Within this framework, a national team led by the Ministry of Agriculture and assisted by national staff of FAO, WFP, the European Union, USAID and other donors undertook, during December 1997, a pre-evaluation of the prospects for the 1998 season A crops due to be harvested in January/February 1998. It covered 22 communes selected from all 11 prefectures. Where security conditions did not permit pre-evaluation mission visits, the team relied exclusively on the staff in the prefecture offices. For the second crop assessment phase, a joint FAO/WFP Mission visited the country from 10 to 24 January 1998 to complement, amplify and verify, in the light of the most recent agro-climatic developments, the pre-evaluation results. The Mission visited all seven prefectures for which security clearance was granted, selecting one to two communes per prefecture on the basis of agro-ecological sampling procedures, in addition to the provincial capitals of the prefectures. These communes were different from those selected for the pre-evaluation. The Mission thus effectively enlarged the earlier sample by 50 percent, utilizing an abbreviated assessment procedure. As far as the four omitted prefectures - Ruhengeri, Gisenyi, Cyangugu and Kibuye - are concerned, the Mission relied on the questionnaire responses obtained during the pre-evaluation phase.
The Mission involved staff engaged in the pre-evaluation, thus ensuring a degree of continuity in the entire assessment process. It further associated with its two field teams two staff members from the Ministry of Health, including the Head of the Nutrition Service. The Mission consulted the officers of the prefectures’ regional agricultural services and the heads and agricultural staff of the communes, held group and individual meetings with farmers, inspected fields, undertook market surveys, talked to customs officials at border points to gain an understanding of official and unofficial transborder trade with neighbouring countries, and visited Nutrition and Health Centres and Supervisors at prefecture and commune levels, as well as hospitals. The Mission made full use of the pre-evaluation results, but also made its own adjustments, particularly in the light of the possible effects on yields of the unseasonably prolonged rains, which extended into the third dekad of January. While in some prefectures the Mission arrived at different forecasts as compared to the pre-evaluation, its national food crop forecast for the 1998 A season is largely consistent with that of the December evaluation.
The results point to a significant increase in cultivated area compared to the 1997 A season, including the opening up of new land frontiers not cultivated before the crisis years, essentially in the recently created prefecture of Umutara. Total food crop production is forecast to increase by 14 percent over last year’s season A. Compared to the pre-civil war reference year of 1990, current production is estimated to be 6 percent less. A comparison with the average of the years 1989-93 puts the current production forecast at that period’s level. All in all, Rwanda’s food crop production is on the way to recovery. Yet, two caveats are in order. First, there are now more Rwandans who have to feed themselves than before the civil strife; on a per caput basis, current production is only some 88 percent of the 1990 pre-war level, implying that substantial food deficits persist. And second, if the unseasonable rains persist beyond the time of the Mission, production estimates will have to be revised downwards.
On the basis of its supply and utilization estimates, the Mission forecasts
a food aid requirement of 82 000 tons of cereal equivalent for the first
semester of 1998, of which 70 000 tons appear to be covered by pledges
already made or donor indications given for the first half of this year.
Rwanda’s population is now beginning to stabilize in the sense that
these massive movements are coming to an end. However, they have given
way to internal displacements resulting from the precarious security situation
in the North-western prefectures, where insurgents disrupt the lives and
development activities of the inhabitants, as well as to some influx of
Congolese refugees. A recent socio-demographic survey puts the mid-1997
population at 7.66 million people. This is about 5 percent below the estimates
available last year. The annual growth rate is now estimated at 2.84 percent.
Almost 95 percent of the population lives in rural areas. And with little
more than 26 000 km2 of national territory, Rwanda is among
Africa’s most densely populated countries.
