreational function of this forest area is an important factor besides the welfare and productive functions. The annual cut varies from 4 000 to 5 000 m3, which is less than the annual increment.
The woodland community is Luzulo-Abieti-Fagentum on acid soils, more broadleaf in medium and lower elevation, conifer dominated in upper region, Larix-variants on steep slopes and Primus on drier ridges. Climatic conditions are moderate subcontinental with well distributed moderate precipitation of 1 000–1 100 mm per year. Average medium annual temperature 7–8 °C. Wet snow area.
The growth district is marginal alpine spruce-fir-beech-forest of lower and medium montane level. Moderately steep to steep northerly slopes with flat areas in the upper region. Bedrock is mainly crystalline slate and mica-slate with a few limestone and marble bands. Mostly deep soils of which 77 percent are fresh nutrient rich brown soils; on upper slopes often with podzolic dynamic.
The vegetation type is mainly wood-sorrel (Oxalis) and lily of the valley (Maianthemum bifolium) which facilitates natural regeneration. Vegetation regrowth on clear felled areas enhances biodiversity and provides food for game animals.
|Distribution of tree species:||spruce||65 percent|
|with some larch and pine|
|Productivity of stands: On the slopes — especially the lower slope has high growth performance|
|Spruce and fir||mean annual increment 100 = 10 – 14 (16)|
|Beech||mean annual increment 100 = 7–9|
|Roads and harvesting:||Forest road density is > 50 longitudinal metre per hectare. About 35 percent of the forest area permits logging with wheeled skidders (< 35 percent slope) and with harvester and forwarder, respectively. 35 percent of the forest area demands cable logging, the rest lies in between and is logged mainly with cable systems.|
The forest is tended and utilized according to the management plan of the ÖBf/AG considering the training and experimental needs of the course activities from the FFTC. The timber produced belongs to the Millstatt Forest Enterprise but harvesting costs for each cubic metre of logs produced are partly refunded to the FFTC.
Excursion in the afternoon of 22 June 2001 to the Forest District Straβburg of the “Bistum Gurk” Forest Enterprise and the Gurk Monastery
Logging operation with harvester and cable systems in mountainous forest
|13.30 – 14.15||Bus ride via Feldkirchen - St.Veit - Pöckstein|
|14.15 – 14.30||Welcome and presentation of the “Bistum Gurk” enterprise by FD DI Joachim Gfreiner|
|14.30 – 14.45||Bus ride into the forest district Straβburg to excursion point 1|
|Excursion point 1||Contractor Profiteam Holzer with Harvester Valmet 911 Snake|
Contractor Fa. Klade Holz with Mayr-Melnhof tower yarder Syncrofalke
Assortment method, uphill extraction
|15.30 – 15.45||Bus ride to excursion point 2|
|Excursion point 2||Mayr-Melnhof forest enterprise with tower yarder Syncrofalke, V-crane 2488 with processing head Woody 60,whole tree method, felling by chainsaw, downhill extraction, delimbing and bucking with processing unit.|
MEMO FORCE 2000, a measuring device for wire rope tension developed by DI Dr Heinrich Paar, on behalf of the General Accident Insurance (AUVA), represented by DI Hannes Rothlauer, Accident Prevention Service.
|16.30 – 17.00||Board busses and drive to the Gurk Monastery|
|17.00 – 17.15||Welcome and refreshments by the Mayor of Gurk, Mr Siegfried Kampl|
|17.15 – 18.00||Guided tour through the cathedral of Gurk (Gurker Dom)|
|18.00 – 18.30||Bus drive to St Georgen am Längsee|
|18.30||Dinner at St Georgen offered by the “Bistum Gurk” enterprise|
|20.30 – 21.15||Return journey by bus to Ossiach|
Excursion to the forest districts of the Bistum Gurk, 22 June 2001
Historical data on the enterprise, Bistum Gurk
Around the year 1043, after the death of her husband, William, and their son, the Countess Hemma of Zeltschach founded a monastery in Gurk. After this monastery was closed 30 years later, its ownership was transferred to the Archbishop of Salzburg, Gebhard, who donated it for the establishment of the Diocese Gurk. The respective Bishop of Gurk-Klagenfurt has been trustee of this possession since that time.
The operation of Bistum Gurk is a legal entity. Its yields are appropriated to the establishment and preservation of church buildings, for social and cultural purposes in the Diocese Gurk and the financing of the Bishop's residence in Klagenfurt.
Bistum Gurk consists of several enterprises, the main operations of which are bound to the property of lands. These are: forestry, the hunting and fishing connected to it, as well as the lease of agricultural areas. Further branches of the enterprise are two small hydroelectric power plants and the bio-energy long-distance heating plants in Friesach and St Georgen.
Bistum Gurk also manages the Catholic Educational Institute of St Georgen and is responsible for the upkeep of two castles: Pöckstein and Straβburg.
