|Area:||1 220 000 sq.km|
|Climate:||From north to south: arid, semi-arid and tropical wet-dry; one rainy season: May-October|
|Population:||9.10 million (1995 estimate); G.N.P. per caput: U.S.$ 300 (1993)|
|Specific characteristics of the country:||Low-income food-deficit country; land-locked sahelian country|
|Logistics:||Roads inadequate during rainy season; river transport important; rail link to Dakar (Senegal)|
|Major foodcrops:||Millet, sorghum, rice, maize|
|Marketing year:||November/October; Lean season: July-September|
|Share of cereals in total calorie intake:||75 percent|
An FAO/CILSS Crop Assessment Mission in late October estimated the total 1995 cereal production at 2 178 000 tons, incluidng rice in paddy equivalent. This represents a 11.4 percent decrease compared to the record output of 1994/95 (2 457 000 tons). This decline is the result of the decrease in the area cultivated (2.4 percent) as well as low yields for all crops. Nevertheless, the cereal production for 1995 remains satisfactory, as it is 2 percent higher than the 1991-1995 average.
The first rains were received in May in the south and in Nioro and Menaka areas, but were insufficient until the first decade of July, resulting in a 3 to 6 week delay in the plantings. Between the second decade of July and mid October, rainfall was abundant, frequent and widespread over the whole country. The soil moisture was sufficient to allow a good development of crops, except in some arid zones. Cumulative rainfall as of 10 October was generally below last year's level but remained higher than normal.
The water situation of Niger and Senegal river valleys was favourable for recession rice in Segou and Mopti areas and for recession crops in Tombouctou and Gao areas. Pastures and waterpoints have been generally satisfactory. Nevertheless, watering of herds started to become difficult in the north (in the "cinquième région"), following the draining of pools and waterpoints.
The pest situation has been characterized by the presence of rodents, grain eating birds and small infestations of Desert Locusts, as well as African Migratory Locust, grasshoppers and flower eating insects. Control operations undertaken by the plant protection services helped minimize crop losses.
The overall food supply situation is satisfactory. Following last years record harvest, farmers stocks have been replenished. Markets are well supplied with cereals. Some surpluses of coarse grains may be available in the south. They can be mobilized to cover the needs of the structurally deficit areas of the north. Assistance will also be necessary for the Tuaregs who have started to return from Mauritania. The cereal import requirement for the 1995 marketing year (November/October) is estimated at 75 000 tons and the food aid requirement at 25 000 tons.
CEREAL SUPPLY/DEMAND BALANCE FOR THE 1995/96 MARKETING YEAR (in thousand tons)
|Normal production||3||270||1 764||2 037|
|of which: Structural food aid||15||5||5||25|
|1995 Domestic availability||7||316||1 803||2 126|
|Production||7||306||1 713||2 026|
|Possible stock drawdown||-||10||90||100|
|1995/96 Utilization||57||326||1 818||2 201|
|Food use||56||301||1 515||1 872|
|of which: exceptional local purchase requirement||-||-||20||20|
|1995/96 Import Requirement||50||10||15||75|
|Anticipated commercial imports||30||10||10||50|
|Food aid needs||20||-||5||25|
|Current Aid Position|
|Food aid pledges||-||-||1||1|
|of which: Delivered||-||-||-||-|
|Estimated per caput consumption (kg/year)||6||32||164||202|
|1995 production as % of normal:||99|
|1995/96 import requirement as % of normal:||83|
|1995/96 food aid requirement as % of normal:||100|