As the Government strives to move from emergency and immediate reconstruction measures towards sustained long-term development, it has placed on top of its agenda the dual objective of ensuring food security and increasing rural-sector incomes as the principal means of improving the living conditions of its people. Priority measures to this effect were outlined in the Government’s position paper to the World Food Summit held in Rome in November 1996. As a starting point, the Government is giving high priority to increasing food supplies. A recently prepared agricultural strategy towards 2010 emphasizes major changes in land tenure, land utilization and production systems, as well as the relationship between agriculture and other economic sectors. This overall priority is supported by measures concerning the other two food security dimensions of food supply stability and access to food. The latter are the centrepiece of the "Global Action Plan for Food Security" adopted at a seminar held in Kigali in January 1998.
Key recommendations from this seminar include: (i) tax relief for the
agricultural sector; (ii) the need to restore the rural sector’s physical,
human and social capital; (iii) the promotion of private sector storage;
(iv) creation of agriculture-related and non-agricultural employment; (v)
restriction of food aid to needy groups targeted through participatory
approaches; (vi) creation of a market information system; and (vii) establishment
of a national committee for the co-ordination and follow-up on food security.
Estimates of food production continue to be severely constrained by
the absence of a government agricultural statistics service, which ceased
to function in the mid-1990s. Earlier FAO/WFP missions strongly recommended
the gradual re-establishment of such services, and tangible steps in this
direction are expected to materialize in the course of this year. Until
such services are again in place, estimates are essentially based on qualitative
field survey approaches, which are interpreted in the context of pre-crisis
statistical parameters, rather than on quantitative, statistically representative
3.1.1 Planted area
Planted area is estimated to have significantly increased in 1998 A season as compared to last year’s "A" season - in the order of 15 percent - rising to some 650 000 hectares or 94 percent of the pre-crisis reference year of 1990 A. Comparisons with the 1990 reference year need to take into consideration that new land frontiers have been opened up in the recently created Umutara prefecture, partly using former National Park and Hunting Reserve lands there. Expansion of cultivated land has been considerable in Kibungo, Gitarama and Byumba, reaching or exceeding 1990 A levels. These prefectures experienced a large influx of returnees last year. Generally, an important element in cultivated land expansion was the resumption of work on previously abandoned banana plantations and new banana plantings. By contrast, cultivated land in prefectures with major security problems such as Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Ruhengeri and Kibuye is around or almost 30 percent below pre-crisis levels.
The increase in cultivated area could have still been larger had it not been constrained by a number of factors. First was the security situation in parts of the country. Second, the one-month delay in the onset of the season’s rains discouraged some farmers from planting scheduled longer-cycle crops Third, problems of seeds and cuttings constrained planting as well as yields, despite an international donor programme to provide seeds. These problems were of a triple nature: inadequate availability of seed, late arrival of seeds, and sometimes unsatisfactory seed quality. And fourthly, a manpower scarcity put a break on the expansion of cultivated land. This factor appears surprising considering the heavy influx of returnees, especially last year. Explanations of this phenomenon include the fact that a large number of households are headed by females who have to divide their working time between agriculture and many household and family care chores; the tens of thousands of prisoners who rely for their subsistence on the delivery of food by family members, notably by female household heads; and the manpower required for the construction of homes and the rehabilitation of other essential infrastructure.
The rainfall patterns of the 1998 A season have negatively affected certain crops, while benefiting others. As noted above, rains commenced in mid-October instead of September, a one-month delay, and were initially irregularly distributed. The rains then continued regularly and often in excessive amounts, causing flooding in many marshland areas in nearly every prefecture; particularly affected were parts of Kibungo, Rural Kigali, Butare and Gitarama. Although only 10 percent of the total cultivated area is estimated to have been flooded, some farmers report the loss of their entire crop. Unusually heavy rains continued well into the third dekad of January.
Among the negative effects of the abundant rains and related humid conditions were fungal diseases, excessive weed growth and reduced sun exposure. Particularly affected were the yields of beans (root diseases, black fly) and potatoes (mildew). A continuation of the unseasonable rains could reduce yields further. Lack of quality seeds and cuttings also had a yield-depressing effect in many areas. In general, yields of sorghum, wheat, beans, Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes are estimated to have declined in comparison to last year’s season A. On the other hand, yield improvements were observed for bananas, maize, rice, peas, groundnuts, soya, taro, yams and cassava.
