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TECHNICAL COEFFICIENTS

Production parameters

Economic model building requires estimates of technical coefficients relating to mortality, fertility and parturition. Gathering such information for Indonesia is a very difficult task because of the wide diversity of agricultural producing regions and because small farmers - who generally do not keep good records - are such an important part of the livestock sector. By developed country standards, the productivity of animals is often low.

Zemmelink and Subagiyo (1992) investigated the use of metabolizable energy in East Java using data from the 1980s. They conducted a number of analyses. One of their results was that “maintenance and production of the existing herd accounts for less than half” (p196) of the metabolizable energy available, suggesting that liveweight gain could be doubled by keeping more animals to utilize the wasted materials. However, they point out that for this to happen, large amounts of supplements would be necessary because of the poor quality of the available roughage to livestock farmers in East Java. Zemmelink and Subagiyo point out that great care needs to be used in analyses of the type they carried out. They explain that data on a regional basis and by season are needed.[21] Also information on voluntary intake of feeds and animal response to different feed types would be required for a full understanding of the increased production potential.

Information on production parameters is valuable gaining an understanding the management processes of farmers. Perkins and Semali (1992) set out to investigate why Indonesian farmers sell cattle at a young age. They gathered data at the village level and found that early growth was relatively rapid, but it soon fell away. Average weight gain in the two breeds they considered - Ongole and Bali cattle - averaged only 200 g. per day after 12 months. Farmers estimated that the additional labour to raise a calf was 0.3 to 0.5 hours per day in the first two quarters of the calf development, but it then rose steadily to two hours per day to reach a plateau at 24 months. This meant that for farmers with alternate employment opportunities, it is rational for them to sell cattle young - at 9 to 18 months of age.

Data collected from farmers in West Java and reported by Bazeley, Supriantna and Banga (1992) indicated that the median calving interval on dairy farms was 684 days. This prolonged calving interval was costing farmers up to Rp. 200000 per cow per year in 1992. INI ANSREDEF (1995) also commented upon the “low calving rate, caused by prolonged calving interval” (p23) in the dairy industry. Reasons they provided included the length of time between calving and the first service; the requirement for many services per conception; and a high abortion rate.

Most of the available technical parameters are old and may not now be applicable. Officials associated with the poultry industry say that the technical parameters of that industry are similar to those obtained in high income countries. This is probably correct because such technologies are easily transferred from one country to another. Table 53 presents estimates of technical parameters for the egg and dairy industries that are based upon results obtained in the early 1980s. Table 54 data, commonly cited in discussions of Indonesia’s livestock sector, are based upon data from the 1970s. This raises doubts about the applicability of the data for the late 1990s.

Table 53. Egg & milk production parameters, Indonesia

Item


Native chicken

Layer

Duck

Dairy cattle

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Productive females in the population

30

60

60

42






Average production per head






  • milk(a) (litres)




13.3


  • kilograms

1.4

10.8

120







Average production per head per year by usage






  • consumed

50

98

70

87.5


  • spoiled

25

0.5

15

2.5


  • hatched

25

1.5

15



  • for calf rearing




10

Note: Data are for 1982 with the exception of the data from INI ANSREDEF (1995) which was for 1993.

Source (a) INI ANSREDEF (1995); Directorat Bina Program Directorat Jenderal Peternakan (1991), Buku Statistik Peternakan [Statistical Book on Livestock], p. 105.

Table 54. Percentage of livestock births per species, 1979

Livestock species



Births


Birth percentage by sex to number of births

Male

Female

(%)

(%)

(%)

Beef cattle

18.31

44.67

55.33

Dairy cattle

22.83

40.77

59.23

Buffalo

17.45

44.3

55.7

Horse

8.77

47.18

52.84

Goat

33.12

42.51

57.49

Sheep

36.4

41.79

58.21

Pig

70.84

50.78

49.22

Notes: Birth percentage based upon livestock numbers at beginning of year

Source: Direktorat Bina Program Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1990), Buku Statistik Peternakan 1990, p. 87

Table 55. Percentage of livestock mortality by species, 1979

Livestock species



Deaths


Cause of death

Chronic

Acute

Others

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Beef cattle

2.16

21.32

54.14

24.54

Dairy cattle

4.1

45.29

54.71

na

Buffalo

4.14

27.78

56.09

16.13

Horse

3.5

23.36

56.16

20.48

Goat

3.87

21.7

50.92

27.38

Sheep

3.73

17.95

55.58

26.47

Pig

13.85

16.15

58.44

25.41

Notes: Deaths as a percentage of population at start of year

Source: Direktorat Bina Program Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1990), Buku Statistik Peternakan 1990, pp. 87, 84

Feed rations

Lebdosoekojo and Reksohadiprodjo (1982) describe the south east Asian livestock industries as being an important part of the agricultural and ecological balance, especially in the heavily populated regions. Agricultural products are used mainly by the human population and this handicaps the livestock industries, particularly the poultry, swine and dairy industries. Agroindustrial wastes are important and this means that consideration must be given to their availability, the nutritive value and efficiency of rations, relative prices, the level of technology and social acceptability. Lebdosoekojo and Reksohadiprodjo explain that feed substitutes can be classified into energy feeds, protein feeds and roughage depending upon their chemical composition.

