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THE POULTRY INDUSTRY

The key priority of the Indonesian government as far as the livestock sector is concerned is the expansion of the poultry industry, in particular the broiler industry. In 1997, about 816 million broilers were produced on Indonesian farms, more than 30 times the number in 1981 (Table 12). For the years shown in Table 12, both broilers and layers recorded rates of growth of over 16% compared to 5.2% for indigenous chickens and 4.4% for ducks. Policy makers see the broiler industry as an important source of animal protein since in comparison with cattle poultry are efficient converters of feed grains into meat.

Table 12. Poultry numbers in Indonesia, 1969 to 1997

Year



Indigenous chickens


Poultry

Layers

Broilers

Duck

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

1969

61788

688

na

7269

1970

62652

706

na

7370

1971

73841

1799

na

10416

1972

79627

3000

na

12404

1973

79906

2202

na

12503

1974

89650

3450

na

13620

1975

94572

3903

na

14123

1976

97504

4878

na

15182

1977

101686

5807

na

16032

1978

108916

6071

na

17541

1979

114350

7007

na

18069

1980

126310

22940

na

21078

1981

132878

24568

25462

22420

1982

139787

26312

28110

23861

1983

159462

28102

31033

23781

1984

166815

29559

110580

24694

1985

155627

31875

143657

23870

1986

162991

38689

173795

27002

1987

168405

39968

218183

26025

1988

182879

39413

227044

25080

1989

191433

40452

262918

24315

1990

201365

43185

362612

25553

1991

208966

46885

407908

25369

1992

222530

54146

459097

27342

1993

222893

54736

528159

26618

1994

243261

63334

622965

27536

1995

250080

68897

689467

29616

1996

260713

78706

755956

29959

1997(a)

270756

85471

816784

31177

Rate of growth(b)

5.2%

16.2%

21.5%

4.4%

Notes: na indicates not available;
(a) preliminary;
(b) Rate of growth is the coefficient on t in the regression ln(y) = a + b t, where t is year

Source: Direktor Jenderal Peternakan (1997), p. 87

The importance of poultry in raising Indonesian meat consumption is apparent from Figure 7. This shows that in 1997, over 50% of the meat consumed in Indonesia came from poultry. By comparison, in the early 1980s less than one third of the meat consumption recorded in the official statistics was poultry meat. Pork is not consumed by Muslims since they consider it unclean and haram. However, the Chinese who tend to be more affluent than other Indonesians and make up about 3% of the population consume large quantities. Beef and buffalo meat are not favoured by Indonesians because compared to poultry both meats are expensive. Meat from bovine animal is considered a halal food and this means it can be consumed by Muslims. All processed foods in Indonesia are generally labelled with a halal logo. The Department of Health and the Muslim Union control the issuing of the logo.

Figure 7. Consumption of meats by species, 1969 to 1997

Poultry meat comes from a number of different sources. As might be expected based upon the data presented earlier, chickens were the most important, with broilers (474000 t) and native chicken (250000 t) being dominant. The reason for the importance of chicken meat is that it is generally the least expensive to produce and to purchase. Figure 8 shows how the relative importance of native chickens, broilers, culled layers and ducks changed between 1984 and 1997.

Figure 8. Consumption of poultry meat, 1984 to 1997


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