FAO GLOBAL INFORMATION AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME

FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT

MISSION TO ANGOLA

17 May 2000


Mission Highlights

  • Continued strife since the resumption of warfare in 1998 has increased the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) to nearly 2.6 million, 1.9 million of whom urgently need humanitarian assistance.
  • 1999/2000 cereal production is estimated at 504 000 tonnes, about 5 percent lower than last year, due mainly to unfavourable rainfall pattern and shortages of essential inputs.
  • Cereal import requirement for 2000/01 (April/March) is estimated at 753 000 tonnes, of which commercial imports are estimated at 420 000 tonnes.
  • International emergency food assistance amounting to 333 000 tonnes will be needed in the year 2000/01 (March/April).
  • Insecurity continues to hamper road transport to and within most of the country's provincial locations, making costly air transport the only alternative.

-------

1. OVERVIEW

The consequences of the collapse of the peace agreement in 1998, notably renewed fighting, massive displacements of populations and insecurity, continue to cause serious concern despite efforts by the Government and its partners to redress the situation. According to the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Angola, IDPs have now reached nearly 2.6 million, or 53 percent more than last year's stated figure. This increase is due both to improved Government access to more areas and to the continuing strife. At present, WFP estimates that about 1.9 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance.

In an effort to provide the Government and the international community with a basis for their strategies in assisting the war-affected populations, an FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission was fielded to Angola from 16 April to 3 May 2000. Its purpose was to evaluate the 1999/2000 food crop production and estimate cereal import requirements for 2000/2001 (April/March), including food aid needs. The Mission was accompanied by staff from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER), observers from the European Union (EU), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Detailed planning of the Mission, preparatory documents and other background information were provided by the FAO-supported Food Security Unit in MINADER, the Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping (VAM) Unit of the WFP Office in Angola, and WFP sub-offices in the provinces. The information provided on farming populations and areas planted, as well as briefs on the humanitarian situation in the provinces, were especially useful for the Mission.

Before proceeding to the field, the Mission met in Luanda with the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Minister of Social Assistance and Reintegration (MINARS), UN Agencies, and donor and NGO representations to highlight issues deserving particular attention, including the geographical areas to be covered. The mapping of agro-ecological zones of Angola by the Food Security Unit greatly facilitated crop assessment. To ensure adequate coverage of key areas within the time allocated, the Mission split into three groups: Group I visited the provinces of Huambo, Bie, Malanje and Uige; Group II Benguela, Cuando Cubango, Moxico and Huila; Group III Cuanza Sul, Bengo, Luanda, Lunda Sul and Cuanza Norte. Owing to security problems, the groups travelled mostly by air between provincial capitals. Road transport for field inspections was generally limited to the vicinity of the provincial capitals and other cities visited. In the provinces, the Mission teams held discussions with Governors, local staff of MINADER, MINARS and NGOs, as well as with farmers, traders and IDPs to cross-check and supplement pre-Mission information. Yield measurements were undertaken during field inspections, and supply and prices of major food commodities were checked in the local markets. Reports from MINADER and WFP sub-offices provided information on areas and provinces not visited. For estimates of rainfall amounts and distribution, satellite imagery was supplemented by data and information provided by MINADER, NGOs, and farmers.

The Mission forecasts the 1999/2000 cereal production at 504 000 tonnes, which is about 5.5 percent lower than last year. The shortfall is essentially due to lower maize production which decreased by 8 percent, from 428 000 tonnes to 394 000 tonnes. By contrast, other crops with lower water requirements experienced production increases. Thus sorghum/millet production edged up 3 percent to 105 000 tonnes; bean and groundnut production rose by 11 and 13 percent respectively, while that of cassava and Irish potatoes was estimated to be substantially higher than was forecast last year.

The reduction in maize production is attributed to two major factors, namely unfavourable rainfall pattern and shortage of essential inputs. Although cumulative rainfall for most of the country was above average for the whole season, from September 1999 to April 2000, rains started late, particularly in the southern and central areas. In the latter, good rains arrived only in November. Excessive rains in many areas towards the end of December were then followed by an abnormally long dry spell in late January and February. Secondly, there was a general scarcity of essential inputs, coupled with late distribution and frequently poor quality of seeds. In addition, the displaced farm families had access to very limited amounts of land, if any, in their new locations and in many cases the land is of poor quality.

For the 2000/2001 marketing year (April/March), domestic cereal supply, estimated at 504 000 tonnes, falls far short of national consumption requirements. With a mid-marketing year population estimate of 13 675 000, cereal import requirements for the 2000/2001 are estimated at 753 000 tonnes. Of these, the Mission estimates that 420 000 tonnes will be imported commercially, leaving 333 000 tonnes to be covered by food aid.

There is urgent need to allocate fertile land in adequate amounts to IDPs, and to ensure timely delivery of the requisite inputs to the farming population for the 2000/2001 cropping year.

-------

2. ECONOMY AND AGRICULTURE 1

With its vast oil and mineral reserves, notably diamonds, abundant arable land and water resources, Angola has the potential to become one of Africa's strongest economies. But since the struggle for liberation in the early 1960s, and particularly with the outbreak of the civil war following independence in 1975, Angolans have only known suffering, pervasive insecurity, declining socio-economic conditions and acute deprivation. UNDP reports indicate that in 1999, 60 percent of the population lived below the poverty line while the country ranked 160 in the Human Development Index compared to 155 the previous year, suggesting a worsening in living standards.

Angola's GDP increased by an average of 4.5 percent between 1994 and 1999 according to IMF estimates. But over-dependence on the oil sector (which accounted for 90 percent of export revenues and 44 percent of GDP in 1998), the volatility of oil prices and the resumption of warfare have made growth erratic. Thus the high growth rates of over 11 percent in 1995 and 1996 contrast sharply with the negative rates of -3.8 and -0.2 in 1998 and 1999 respectively. This is mirrored by trends in the growth rate of per capita GDP which has plummeted from highs of over 8 percent in 1995 and 1996 to -6.5 in 1998 and -3.5 in 1999.

In addition, income distribution has been worsening. According to UNDP, between 1995 and 1999, the incomes of the richest 10 percent of families increased by 43 percent compared to a reduction of 59 percent of the incomes of the poorer families. This is reflected in the continued deterioration in production and living conditions in the rural sector, coupled with massive population displacements. A United Nations Report "Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs of the War-affected Populations" published in April 2000 describes their situation as alarming and on the brink of reaching the point of crisis. During its field visits, the Mission noted the general consensus that the resident farming population around towns and cities (i.e. that not displaced by the war) was not markedly better off than the displaced. They, too, lack basic agricultural inputs and, because of insecurity, often have to use impoverished soils in the immediate surroundings of provincial capitals and other cities under Government control.