Table 1. Structure of the managed land property, area of the whole enterprise in hectares
|Area in ha|
|Production forest||7 608.6|
|Protection forest in use||848.2|
|Protection forest without use||1 305.4|
|Total forest land||9 762.2|
|Alps and unproductive areas||1 675.4|
|Total non-forest land||2 533.1|
|Total area||12 295.3|
|Thereof in Carinthia||9 799.1|
The present situation of the enterprise
Because of economic conditions and the past development of the enterprise, it became necessary to reduce the enterprise to its original operation and to modify its structure. These were in particular:
The sale of the forest enterprise's sawmill in the year 1999. The sawmill could not be run profitably any longer, with a primary conversion of only about 20 000 solid cubic metres per year.
The agriculture, which had been part of the enterprise until 1998, had to be leased out for economic reasons also.
In the year 1994, the small carpentry of the enterprise was turned into a medium industrial company with 25 workers. The basic idea was to improve secondary conversion of timber to the final product within the enterprise. Everything should be done in our own enterprise: harvesting the timber in the forest, sawing in our own sawmill, and the production of furniture in our own carpentry. When realizing this idea, market conditions were not considered sufficiently, so at the end of the year 2000, the carpentry enterprise had to be merged with a door manufacturer.
Felling quantity 2000
After a sample inventory was taken in the year 1999, the annual cutting rate for the Bistum Gurk was set at 32 850 m3 round wood.
The total harvest for the year 2000 was 31 987 m3 of timber, 4 percent of which was damaged through natural causes (e.g. wind blow). Fifty-five percent of the harvest came from final cuts of mature stands and 45 percent from thinnings. The average MD (Media) was 18.1 cm.
There are two main reasons for the high percentage of harvesting in premature stands: First, it was necessary to reduce the backlog of thinnings (selective logging) that had been neglected in previous years and which was very urgent, especially in primary thinnings. The second reason was the situation of the timber market, where a notable price recession for big-sized timber had taken place.
The costs of felling and transportation were relatively high and amounted to Euro 26.53 (ATS 365.00) per solid metre, as a result of the low Media of 18.1 cm. The high proportion of cultivating steps (measures) resulted in wood assortments of a low value, therefore, the average returns from timber sales were Euro 53.56 (ATS 737.00) per solid cubic metre, leaving only a low margin (reimbursement) of Euro 26.53 (ATS 365.00).
Table 2. Characteristic figures for the forest enterprise (forest survey 1999)
|Current annual increment||7.5 m3 per year|
|Stocking volume per hectare||268 m3|
|Bark peeling damage by deer||3.3%|
Table 3 clearly shows that the share of contract felling has risen from about 10 to 70 percent within 3 years because of the high costs of felling by our own workers, which has decreased accordingly to improve the economic return. However, the employment policy of our enterprise will stay the same for the future. We are not considering a dismissal of our employees for timber harvesting at the moment.
Educational Institution at St Georgen
The excursion ends at the Educational Institution St Georgen, which was acquired by the Bistum Gurk in the year 1959. This institution comprises an area of about 17 000 m2. Its primary obligation is to Catholic education. Annexed to it is a seminar hotel of high standards.
Table 3. Timber Harvest 1995–2000
|With company employees||33 101.02||28 243.86||32 029.87||26 142.00||10 854.62||8 752.04|
|Sold as stocking volume||3 258.46||7 821.35||2 335.43||4 159||851.82||541.68|
|Contractors||4 845.12||5 855.16||3 923.10||4 130||12 631.28||22 693.00|
|Total m3||41 204.60||41 920.37||38 288.40||34 431.00||24 337.72||31 986.72|
|With company employees||80.33||67.38||83.65||75.93||44.6||27.36|
|Sold as stocking volume||7.91||18.66||6.10||12.08||3.5||1.69|
The Catholic Church is also obligated to support culture and further education, therefore, three schools operated in this institution (a school of domestic science and an agricultural school in addition to the present institute). For economic reasons it became necessary to close these schools two years ago. The organization of the Education Institution has to be restructured in order to increase utilization to full capacity and to reduce costs. This could be achieved by intensifying the offer of visiting lecturers (courses) and to find new fields of training, e.g. sustainability and health care.
Silvicultural and technical information on the excursion site
|Stand 1:||Sub-compartment 14/2|
|Contractor Holzer with harvester Valmet 911 snake|
contractor Klade with tower yarder Syncrofalke
uphill extraction, assortment method
|Description of the stand||alpine spruce-fir forest, towards northeast moderately steep, upper Collin, quartz-mica-slate, red heart rot|
|Stocking volume per hectare||463.47 m3|
|Volume to take out per hectare||77.19 m3|
|Distribution of species||9 spruce, 1 larch|
|Natural regeneration||spruce, larch, fir, broadleaved trees|
|Height of regeneration||20 to 40 cm|
|Stand 2:||Sub-compartment 21/11|
|Mayr-Melnhof forestry enterprise, tower yarder Syncrofalke with processing head, downhill logging, full tree method|
|Description of stand||Intermediate alpine spruce-fir forest (eastern and southern growth district), towards north moderately steep to steep, upper Collin, mica-slate|
|Stocking volume per hectare||477.7 m3|
|Volume to take out per hectare||64.3 m3|
|Distribution of species||10 Spruce|
|Natural regeneration||Spruce, broadleaved trees|
|Height of regeneration||20 to 40 cm|