Table 56 lists the estimated production and crude protein and energy (TDN) content of crop and agro industrial residues in Indonesia on a dry matter basis.

Table 56. Estimated production and crude protein and energy (TDN) content of crop and Agroindustrial residues in Indonesia, dry matter basis, 1979

Product


Quantity

Crude protein

Total digestible nutrients

(kt)

(%)

(%)

Energy feeds

Conventional


  • rice bran

2577

10.7

81.0


  • maize bran

403

14.2

90.9


  • molasses

343

1.8

53.0

Nonconventional


  • cassava pomace

157

2.6

89.1


  • cassava peelings

5000

3.3

60.7


  • gnetum gnemon pulp

na

17.4

40.1


  • coffee pulp

89

18.9

47.6


  • citrus pulp

6

6.5

43.6


  • cocoa husk

1.5

7.4

46.5


  • pineapple bran

0.05

3.5

72.0


  • banana fruit waste

22.4

6.1

62.8

Protein feeds

Conventional


  • copra meal

344

21.6

69.3


  • peanut meal

11

40.6

52.3


  • palm kernel meal

2.2

22.2

58.5


  • trash fish & wastes (fish meal)

355

61.9

69.0

Non conventional


  • kapok meal

na

32.8

41.6


  • rubber seed

na

18.8

62.0


  • leucaena seed

na

31.3

59.5


  • soybean curd sludge

na

31.4

52.6


  • soysauce sludge

na

27.8

80.5


  • cassava leaf meal

1410

22.0

57.8


  • leucaena leaf meal

na

22.3

72.5


  • sesbania leaf meal

na

25.8

63.0


  • snail meal

na

51.2

65.1

Roughage

Conventional


  • peanut vines

1025

13.9

67.2


  • maize stalk

19745

6.5

46.6


  • sorghum stalk

na

6.5

41.4


  • sugar cane tops

174.8

5.4

46.6

Nonconventional


  • rice straw

34215

5.5

26.6


  • soybean straw

na

7.7

50.7


  • sweet potato leaf

555

14.6

72.4


  • bagassa

1717.3

2.0

49.4


  • sago waste

na

1.8

19.5

Source: Lebdosoekojo and Reksohadiprodjo (1982), p. 81
The availability and quality of feed is a constraint to the dairy industry. INI ANSREDEF (1995) claim that 90% of forage comes from off the farm because farmers do not have sufficient land to produce their own forage - in fact some farmers do not have any land at all. Smith and Riethmuller (1996) found from a survey of dairy farmers in Java that less than 1 kg of concentrate was fed per day to dairy cattle. They explain that small farmers use a cut and carry system, which involves the farmer (or a laborer employed by the farmer) cutting grasses growing besides roads, irrigation ditches or in forest areas and bringing the grass to the cattle. Water availability and its quality is also a problem, particularly in the dry season.[22] Animal needs may not be adequately met and there is sometimes insufficient water for adequate levels of farm hygiene.[23]

Gunawan (1995) points out that there is a large gap between maximum and actual output from parts of Indonesia’s agriculture. To support this view, he presented the data in Table 57. While rice yields are high, perhaps reflecting the priority the government has attached to this industry, most secondary crops are well below their potential yields. Obviously this has implications for the prospects of the livestock industries. Any expansion of these industries will require increased use of secondary crops as animal feed.

Table 57. Actual and percent of maximum potential productivity of some food crops in Indonesia

Crop


Actual productivity(a)

Per cent of maximum(b)

(t.)

(%)

Paddy

4.2

85

Soybean

1.4

40

Cassava

12.1

30

Corn

2.2

30

Sweet potato

9.5

30

Ground nut

1.0

30

Mungbean

0.85

30

Notes: (a) CBS data, 1992; (b) Based on author’s projection (Memed Gunawan)


[21] The seasonal issue is important. The Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (1995) point out that “in Indonesia the quality of grassland in some rainfed areas during the dry seasonis so poor that it can hardly maintain life, and mature animals loose 15-25% of their body weight” (p6).
[22] In Java, for example, although the World Bank has pointed out that in aggregate, there is adequate water, season and annual variation are problems. Dry season flows may be only 20% of annual flow and as little as 10% in a dry year. River basins are steep and short (less than 50km on average) resulting in most wet season water going out to sea.
[23] The problem of inadequate farm hygiene is also tied to the pricing arrangements that are used in the dairy industry. Farmers pool their milk with others at collection points. Milk is collected from these collection points after rudimentary testing, and from the collection point the milk goes to the cooperative. All farmers delivering to a particularly cooperative receive the same price for their milk. Hence there is no incentive for farmers to try to improve the quality of their milk.

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