The ratio of Government expenditures to GDP was 62 percent in 1994 and 43 percent in 1999, which is considered high by low- and middle-income country standards. The budget deficit as a proportion of GDP has ranged from 17.6 percent in 1995 to 7.3 percent in 1999, suggesting that Government's efforts to control expenditures are producing the intended effects. However, annualised inflation was about 330 percent in December 1999 compared with 135 percent in December 1998. In order to contain inflation, new monetary and exchange rate measures were introduced in May 1999. They included liberalisation of interest rates, floating of the national currency, establishment of an inter-bank foreign-exchange market, elimination of import licences, and freedom to use company foreign-exchange earnings to import goods.

Agriculture has been the sector most ravaged by the conflict. Except in the coastal area where irrigation is practised by commercial farmers, and to some extent the tuber-producing Northern provinces, Angolan agriculture has fallen to a subsistence level, with little or no marketable surplus. Once self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs, the country has for the past several years relied on imports, particularly food aid, to meet domestic requirements. Plantations of coffee, sisal, cotton and sugar cane have reverted to bush, while production of bananas, palm oil and tobacco has withered during 25 years of warfare. The acute deprivation of the farming community and the lack of credit facilities from financial institutions makes the use of purchased inputs and mechanisation possible only on a few commercial farms. So far, some NGOs have, within their humanitarian assistance, supplied seeds and simple tools to a limited number of IDPs. In its present emergency relief programme, the Government is also planning to provide seeds to small farmers in all the provinces. This, however, will still fall short of the much-needed rural development programmes in secure areas that would in time contribute to sustainable livelihoods for the farming communities.

-------

3. FOOD PRODUCTION IN 1999/2000

3.1 Security and agricultural production

Despite the fact that security has improved slightly this year compared to 1998/99, the continuing conflict still has a very significant negative effect on agricultural production. Since most provincial roads remain closed and travel on the few that are open is dangerous, the movement of goods (both inputs and produce) and people is severely limited. Conflict and the risk of landmines place considerable restrictions on the use of agricultural land. In many areas, there are still cases of large numbers of farmers leaving land that they have planted because it is unsafe to tend or harvest their crop. Where farmers traditionally practise an extensive fallow-rotation system, this has often become impossible because of the limited availability of secure land. The influx of IDPs to municipal centres around the country puts further pressure on limited land resources. Theft of crops in the field, especially maize, is common in many areas, prompting farmers to harvest their crops prematurely. Theft and the fear of theft have seriously depleted livestock numbers over most of the country.

Rainfall

Annual rainfall in Angola increases from south to north. The mean on the coastal strip varies from less than 100mm in parts of Namibe province to more than 800mm in the coastal parts of Zaire and Cabinda provinces. Further inland the variation is from about 600mm in the south to more than 1600mm in parts of Uige and Lunda Norte provinces.

Satellite imagery indicates that the cumulative rainfall over most of the country was above average for the period September 1999-April 2000. However, the images mask the unfavourable distribution in important agricultural areas as reported by farmers and recorded by MINADER and others. The start of the season was slow with below-average figures for the month of September and, in Central Region, the season was delayed till the beginning of November. Satellite imagery indicates small to large reductions in vegetation compared with the previous year for the month of November over much of the country, especially the centre and the north-east. Rainfall was then excessive during December and early January in much of Northern and Central Regions. Some areas, especially in Central Region, then experienced below-average rains in late January and the month of February.

This distribution resulted in extensive but localized reductions in yields of beans and groundnuts due to waterlogging, and reductions in maize yields due both to waterlogging and to relative drought coinciding with flowering which had been delayed because of late planting. On the other hand, cassava has benefited from the overall high rainfall this year and has been able to accommodate those periods when rainfall was below average.

In terms of pasture, the satellite imagery reveals that, by the beginning of April 2000, the major part of the national area was covered by "good" to "very good" vegetation.

Supply of agricultural inputs

Seeds - mostly of maize, beans, groundnuts and various vegetables - were distributed for the 1999/2000 cropping season in several provinces by Government, international organizations and NGOs, but due to logistical difficulties delivery was frequently delayed, and in some cases (e.g. groundnuts) the quality of delivered seed was reported to be poor. Planned Government allocations included 1 580 tonnes of maize seed, 1 106 tonnes of bean seed and 265 tonnes of groundnut seed. The biggest intended recipient was Huambo, which was due to receive 900 tonnes of maize seed and 480 tonnes of bean seed. Lack of road access meant that some arrived late but most did not arrive at all. At the other end of the scale, some communities were encountered where enough seed had been provided by NGOs. Vegetable seed, presumably diverted from donations, is on sale in several markets but there are few buyers. The availability of cassava planting material was greatly improved this year with multiplication being carried out by both MINADER and NGOs.

Agricultural hand tools were also distributed to IDPs by Government and NGOs. Many communities complained that the number of tools provided was insufficient for the potential numbers of users within a family. However, it is hard to reconcile this complaint with the fact that hoes and machetes were on sale in several markets for as little as 1.5 and 3 Kz respectively (less than US50c). Virtually no fertilizer is used, although some NGOs have distributed very small amounts to a few communities. Some bags of fertilizer are commonly seen in markets but daily sales amount to only a few kg. Veterinary inputs are in short supply throughout the country, including areas where livestock populations are still significant.

Area planted

With the slightly improved security situation during 1999/2000, there has been a marginal increase in the total area under each of the main crops. Out of approximately 1.73 million hectares under the main crops (including rice), maize accounts for 40 percent, millet/sorghum 11 percent, rice <1 percent, beans 11 percent, groundnuts 2 percent, cassava 31 percent, Irish potatoes <1 percent, and sweet potatoes 4 percent.

Both Huambo and Moxico have shown significant increases in cultivated areas this year (by about 34 000 hectares and 12 500 hectares respectively) whereas there has been a reduction in Malanje and Cunene (by about 8 000 hectares and 1 700 hectares respectively). Most other provinces have shown slight increases following improvements in security.

Maize accounts for some 78 percent of the land under coarse grains. Despite a countrywide increase, maize areas have shown a slight contraction in some provinces, notably Malanje (reduced by over 1 500 hectares), Kwanza Sul (almost 3 000 hectares), Bie (over 1 300 hectares), Namibe (over 1 100 hectares), and Cuando Cubango (4 500 hectares). Huambo has registered a significant increase of more than 16 000 hectares in its area under maize, due to improved security, though unfortunately, on account of the irregular rains, this has not been reflected in increased production.