3.1.3 1998 A production
Total food crop production in the 1998 A season is estimated at 2 194 227 tons, an increase of 14 percent over 1997 A (Table 1). This includes 77 400 tons of cereals (some 18 percent less than 1997 A), some 110 000 tons of pulses (an increase of seven percent over 1997 A, mainly as a result of significantly increased plantings ), 1.4 million tons of bananas (+25 percent) and some 656 000 tons of roots and tubers, about the same as in last year’s season A.
The current season’s production falls short of pre-crisis levels (1990 A) by some 6 percent. If one chooses a more broadly based pre-crisis period as reference, e.g. the average of 1989-93 A, this season’s production is just at the pre-crisis level. From a purely production viewpoint it would appear that food production is gradually returning to what it was before the civil strife. Yet, there are now more Rwandans who need to feed themselves than five to ten years ago. Thus, on a per caput basis, current production is approximately 12 percent less than in 1990, before the crisis. This raises serious concerns about Rwanda’s food security situation, assuming that the country’s economic conditions do not permit it to fully compensate the per caput production shortfall by commercial imports. In addition, one needs to consider that even before the civil strife Rwanda’s food security situation was not satisfactory; any deterioration is thus all the more serious.
The situation naturally varies from one prefecture to another. Table 2 shows the estimated 1998 A food crop production by prefecture, and the following regional analysis highlights the specific situation in each of them.
|Crops||Aver.89-93A||1990 A||1997 A||1998 A||%98A/ 89-93A||% 98A/90A||% 98A/97A|
|Sorghum||21 700||28 504||15 100||18 323||84||64||121|
|Maize||79 500||81 196||72 100||47 915||60||59||66|
|Wheat||4 000||2 884||1 100||1 471||37||51||134|
|Rice||5 800||5 371||5 500||9 661||167||180||176|
|Total cereal||111 000||117 955||93 800||77 371||70||66||82|
|Beans 1/||135 700||135 809||90 200||91 922||68||68||102|
|Peas||6 213||8 100||10 101||163||125|
|Groundnuts2/||14 300||3 725||1 900||3 651||26||98||192|
|Soya||8 119||2 500||4 132||51||165|
|Total pulses||150 000||153 866||102 700||109 806||73||71||107|
|Bananas||1 173 300||1 398 633||1 077 600||1 351 174||115||97||125|
|Total bananas||1 173 300||1 398 633||1 077 600||1 351 174||115||97||125|
|Potatoes||150 100||147 572||133 500||134 998||90||91||101|
|Sweet potatoes||418 000||364 524||384 100||368 521||88||101||96|
|Taro & yams||26 000||19 945||24 800||32 096||123||161||129|
|Cassava||148 900||136 951||114 700||120 261||81||88||105|
|Tot.roots & tubers||743 000||668 992||657 100||655 876||88||98||100|
|TOTAL||2 177 300||2 339 446||1 931 200||2 194 227||101||94||114|
1/ Includes peas in the case of the 1989-93 A average.
2/ Includes soya in the case of the 1989-93 A average.
The preparation for the 1998 A season was also been hampered by a scarcity of agricultural inputs, notably bean seeds and cassava and sweet potato cuttings. The emergency input programme of the international community distributed some 230 tons of bean seeds to the most vulnerable agricultural households, which however, at 7 kg per household, fell far short of requirements, covering only about one-third of needs. Some supplies arrived too late for use in the current season.
As elsewhere in the country, the onset of rains was delayed by about one month, until 20 October. Heavy rains in late October and November then caused flooding in the Kanyaru valley, destroying a large part of the bean, sweet potato and rice in the marshlands. They also created conditions conducive to the development of common diseases on beans.
Given the prevailing agro-climatic conditions, yields of beans are expected to decline compared to last year’s A season, but the increase cultivated area is estimated to more than compensate for this decline, leading to an increase in production. Bean prices in the markets surveyed by the Mission were found to be some 60 percent above last year’s corresponding period (240 against 147 Frw/kg), well above the increase in general inflation, which may be estimated at 20 percent. On-farm stocks were negligible, and the small quantities stocked by traders originated from neighbouring countries, particularly Burundi.
|Sorghum||16||0||0||3 223||525||876||3 600||70||417||52||9 544||18 323|
|Maize||307||594||1 144||1 538||1 580||3 360||5 292||2 639||7 077||11 694||12 690||47 915|
|Rice||6 004||0||460||972||505||612||0||1 108||0||0||0||9 661|
|Total cereals||6 417||855||1 604||5 733||2 610||4 848||9 368||3 817||7 630||11 799||22 690||77 370|
|Beans||2 244||1 372||3 550||13 661||7 770||22 800||17 220||2 121||5 121||3 472||12 590||91 922|
|Peas||396||2 900||455||523||740||681||2 214||306||585||348||953||10 101|
|Groundnuts||107||14||120||460||541||1 848||528||0||33||0||0||3 651|
|Soya||1 218||1 060||672||35||182||129||55||358||52||332||39||4 132|
|Total pulses||3 965||5 346||4 797||14 679||9 233||25 458||20 017||2 785||5 791||4 152||13 582||109 806|
|Bananas||99 000||18 300||241 992||51 294||258 262||277 112||145 145||59 391||85 390||19 542||95 747||1 351 174|
|Total bananas||99 000||18 300||241 992||51 294||258 262||277 112||145 145||59 391||85 390||19 542||95 747||1 351 174|
|Potatoes||3 744||8 070||4 416||3 493||9 000||4 596||6 864||1 963||25 356||4 888||62 607||134 998|
|Sweet potat.||54 183||25 386||63 919||8 925||33 969||28 560||53 141||8 402||30 759||9 841||51 435||368 521|
|Taro & yams||3 500||2 498||5 460||973||3 938||2 205||1 397||7 759||1 339||1 808||1 220||32 096|
|Cassava||8 904||2 104||23 144||4 483||36 175||18 810||8 925||6 379||3 023||5 325||2 988||120 261|
|Total roots&tub||70 331||38 058||96 939||17 874||83 082||54 171||70 327||24 503||60 477||21 862||118 250||655 876|
|TOTAL||179 713||62 559||345 332||89 580||353 186||361 588||244 857||90 498||159 289||57 355||250 270||2 194 227|
Caterpillars inflicted serious damage on sweet potato cuttings in the communes of Kigembe, Muyaga, Nyaruhengeri, Kibayi, Muganza, Ntyazo and Muyira.
The general health and nutrition situation appears to have deteriorated
over past months, aggravated by infectious and parasitic diseases. Cases
of marasmus and kwashiorkor were observed in the areas of Maraba, Nyakizu,
Gishanvu and Ruyinya.
Supplies of seeds and cuttings have been particularly scarce this season: only 20 tons of seed potato were made available to farmers.
Rains commenced late by one month, but were then especially abundant, with 350 mm in November/December against an average of 250 mm. The ensuing floods destroyed crops in the marshlands of the Mwogo valley.
Diseases have particularly affected beans and potatoes. Overall food crop production is forecast to be some 20 percent below last year’s A season. Food prices in the markets visited by the Mission were significantly higher than at the same time last year.
The food security and nutrition situation gives rise to great concern,
having visibly deteriorated in recent months. This is particularly true
for the commune of Rwamiko.
Rains followed much the same patterns observed in other prefectures. Severe flooding destroyed sweet potatoes in the communes of Murama and Kanyegenyege; beans, soya and sweet potatoes in Nyabarongo; and beans and sweet potatoes in Akanyaru.
Food prices have soared, increasing by 60 percent in the case of beans and tripling for a number of other food products in the main markets of Gitarama, Musambira and Ruhango.
The health and nutrition situation remains precarious.
Generally, Rural Kigali experienced the same delay in the start of rains as the rest of the country, as well as the problem of flooding later in the season.
Bean seeds and cassava and potato cuttings were generally scarce. However, vulnerable farm households benefited from various emergency input programmes.