Perhaps unavoidably, much of the land allocated by the Government to the IDPs is of very poor quality. Use of such land reduces overall average yields and is discouraging for those who cultivate it.

Yields

This year's expected national average maize yield at 575 kg/hectare is below that of each of the previous four years. Provinces in the Southern Region are all expected to give yields that are equal to, or higher than, last year's yields, and in the Northern Region some provinces are expected to show an increase while others are expected to show a reduction. In the Central Region, however, which is the main maize-producing area of the country, all provinces except Benguela are forecast to have lower yields than last year. The situation is also exacerbated by the fact that in areas where production setbacks have occurred, theft of the crop from the field is common, encouraging growers to harvest what little there is of their crop prematurely. While 1999/2000 cannot be considered a particularly bad year for maize, it can be seen as one that suggests that, under the prevailing circumstances, greater consideration should be given to sorghum, especially in Central Region. Average maize yields in Benguela have been significantly boosted by the high yields achieved under irrigation in about 10 000 hectares of the province, which masks the extremely poor yields in the remaining 100 000-odd hectares.

Sorghum yields (national average 0.53 tonnes/hectare) are expected to be similar to those of last year, with only slight increases in some provinces.

Table 1: Angola - Area and production of main cereal crops, 2000

Region/Province
Maize
Millet/sorghum
Total
 
    Area    
Yield
Prodn.
    Area    
Yield
Prodn.
   Area    
Prodn.
 
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(tonnes)
Northern Region
81 905
760
62 212
0
 
0
81 905
62 212
Cabinda
2 950
800
2 360
0
 
0
2 950
2 360
Zaire
6 356
900
5 720
0
 
0
6 356
5 720
Uige
16 786
800
13 429
0
 
0
16 786
13 429
Bengo
10 002
1200
12 002
0
 
0
10 002
12 002
Luanda
1 780
600
1 068
0
 
0
1 780
1 068
Kwanza Norte
9 006
700
6 304
0
 
0
9 006
6 304
Malanje
19 076
700
13 353
0
 
0
19 076
13 353
Lunda Norte
8 583
500
4 292
0
 
0
8 583
4 292
Lunda Sul
7 366
500
3 683
0
 
0
7 366
3 683
Central Region
480 403
524
251 600
50 777
617
31 322
531 180
282 922
Kwanza Sul
61 420
600
36 852
1 159
650
753
62 579
37 605
Benguela
111 981
800
89 585
27 536
600
16 522
139 517
106 106
Huambo
194 637
400
77 855
15 954
650
10 370
210 591
88 225
Bie
88 742
400
35 497
5 433
600
3 260
94 175
38 757
Moxico
23 623
500
11 812
695
600
417
24 318
12 229
Southern Region
124 545
649
80 796
146 455
505
73 931
271 000
154 726
Namibe
6 741
600
4 045
3 714
350
1 300
10 455
5 345
Huila
86 014
700
60 210
62 556
600
37 534
148 570
97 743
Cunene
12 664
400
5 066
49 954
400
19 982
62 618
25 047
Cuando Cubango
19 126
600
11 476
30 231
500
15 116
49 357
26 591
TOTAL
686 853
575
394 607
197 232
534
105 252
884 085
499 859
Source: MINADER and Food Security Unit supplemented by Mission estimates.

Cassava yields in the main producing area, Northern Region, are forecast to be higher than last year. The increases are largely due to a perceived under-estimation in previous years but may also be attributed in part to the introduction and distribution of planting material of higher-yielding, faster-maturing (harvestable after six months) varieties. In Central and Southern Regions, where cassava is less important, yields are expected to be similar to those forecast last year. The national average comes to 8.3 tonnes/hectare, up almost 40 percent on last year's figure of just under 6 tonnes/hectare.

Despite excessive rains in December and January, average bean yields are expected to be similar to, or higher than, those of last year except in Malanje and in localized areas elsewhere. The reason for this apparent contradiction is the fact that yields were poor last year. The average in Malanje was reduced by extremely low yields on substantial areas of marginal land allocated to IDPs. The national average yield is expected to be in the region of 0.4 tonnes/hectare.

Table 2: Angola - Area and production of main crops, 2000

Region/Provinces
 
Coarse grains
Beans
Cassava
Main crops
   Area   
(ha)
Prodn.
(tonnes)
   Area   
(ha)
Yield
(kg/ha)
Prodn.
(tonnes)
   Area   
(ha)
Yield
(kg/ha)
Prodn.
 (tonnes) 
    Area    
(ha)
Northern Region
81 905
62 212
51 072
396
20 226
365 018
9 314
3 399 704
497 995
Cabinda
2 950
2 360
2 388
400
955
7 165
10 000
71 650
12 503
Zaire
6 356
5 720
5 827
500
2 914
36 019
9 000
324 171
48 202
Uige
16 786
13 429
15 108
450
6 799
117 505
10 000
1 175 050
149 399
Bengo
10 002
12 002
2 400
600
1 440
22 004
9 000
198 036
34 406
Luanda
1 780
1 068
1 687
500
844
4 498
9 000
40 482
7 965
Kwanza Norte
9 006
6 304
5 504
350
1 926
30 019
10 000
300 190
44 529
Malanje
19 076
13 353
7 855
250
1 964
75 182
7 500
563 865
102 113
Lunda Norte
8 583
4 292
7 357
300
2 207
39 235
10 000
392 350
55 175
Lunda Sul
7 366
3 683
2 946
400
1 178
33 391
10 000
333 910
43 703
Central Region
531 180
282 922
11 9178
392
46 753
147 939
6 412
948 548
798 297
Kwanza Sul
62 579
37 605
1 5065
400
6 026
24 336
6 000
146 016
101 980
Benguela
139 517
106 106
1 8357
350
6 425
11 014
5 000
55 070
168 888
Huambo
210 591
88 225
4 4671
400
17 868
41 480
6 500
269 620
296 742
Bie
94 175
38 757
3 6221
400
14 488
39 843
6 500
258 980
170 239
Moxico
24 318
12 229
4864
400
1 946
31 266
7 000
218 862
60 448
Southern Region
271 000
154 726
2 4612
330
8 132
21 192
4 000
84 768
316 804
Namibe
10 455
5 345
963
200
193
0
 
0
11 418
Huila
148 570
97 743
15 639
350
5 474
15 639
4 000
62 556
179 848
Cunene
62 618
25 047
4 925
250
1 231
0
 
0
67 543
Cuando Cubango
49 357
26 591
3 085
400
1 234
5 553
4 000
22 212
57 995
TOTAL
884 085
499 859
194 862
385
75 111
534 149
8 299
4 433 020
1 613 096
* fresh weight
Source
: MINADER and Food Security Unit supplemented by Mission estimates.