The performance of beans is mixed. It is considered satisfactory in the eastern and southern communes while considerable declines are expected in the upland communities. Major production increases vis-à-vis 1997 A are forecast for sweet potatoes, taro, yams and cassava, as well as bananas and groundnuts.
The health and nutrition situation continues to be precarious, with
a tendency towards deterioration.
Food prices have soared, due in part to the arrival of Congolese refugees.
The nutritional situation among the recent returnees is a matter of
Production prospects for all crops, except beans, are good. Some crop damage from wild animals has been reported in newly cultivated areas.
As in other prefectures, food prices are generally well above previous year’s levels. After a prolonged dry period followed by hail storms at the onset of rains, banana prices have increased to a point where some now consider this commodity as a "luxury item" for the better-off.
Some 20 percent of Umutara’s population are considered vulnerable. The
nutrition and health situation among recent returnees, especially young
children, is reported to give rise to particular concern.
Despite late and then excessive rains and other climatic difficulties, food crop production is expected to improve over last year’s season A. Overall, food production prospects in Kibungo are well above the national average. Successful efforts to settle land disputes have contributed to an increase in planted area.
Although strong winds and some incidence of disease caused some damage, banana production is up in comparison to last year. Good harvests are forecast for beans and groundnuts, despite the damage by heavy rains and associated leaf and root diseases. Areas planted to sweet potatoes were greatly expanded, and production prospects are very good.
Prices of bananas and cassava in particular have risen well above the levels of last year’s A season, while those of beans are stabilizing.
Despite the prefecture’s good agricultural performance, malnutrition
is widespread and particularly affects the recently repatriated people.
Cultivated area is only slightly above that of last year’s A season. Area expansion has been constrained by limited availability of inputs, especially seeds. Production prospects are close to last year’s A harvest.
Transborder trade with the neighbouring DRC has resumed. Local prices
remain at very high levels.
The health and nutrition situation is reported to have deteriorated.
Rains have caused landslides in the commune of Mabanza and flooding in Gitesi and Mabanza.
Insecurity, coupled with scarcity and very high prices of seeds, have
led to reduced planting this season, especially for beans and maize. The
production outlook for most crops is unfavourable compared to last year’s
A season. Markets are poorly supplied and prices are beyond the reach of
most of the population. Many households depend on food aid.
Cultivated area is therefore significantly down from last year’s season A levels, with the exception of bananas and taro/yams. Poor seed quality, bad field maintenance and diseases are negatively affecting yields. Total food crop production is forecast to be well below 1997 A levels.
Food prices are much above the levels of the comparable period last year. Beans prices are further increased by transborder outflows into Uganda.
The nutrition and health situation is deteriorating, particularly after
the departure of the NGO community which used to distribute food and medicines.
The deterioration is particularly severe in the commune of Ruhondo.
One way of interpreting these current prices is by setting them against daily rural labour wage rates. In the first half of January 1998, the average daily rate was Frw 336 (or just above one US dollar) with a range between prefectures of Frw 200 to 500.
Prices fluctuate sharply between prefectures - an indication of the deficiencies of the current marketing infrastructure, above all the lack of integration of markets (Table 4). For example, sweet potato prices ranged from last year’s levels in Cyangugu to a five-fold increase in Kibuye. Cassava prices increased fourfold in Kibungo and Byumba, tripled in Butare and Urban Kigali, and doubled in Cyangugu. Maize prices doubled in Cyangugu, Gikongoro and Urban Kigali, but quadrupled in Kibungo. To an extent, these differences are explained by recent population movements, but also by lack of markets integration among prefectures.
These price developments have major implications for household food
security. Studies undertaken in 1997 by the Save the Children Fund (UK)
in Western Byumba, Gikongoro, Kibungo and Butare indicate that poor households
have to purchase up to 75-80 percent of their food needs in the market.
After accounting for market purchases and self-produced food, some households
will still be left with an unmet food deficit of varying size, which needs
to be met by food aid. The limited scope of these studies notwithstanding,
they clearly show the heavy dependence of poor households on market purchases
to meet their food needs and, thus, the dramatic impact of recent price
developments on household food security.
|Prefecture||Maize||Sorghum||Beans||Potatoes||Sweet Potatoes||Cassava||Bananas (for cooking)|
1/ First half of January 1997 and of January 1998
Source: MINAGRI/ European Union - Market Price List No. 66, First half of January 1998
Food consumption requirements are calculated on the basis of the historical consumption of 33 kg of cereals per caput per year, 32 kg of pulses, and 188 kg of roots and tubers and 408 kg of bananas. Feed use of grains has been negligible since the sharp reduction of the national livestock herd during 1994. Other uses of grains include seed retention and losses (mainly to pests in storage and in trading). Altogether non-food uses and losses are assumed to account for 11 percent of cereals, 20 percent of pulses, and 9 percent of roots and tubers. Losses for bananas and plantains are estimated at 3 percent.
Opening stocks for cereals on farm and with traders were estimated as equivalent to two weeks’ consumption, following a relatively good 1997 B harvest, plus 4 000 tons of food aid stocks in the country. For pulses, the respective amounts were one week’s consumption plus 1 000 tons of food aid stocks. Just prior to the 1998 A season, the Mission estimates, on the basis of its field visits, that farm households only hold negligible stocks of beans and cereals, while traders normally do not hold large stocks of these commodities. The Government used to maintain working and small reserve stocks through the parastatal National Food and Livestock Board (OPROVIA), but this institution is at present not functioning. Closing stocks are assumed to be drawn down to one week’s consumption for cereals plus 5 000 tons of food aid and to be unchanged in the case of pulses.
In converting root and tuber and banana deficits/import requirements
into cereal equivalents, the Mission considered it unrealistic that consumers
would fully substitute cereals for such shortfall, but would meet the deficit
partly by substituting a variety of other foods. It therefore converted
only 50 percent of the shortfall into cereal equivalent, to be taken into
account in food aid requirement estimates. In the case of bananas, over
two-thirds of the production is consumed in the form of banana beer (mainly
by men) and, therefore, not easily substitutable for cereals in the household
food basket. Nevertheless, the small portion of the banana production consumed
cooked and as a fruit, with a higher calorie content, has been converted
into cereal equivalent.
|Cereals||Pulses||Total cereals & pulses||Roots & tubers||Bananas|
|Domestic availability||91||116||207||656||1 351|
|1998 A production||77||110||187||656||1 351|
|Total utilization||148||153||301||795||1 638|
|food aid requirement||39||19||58||18||6|
|food aid grand total||82|
|of which pledged||70|
1/ Cereal equivalent.
Commercial imports of cereals and pulses were estimated on the basis of official statistics for the last three years, provided by the National Bank of Rwanda (BNR), which bases its statistics on information from the National Customs Office. In addition, the Mission assumed that 10-15 percent of imports consist of informal, not recorded trade with neighbouring countries. The Mission also considered that trade flows between Rwanda and Tanzania may be constrained during the early part of this year due to the damage to road infrastructure inflicted by recent floods in Tanzania. After reviewing these various factors, the Mission estimates commercial imports in the order of 18 000 tons for both cereals and pulses during the first semester of 1998.
Within the framework of these various assumptions, the Mission’s estimated
food balance for the firstsemester of 1998 suggests an import requirement
of 57 000 tons of cereals, 37 000 tons of pulses, 21 000 tons of cereal
equivalent of roots and tubers, and 10 000 tons in cereal equivalent of
bananas (Table 5). After allowance for commercial imports, this would leave
a food aid requirement of 82 000 tons of cereal equivalent, of which 70
000 tons have already formally or informally been pledged for the first
semester of 1998, with the remaining 12 000 tons uncovered as a result
of increasing insecurity in north-western prefectures and, in general,
land transport difficulties in the region which are hampering food aid
This sharp decrease of almost 50 percent was due to the changed objectives of the food aid assistance at the end of the emergency, following the return of some 1 300 000 people in late 1996 and early 1997. General, free food distribution virtually ceased as of June 1997. Since then the number of new returnees has been insignificant. The total free food distribution during the period July-December 1997 amounted to some eight percent of all food aid.