Table 3: Angola - Production of coarse grains from 1993/94 to 1999/2000 (`000 tonnes)

Province
1993/94
1994/95
1995/96
1996/97
1997/98
1998/99
1999/2000
Benguela
60
20
82
65
84
83
106
Bie
19
32
58
84
98
57
39
Huambo
17
45
108
112
159
115
88
Huila
69
59
71
49
70
95
98
Kwanza Sul
33
30
44
21
48
49
38
Malanje
11
9
25
11
21
13
13
Moxico
n.a.
n.a.
16
21
21
13
12
Other provinces
45*
77*
96
68
93
105
106
Total production
254
272
500
431
594
530
500
Total area (`000 ha)
841
852
783
782
862
865
884
* including Moxico
Source: MINADER and Food Security Unit supplemented by Mission estimates.

Production forecast

National production figures for sorghum, beans and cassava are expected to be higher this year than last with increases of 3 percent, 11 percent and 42 percent respectively. On the other hand, maize production is forecast to be lower than last year by approximately 8 percent, largely as a result of the climatological and pest setbacks experienced in the Central Region. However, it should be borne in mind that the anticipated production of almost 395 000 tonnes of maize is still substantially above the average for the previous decade of approximately 318 600 tonnes.

Other crops

Substantial increases in national production of potato and Irish potato are expected. The increases are attributable to higher yields in the case of sweet potato, and to both higher yields and an expansion of area in the case of Irish potato. Groundnuts appear to have tolerated the excessive rainfall early in the year, and production is expected to be up on last year. Increases will be due to both higher yields and an expansion of area.

FAO provided seed for approximately 70 hectares of wheat for residents and IDPs in Huambo province. While some fields may achieve yields of over 1 tonnes/hectare others are expected to bring the overall yield down to well below 0.5 tonnes/hectare.

Table 4: Angola - Production of other crops, 2000

 
Sweet potato 1/
Irish potato 1/
Groundnut 2/
Region/Province
   Area   
Yield
Prodn.
   Area   
Yield
Prodn.
   Area   
Yield
Prodn.
 
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(tonnes)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(tonnes)
Northern Region
24 975
3 834
95 757
2 579
3 961
10 216
18 162
342
6 209
Cabinda
562
4 000
2 248
0
 
0
702
300
211
Zaire
1 589
3 500
5 562
0
 
0
2 119
400
848
Uige
10 072
4 000
40 288
1 679
4 000
6 716
3 357
350
1 175
Bengo
3 201
3 000
9 603
400
5 000
2 000
1 200
600
720
Luanda
750
3 000
2 250
0
 
0
0
 
0
Kwanza Norte
2 001
6 000
12 006
500
3 000
1 500
2 001
300
600
Malanje
3 366
3 500
11 781
0
 
0
4 489
250
1 122
Lunda Norte
2 452
3 500
8 582
0
 
0
1 839
300
552
Lunda Sul
982
3 500
3 437
0
 
0
2 455
400
982
Central Region
28 586
3 457
98 822
4 350
2 867
12 471
18 424
318
5 854
Kwanza Sul
2 318
4 500
10 431
1 159
2 500
2 898
8 112
300
2 434
Benguela
9 179
3 000
27 537
0
 
0
1 836
350
643
Huambo
9 572
3 500
33 502
3 191
3 000
9 573
3 191
350
1 117
Bie
5 433
3 500
19 016
0
 
0
1 811
150
272
Moxico
2 084
4 000
8 336
0
 
0
3 474
400
1 390
Southern Region
10 565
2 789
29 463
1 955
3 000
5 865
1 955
350
684
Namibe
825
2 000
1 650
0
 
0
0
 
0
Huila
5 865
3 000
17 595
1 955
3 000
5 865
1 955
350
684
Cunene
1 407
2 000
2 814
0
 
0
0
 
0
Cuando Cubango
2 468
3 000
7 404
0
 
0
0
 
0
TOTAL
64 126
3 494
224 041
8 884
3 214
28 552
38 541
331
12 748
1/ Fresh weight.
2/ Shelled.
Source: Field estimates by mission, supplemented by MINADER and Food Security Unit data.
A great variety of food and fruit crops are grown in many parts of the country. These include, among several others, bananas, plantains, mango, avocado, coconut, sugarcane, pigeonpea, amaranths and okra. Where these crops thrive, their contribution to general nutrition appears to be significant.

Livestock situation

In most of the Northern and Central provinces livestock is limited to relatively small numbers of goats, pigs and chickens, largely as a result of the continuing conflict and the consequent risk of theft but also because of the prevalence of tick-borne diseases in these areas. Pigs and small ruminants are especially important in areas of conurbation, as in Luanda province where there are reported to be 5 000 and 30 000 respectively. Of the Northern and Central provinces, only Kwanza Sul is reported to have cattle numbers of any significance (about 45 000 according to MINADER). Luanda, Bengo and Huambo have about 5 000, 4 000 and 6 000 respectively. Pasture conditions in Northern and Central Regions are generally good this year but, as with crop production, poor security precludes the use of much of the potential land. For the same reason, last year's plans to re-introduce animal traction in Bie and Huambo have not been realised

In most of the Southern provinces, cattle numbers are considerably higher than those in the North and Centre, though they are still very much lower than those prior to the escalation of hostilities. 1.2 million are reported in Huila, 1.0 million in Cunene, and 80 000 in Namibe. By contrast, the Central provinces of Benguela and Huambo have 5 000 and 6 000 cattle respectively. Pasture in these provinces is generally satisfactory this year but veterinary services remain inadequate as a result of the conflict.

-------

4. SITUATION BY REGION AND PROVINCE

The mission was able to visit 13 of the country's 18 provinces. Those not visited (marked by an asterisk below) were Cabinda, Zaire, and Lunda Norte in the Northern Region, and Namibe and Cunene in the Southern Region.

Northern Region

Provinces in the Northern Region have two recognised cropping seasons, the first extending from September/October to January and the second starting in February/March.

Cabinda*

Rainfall was reported to be good, and satisfactory maize yields of about 800 kg/hectare are expected. All crop yields are forecast to be slightly higher than last year. This, combined with an expansion of cropped area, should lead to significant production increases.

Zaire*

Areas and yields of maize and beans are expected to show a slight increase on last year. Cassava yields are anticipated to be in the region of 9 tonnes/hectare; this is a big increase on last year's figure of 5.5 tonnes/hectare which was suspected of being an under-estimation.

Uige

Weather conditions in Uige were favourable during the two cropping seasons although excessive rainfall in December-January reduced the first season's groundnut yields. More than 1100mm of rain were recorded in Uige municipality during the September-January season. This was followed by a well-distributed 450-500mm from the beginning of February up to the end of April. Farmers expect higher yields this season than for the corresponding season in 1999, especially for cassava and sweet potato. The increasing use of short-season cassava varieties will also contribute significantly to the province's overall production. Uige produces more cassava than any other province. Uige's inherent fertility and good rainfall support many minor crops, the productivity of which appears - both in the field and from the evidence in the market - to be very satisfactory this year.

Although the number of IDPs has increased during the last year it appears that many of the earlier arrivals have been able to cultivate plots on residents' land, either as tenants in return for labour or produce, or by virtue of being members of a resident farmer's extended family. The generally high fertility of the province's land and the fact that much of the land is in a short fallow cycle should permit further expansion in this direction. MINADER estimates that approximately 54 percent of the province's agricultural land is militarily secure.

Bengo

Rainfall in Bengo province was reported to be at least as good as, or even better than, last year's. Amounts and distribution were near optimal in the first season but there was a slight delay to the beginning of the second season followed by some excessive rainfall. However, the generally favourable rainfall regime and the significant presence of commercial farmers are reflected in the province's very satisfactory production forecast. Maize production in Bengo is expected to show a 45 percent increase this year compared with last, due in part to an expansion of area but mostly to increased yields. At 1.2 tonnes/hectare, Bengo province's mean maize yield is expected to be the highest in the country. Similarly, the province's cassava production is expected to be up about 60 percent on last year's, again due partly to an increase in area but mostly to higher yields. Banana production is important in the province's economy.

Much of the expansion of area under food crops has taken place on land that used to belong to sugarcane and coffee estates. Resident farm families are estimated to cultivate about 2 hectares each, and the average IDP holding is about 0.5 hectares.

The Government and NGOs have distributed more seeds and hand tools this year than last, though some seeds are said to have arrived late.

Luanda

Maize production in Luanda is expected to be down on last year's figure by about 17 percent, with low yields resulting from the late start and erratic pattern of the second rains. Since maize is not very significant in the province the reduction is small in absolute terms. This year, however, is expected to see a doubling of last year's cassava production to over 40 000 tonnes, due almost entirely to yield increases. There have been no reports of significant outbreaks of pests or diseases. Palm oil production is locally important.

Agricultural support projects include the construction, with Government funding, of two irrigation schemes, each of 1 000 hectares. More seeds and hand tools have been distributed this year than last but many farmers reported difficulties in obtaining groundnut and cowpea seed. World Vision distributed cassava planting material. Resident farm families are reckoned to cultivate between 0.5 and 1.0 hectares each. Given the relatively urban nature of the province it is not surprising to find that most IDPs have no access to land other than as hired labourers. Those who have been allocated land by the Government have received parcels of about 0.25 hectares. The main off-farm income-generating activity available to rural people is trading.

Kwanza Norte

The rainfall pattern was considered to be good except for a period of excessive rain during the flowering stage of beans and may have reduced yields by as much as 40-50 percent. Nevertheless, bean yields, at 0.35 tonnes/hectare, are expected to be slightly higher than last year. Maize yields will be slightly lower than last year at 0.7 tonnes/hectare, but the effect of this reduction on overall food crop production will be negligible since maize is a minor crop in the province. Yields of cassava, sweet potato and Irish potato are all expected to show significant increases this year. There has been a slight reduction in the total area of land cultivated this year. Nevertheless, some land distribution was possible, with 13 400 IDP families receiving approximately 0.25 hectares each from the Government. However, much of the land was of poor quality and the yield expectations in such cases are low. Large numbers of hand tools were distributed to IDPs and vulnerable resident farmers. Seed was also distributed but a shortage of maize seed was reported.

Malanje

Rainfall of over 1200 mm since September was fairly well-distributed despite a slightly delayed arrival for the second season at the beginning of March. Yields of beans and groundnuts on resident farms are expected to be normal, but overall mean yields will be depressed by very poor production on land allocated to IDPs, much of which is on infertile mineral soil. Maize production should be similar to last year, as should cassava production despite a slight reduction in area. The food situation in Malanje municipality is somewhat alleviated by the relatively secure road communication between Malanje town and Luanda.

Lunda Norte*

Maize yields are expected to be down slightly on last year as a result of excessively wet conditions. Cassava yields have been adjusted upwards considerably to 10 tonnes/hectare since it was felt that last year's figure of 5.5 tonnes/hectare was an under-estimate.

Lunda Sul

Rainfall in Lunda Sul was satisfactory this year and the availability of seed and hand tools was adequate. There was consequently some expansion of the area of land cultivated. Maize yields are expected to be down slightly on last year's figure, but the yields of cassava, sweet potato and groundnut are all expected to show an increase.

Central Region

The rainfed cropping season in most of Central Region normally starts in September/October and is characterised by a generally short period of reduced rainfall at the end of January and the beginning of February. This is then followed by a resumption of heavier rainfall until April. "Nakas" production (with supplementary irrigation) is important during the five or six months beginning in June in those areas where water is available.

Kwanza Sul

Production levels this year are expected to be similar to last year's. Maize yields in the coastal zone were adversely affected by the late arrival of below-average rainfall. However, normal rainfall was reported in the interior, and this is expected to result in satisfactory maize yields and some surplus cassava production. There have been no significant outbreaks of crop pests or diseases. Fruit production - pineapple and passion fruit - is important in the province.

Agricultural support projects started this year include seed multiplication schemes (maize, beans and groundnuts) and the production and processing of cotton, sunflower and beans. This year the level of provision of seeds and tools by the Government and NGOs to both resident and IDP farm families was above that of last year, but very little fertilizer has been received or used. The allocation of land to IDPs remains inadequate although some longer-established IDP families have managed to acquire areas of up to 1 hectare.

Benguela

Rainfall was normal (most of Benguela is in the low-rainfall zone) over all the province except in two municipalities (Baia Farta and Benguela) where it was lower than usual. The area under maize was similar to last year but in seven out of the nine municipalities yields were uncharacteristically low (locally <100 kg/hectare). The forecast average yield of 0.8 tonnes/hectare has been greatly boosted by the high yields expected in the approximately 10 000 hectares under irrigation. Satisfactory yields of sorghum, beans, groundnuts and sweet potato are expected.