The changes in the situation in the country are well illustrated by the number of small-scale food-for-work projects initiated by WFP, aiming at reintegrating the population into their normal activities. Some 47 percent of food aid was devoted to the rehabilitation of the agricultural sector and social infrastructure, as well as to house construction programmes.
However, there remains a large number of "vulnerable households" in the wake of the civil strife in the first half of this decade. In fact, over 26 percent of the July-December 1997 food aid was distributed to vulnerable households. The main receiving prefectures were Kibungo, Gikongoro, rural Kigali, Butare, Umutara and Gitarama. Other emergency food aid programmes included selective child nutrition and nutritional rehabilitation programmes.
During the period under consideration, WFP provided some 7 000 tons of food per month to 140 out of the country’s 152 communes. By the end of December, WFP, in collaboration with the Government, had distributed six monthly rations to 520 000 people.
At the beginning of the first semester of 1998, a significant part of the current beneficiary population should have reached a reasonable degree of food self-sufficiency through their own production and/or through other sources of income. This trend is expected to continue in 1998. Efforts in that direction will continue to be assisted by WFP at the same level as the second half of 1997.
It is also important to maintain and reinforce close nutritional and food security surveillance of the vulnerable population.
Particular attention will continue to be given to vulnerable groups and households in the prefectures and communes expected to experience the most severe food deficits and nutritional problems. To avoid creating dependency among the beneficiary population, emphasis will be given to the implementation of new food-for work projects.
Also, attention will continue to be given to the promotion of sustainable household food security, the rehabilitation of basic infrastructure and the construction of houses. An important aspect is the distribution of "protective rations" aimed at assuring that poor farm households do not use seed material for human consumption during the lean season.
Table 6 summarizes WFP’s projected food aid activities for the first
semester of 1998. They are subject to review and revision in the light
of the findings of the Mission.
|Programme Type||Size of Target Group||Monthly Food Needs (Tons)||Total Quantity (Tons)|
|Supplementary feeding||75 000||966||5 797|
|Institutional feeding||10 000||171||1 029|
|Food for work||273 500||4 208||25 245|
|Vulnerable groups feeding (VGF)||208 250||1 781||10 688|
|Other FFW/VGF||42 165||649||3 892|
|Total||608 915||7 775||46 651|
|Refugees||29 000||408||2 448|
|Grand Total||637 915||8 183||49 099|
Food aid stocks within the country at the end of December 1997 were about 5 000 tons. In addition, WFP can draw on sub-regional stocks of some 50 000 tons.
5.3.1 Logistics and Security Issues
The torrential rains that have hit east Africa in the past three months have caused severe logistical problems, which are exacerbated by ongoing ethnic conflict. The main transport routes and railroads from Dar-Es-Salaam (Tanzania) and from Mombasa (Kenya) via Kampala (Uganda) have been cut off in several points, thus reducing the supply capacities. Under these circumstances, WFP would be not able to assist the totality of the 500 000 to 600 000 people. WFP could be forced to reduce aid to Rwanda because of the supply difficulties and will give priority to the most vulnerable people.
Insecurity in most of the country, especially the Northwest Prefectures,
represents a major constraints hampering the good development of land under
cultivation. Also it creates severe disturbances to food aid deliveries.
Rwanda has 285 nutrition centres, many of which are badly staffed and malfunctioning. Supplementary rations distributed to mothers with malnourished children are frequently shared by the whole family, thus not serving the intended purpose. The Ministry of Health undertakes both preventive and curative measures, but the record of malnutrition suggests that these are insufficient.
It is the Mission’s recommendation that a major effort is required to
ensure participatory nutrition surveillance and a major effective IEC campaign
focusing on weaning practices. The nutrition centres need to be utilized
much more effectively.
|This report is prepared on the responsibility of the FAO and WFP Secretariats with information from official and unofficial sources. Since conditions may change rapidly, please contact the undersigned for further information if required.|
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