Huambo

The distribution of rainfall in Huambo province in 1999-2000 has not been conducive to high yields. A late start in November was followed by excessive rainfall in December. A short, relatively dry spell is normally expected in January, but this year it extended from January through February to March. Bean yields suffered especially from waterlogging in December and maize yields were put back both by late planting and by the prolonged dry spell. On the other hand, sorghum, being able to cope with more adverse conditions than maize, is expected to yield fairly well. The current circumstances of manual cultivation and input shortages combined with somewhat unreliable rainfall would suggest that sorghum is, at least for the time being, a more appropriate cereal for the area than maize. Although Huambo's maize area increased this year by about 9 percent, production is expected to be down by more than 27 percent. Low yields were exacerbated by an outbreak of stemborers during the prolonged dry spell and by localised Heliothis attacks.

Bie

The area under maize this year in Bie is slightly reduced, reflecting the continuing poor security situation in the province, and yields are expected to be only two-thirds of their level last year. From 54 000 tonnes last year, production this year is expected to fall to just over 35 000 tonnes. Yields are probably lowest, and the resulting food situation most serious around the municipal capital, Kuito, where population is dense. However, in the southern municipality of Chitembo it would appear that maize has done reasonably well this year as some has found its way to markets in Huila province. Sorghum yields, are expected to be satisfactory but the area planted to this crop is relatively small.

Moxico

Rainfall in Moxico was normal in amount and distribution. Farmers complained that hand tools were in short supply. The areas under maize and cassava were both larger this year than last, reflecting an improved security situation. Much of the late-sown maize was attacked by stemborers, and there were localised outbreaks of grasshoppers, which contributed to a slight reduction in expected yield compared with last year. Cassava production is forecast to rise this year by about 37 percent as a result of more planting and higher yields.

Southern Region

The Southern Region is characterised by a single cropping season.

Namibe*

Average maize yields were poor last year in Namibe. With better rainfall in this part of the country this year, yields of about 0.6 tonnes/hectare are expected.

Huila

A delayed start to the rains was followed by excessive rainfall and some flooding. Some farmers in Huila use fertilizer, and satisfactory average maize and sorghum, similar to those of last year (0.7 and 0.6 tonnes/hectare respectively), are expected. Some stemborer damage was noted. The security situation is sufficiently stable to allow a cattle population of some 1.2 million.

Cunene*

Security conditions in Cunene were reported to be relatively good, allowing a cattle population of about one million. The province had not been visited by the Food Security Unit since December 1999; however, on the basis of past production figures and rainfall reports it is anticipated that crop production will be very similar to last year.

Cuanda Cubango

Heavy rains occurred throughout the province at the end of March, but these were preceded, in many areas, by a long dry spell from late December to early February. Much of the maize crop was attacked by stemborers, but overall average yield is estimated to be in the region of 0.6 tonnes/hectare. There was no distribution of seed or hand tools this year. The area under maize is down on last year, while that under sorghum is up. Coarse grain production is expected to be slightly lower than last year.

-------

5. FOOD SUPPLY SITUATION

Access to food and prices

Angola used to be self-sufficient in major food crops, and even a net exporter of such staples as maize. However, the protracted civil strife has now forced the country to import over half of its basic food requirements, notably through food aid. The Mission observed that although a few isolated provincial markets such as Luena in Moxico and Lubango in Huila appeared to be supplied with local produce in significant quantities, in most places imported commodities predominated, accounting for up to 90 percent of the market food supply. This was the case in Lobito, Ganda ( Bengula province), and in Menongue (Cuando Cubango). This underscores the scarcity of marketable surplus of local produce, and the acute food insecurity of the populations, IDPs and residents alike. The Mission reckons that in many cereal producing regions, farm families' production does not last for more than six months. Additionally, pervasive insecurity has restricted coping mechanisms for the war-affected population.

The war-battered infrastructure with many roads having become impassable, airstrips in need of repair, and the widespread insecurity in most parts of the country have exacerbated market fragmentation and hindered food commodity trade between surplus and deficit areas. Hence the wide differentials in food prices from one province to another as shown in Table 5. For instance, the price of 1 kg of maize grain was 0.5 Kwanza (KZ) in Malange and 1.9 KZ in Huila in April 2000, or nearly 4 times as much, although Huila is also a maize producing province. During the same period, cassava flour sold for 1.5 KZ/kg in Malange and more than 3 KZ/kg in Cunene and Namibe. This is the reason why the increased cassava production in the northern provinces in 2000 may not translate into a substantial increase in the distribution and consumption of that commodity in other parts of the country.

Besides hurting the consumer by restricting supply and distribution of food commodities with attendant high prices in deficit areas, severe market fragmentation can also lead to depressed prices in surplus areas, thereby discouraging local production.

Table 5: Angola - Market prices in April 2000 (KZ/kg)

 
Maize grain
Maize flower
Beans
Cassava flour
Vegetable oil 1/
Northern R.
         
Kuanza Norte
-
1.5
-
2.0
11.0
Lunda Sul
1.0
2.0
7.8
2.8
11.0
Malange
0.5
-
3.0
1.5
-
Central R.
         
Bie
0.8
1.5
3.0
1.0
10.0
Huambo
3.0
2.5
-
2.5
-
Moxico
0.6
0.9
3.7
2.3
6.8
Southern R.
         
Cunene
1.5
2.4
3.5
3.3
7.5
Huila
1.9
2.4
3.5
-
7.5
Namibe
1.5
2.2
3.5
3.5
7.5
1/ KZ/litre.

In some localities such as in Cunene (see Chart 1 below), food commodity prices appear to have been relatively stable during the period April 1999 - April 2000, except for beans which exhibit a sharp price increase in September 1999 and, to some extent, vegetable oil whose prices are marked by an upward trend during the same period.

For Moxico (see Chart 2 below), maize, rice and bean prices have been relatively stable during the April 1999-April 2000 period. This is probably due to the fact that the province is a major producer of these crops. But the sharp differences in the price of beans between Cunene (about 2 US$/kg) and Moxico (around 75 US cents/kg) in September 1999 highlight again the market segmentation and its adverse effect on prices and consumer welfare.

Prices of vegetable oil and sugar have tended to be more erratic in Moxico, perhaps reflecting large variations in imports of these commodities into the province. But whatever the price level, the low and declining purchasing power of most Angolans, and particularly the acute deprivation of the displaced population, severely restrict access of the poor to basic foodstuffs.

Source: Derived from WFP Angola Office: Pre-Mission Report.

Cereal supply/demand balance, 2000/2001

The forecast of the cereal supply/demand situation for the 2000/2001 marketing year, summarised in Table 6 below, is based on the following assumptions and Mission observations:

Figures for cassava have been included in the table to show the relative importance of this crop vis-à-vis cereals, even though it is largely produced and consumed in the north of the country.

Table 6: Angola - Cereal supply/demand balance sheet, 2000/2001 (`000 tonnes)

 
Wheat
Rice
Coarse
grains
Cereals
Cassava
DOMESTIC AVAILABILITY
0
4
500
504
4 433
2000 production
0
4
500
504
4 433
DOMESTIC UTILIZATION
273
90
894
1 257
4 433
Food use
273
90
799
1 162
3 325
Other uses
0
0
95
95
1 108
IMPORT REQUIREMENTS
273
86
394
753
0
Estimated commercial imports
273
86
61
420
0
Emergency food aid needs
0
0
333
333
0
Food aid stocks/pledges
   
71
71
 
Uncovered deficit
   
262
262
 

 

The Mission forecasts grain import requirements for 2000/2001 (April/March) at 753 000 tonnes, of which it is anticipated that commercial imports will cover 420 000 tonnes, leaving a shortfall of 333 000 tonnes to be covered by food aid. Food aid carry-over stocks and pledges as at end of March amounted to 71 000 tonnes, leaving an uncovered deficit of 262 000 tonnes.

-------

6. EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE REQUIREMENT

Bakground: Emergency relief and resettlement food aid needs were assessed by WFP through extensive pre-mission visits to all provinces where food aid is distributed and by mission members during the mission. During both the pre-mission field visits and the mission, extensive and in-depth discussions were held with the relevant institutions responsible for co-ordinating the governmental relief programme (Provincial Governors, MINARS, MINADER, health authorities, etc) and their partners involved in programme implementation (NGOs, donors and UN Agencies). Special attention was devoted to discussions with beneficiaries (both IDPs and residents), local population and other key informant persons. Women were given particular attention during the discussions. It should be noted, however, that although the security situation has improved compared with 1999, movement in most provinces has remained restricted to the narrow secure zone around each provincial capital. The situation beyond this zone could not be assessed with any accuracy.

Difficult access to food for the targeted group: Food security for most of the Angolan population in the provinces and rural areas is closely linked to access to land and other inputs for farmers, including labour, during the agricultural season. Since households usually need a wider range of food items than they can grow themselves (not everybody is a farmer), and which therefore need to be purchased and/or may be exchanged, , food security at household level also depends closely on the purchasing power (level of income) if one assumes the physical availability of the needed food items. These include access to forest and grazing resources and opportunities to trade, as well as other income generating activities. Security and accessibility are prerequisites for these productivity. Access to potable water and adequate health services are also vital for maintaining food security at a household and individual level.

Displaced rural populations are extremely food insecure as at the time of displacement they are rarely able to carry with them their household possessions or food stocks. It has been observed that in recent years displacements commonly occur immediately before harvest, when household food stocks are at their lowest levels. IDPs become self-sufficient again only after their integration into the local economy, or when they return to their areas of origin and re-establish their households. Those with relatives in the resident population will eventually acquire land in the secure zone, but the remainder are dependent on Government land distribution schemes and food aid until they resettle or emigrate to the coastal cities. It should be noted that even in the zones which are considered secure, the collapse of the market economy and decline in the level of public social services have made resident households more and more vulnerable to food insecurity.

Access to land for IDPs: Only a small proportion of the IDPs confirmed since March 1999 will have had an opportunity to cultivate in their areas of displacement. For those who were displaced in 1998/99 the opportunity to cultivate was dependent on their access to land. During 1999 limited land was distributed to some IDPs in most provinces. This was done with the intention of enabling them to become self-sufficient. These schemes have worked satisfactorily only in very few provinces. In the majority of provinces they have suffered from poor co-ordination and as a result many IDPs had been given land of very low fertility, or land which was claimed by members of the resident community. In many schemes, the area distributed was often too small to make a significant difference to household incomes. It was clear that the potential of this scheme to increase production and self-sufficiency had not been realised and that the management of many of the land distribution schemes needs to be improved.

Access to land for residents: Residents generally had better access to their lands for cultivation during the period September-March 1999/2000 than during the same period in 1998/99. Nevertheless with the exception of Namibe and Cabinda, limited access remained a constraint to production in all provinces. This was exacerbated by the poor fertility of the soils close to many provincial capitals and a shortage of tools, seeds and fertilisers - especially in those land-locked provinces not accessible by road transport (bad road and/or bridge conditions, presence of landmines, bandit and/or rebel attacks, etc.).

Limited coping mechanism: As mentioned above the contraction of the economy has led to a growing proportion of the population whose purchasing power is derived largely from activities such as petty trading, the sale of firewood and charcoal, the production of traditional beverages and the provision of services such as "portering" and "odd jobs". The influx of the displaced population to the main provincial and municipal centres which followed the resumption of the conflict in late 1998 led to a further disruption of the marketing systems and economies of the larger towns and to an increase in competition for the kinds of employment which are already the only source of income for a large part of the resident population. At the time of the mission the displaced populations were found to have very limited opportunities to engage in income generating activities. The traditionally quoted coping mechanism of selling firewood and charcoal was found to be firmly in the hands of the residents who are the ones who have access to increasingly scarce forestry resources within the limited security perimeter.

Nutrition: While there are still pockets of severe malnutrition in those areas close to the conflict zones, the results of recently implemented nutritional surveys carried out in many provinces indicated that global and severe malnutrition rates have declined in the first four months of this year, and therefore are not as alarming as at the end of 1999. This has resulted from the harvest and a general fall in food prices in most provincial capitals as well as improved targeting of food aid to vulnerable groups.

In Huambo Province, nutrition surveys carried out by the ICRC in April indicated that the nutritional situation of the study population is stable, i.e. approximately 60 percent of the population were in acceptably good nutritional status; severe malnutrition was 3.1 percent and the presence of bilateral oedema was 0.2 percent. According to available information it was observed that global and severe acute malnutrition rates found in this survey are the lowest registered and reported for Huambo so far. The Huambo survey also indicated that the nutrition status of the peri-urban population is better than the population in rural areas.

Gloomy short term prospects for improvement in living conditions: The mission strongly feels that the continuing conflict, the limited success of the land distribution schemes, a reduced cereals harvest and the continuing severely restricted opportunities for income generating employment outside agriculture will result in continuing high levels of vulnerability during the year ahead. The low intensity conflict which has characterised the past twelve months is expected to continue and will result in an increase in the total number of confirmed IDPs. The ability of IDPs to integrate into the local economies will continue to be hampered by a restricted access to land and the present stagnation which characterises the provincial economies. Even those IDPs who are able to return to their areas of origin will require support until the harvest in the first quarter of 2001.

For the resident population in the provinces the outlook is a little better. Unless the secure areas expand substantially, bringing with it a wider cultivation of more fertile lands and a growth in trade and an expansion of economic activity, it is probable that the proportion of the resident population which requires assistance will grow - especially in the southern provinces which have suffered a poor maize harvest in 1999/2000.

Caseload: At the time of the last year's mission (May 1999) the number of confirmed3 IDPs was approximately 1 142 000 including 718 000 "New IDPs"4 and 424 000 from the period before the resumption of the conflict in late 1998, out of a reported total caseload of 1.7 million. Since then the number of confirmed new IDPs has risen to approximately 1 477 000 with some 120 000 of these registered since January 2000. Thus, although the civil war has not been so intense as it was during 1998/1999, a low intensity conflict (guerrillas) has continued throughout the past twelve months, which has resulted in large numbers of newly displaced people. It is anticipated that this situation is likely to continue throughout the coming year with a possible sharp rise in numbers during the next dry season. According to the latest IDPs Fact sheet from OCHA dated May 4th, 2000, the total number of IDPs reported since January 1998 (including estimates for Luanda) is approximately 2.6 millions. This caseload, which does not include another 459 000 old IDPs originating from the pre-1998 conflicts) represents an increase of some 53 percent compared to the figure reported last year. The mission has assessed that some 1.9 millions persons (including residents) will need urgent relief assistance over the coming twelve months. This number, which shows a significant increase compared to last year, results from both additional influx and improved access to areas not previously under the government's control. This caseload of the most needy persons may even increase over the coming months, in which case a reassessment exercise for programming purposes should take place in order to prevent large scale human suffering among the populations.

The intensity of the war and the subsequent country-wide security conditions will determine the number of families displaced during the year and the rate of re-settlement in areas of origin or safer zones. Likewise, the success of the present land distribution programmes and the level of economic activity will determine the importance of assistance required by the resident population and the rate at which existing IDPs can integrate into the provincial economies.

The table below summarises the total number of persons that will need humanitarian assistance over the period 2000-2001, broken down by province and category of intervention

Table 7: Angola - Projected total number of food aid beneficiaries by province and type of assistance - 2000-2001

PROVINCE
Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding
Institutional Feeding
Relief Assistance Feeding
TOTAL
Bengo
691
3 042
38 635
42 367
Benguela
13 475
36 725
67 912
118 112
Bié
11 780
115 531
175 519
302 830
Cuando Cubango
1 245
12 473
25 062
38 780
Cuanza Norte
1 046
600
45 840
47 487
Cuanza Sul
688
2 788
26 275
29 750
Cunene
819
10 031
8 915
19 764
Huambo
30 750
14 400
469 183
509 333
Huila
7 685
33 398
134 549
170 631
Luanda
12 038
10 133
59 945
27 115
Lunda Norte
-
-
-
-
Lunda Sul
514
5 732
62 382
68 628
Malanje
4 700
55 909
180 347
240 956
Moxico
1 320
10 647
42 891
54 858
Namibe
469
9 425
7 048
16 941
Uíge
1 250
7 675
64 288
73 213
Zaire
675
1 191
32 285
34 151
TOTAL
89 143
329 698
1 441 073
1 859 914

 

The average number of persons that will need humanitarian assistance over the coming year is 1.859.914.

An indicative full food basket required to provide such an assistance is shown in Table 8 below where coarse cereals (mainly maize) total 333 115 tonnes.

Table 8: Angola - Food requirements for the total beneficiary caseload

Category
Beneficiaries
Maize
Pulses
Veg.
Oil
CSA
Sugar
Salt
Relief Assistance
1 146 073
275 683
32 210
14 754
23 509
7 052
2 351
Institutional
329 698
47 476
3 561
2 967
11 869
1 187
593
Supplementary &Therapeutic
69 143
9 956
747
897
5 232
432
124
TOTAL
1 859 914
333 115
38 518
18 618
40 610
8 671
3 068

 

Out of the above-mentioned population in urgent need of assistance, WFP entends to target on average 1.544.914 persons, which represents 83 per cent of the total number. It is expected that the remainder will receive food aid through other donors pipeline (mainly ICRC, E.U., CARITAS).

It is to be noted that the caseload to be assisted by WFP also reflects the current level of operation as re-assessed in April 2000 for the on-going protracted relief and rehabilitation operation (PPRO 6159.00), thereby suggesting a statut quo scenario in programming (i.e. zero assistance growth strategy) even though the number of new IDPs is expected to increase. It is however hoped that a phasing down or more appropriate strategy will be considered as soon as possible, based on scenarios being developed by the WFP Country Office in its strategic plan currently under preparation.

The table below shows the break down of WFP's number of beneficiaries, by province and type of intervention.

Table 9: Angola - Projected average number of food aid beneficiaries under WFP's pipeline, by province and type of assistance - 2000-2001

PROVINCE
Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding
Institutional Feeding
Relief Assistance Feeding
TOTAL
Bengo
691
3 042
38 635
42 367
Benguela
13 475
36 725
67 912
118 112
Bié
11 780
115 531
175 519
302 830
Cuando Cubango
1 245
12 473
25 062
38 780
Cuanza Norte
1 046
600
45 840
47 487
Cuanza Sul
688
2 788
26 275
29 750
Cunene
819
10 031
8 915
19 764
Huambo
25 750
14 400
219 183
259 333
Huila
2 685
33 398
134 549
170 631
Luanda
2 038
10 133
14 945
27 115
Lunda Sul
514
5 732
62 382
68 628
Malanje
4 700
55 909
180 347
240 956
Moxico
1 320
10 647
42 891
54 858
Namibe
469
9 425
7 048
16 941
Uíge
1 250
7 675
64 288
73 213
Zaire
675
1 191
32 285
34 151
TOTAL
69 143
329 698
1 146 073
1 544 914

 

Table 10: Angola - Projected Total Food Requirements for WFP Programme, 2000-2001, by commodity and by type of intervention (tonnes)

Category
Maize
Pulses
Oil
CSB
Sugar
Salt
TOTAL
Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding
9 957
747
897
5 233
432
124
17 389
Institutional Feeding
47 477
3 561
2 967
11 869
1 187
593
67 654
Relief Assistance Feeding
225 684
28 210
11 754
23 509
7 053
2 351
298 561
TOTAL
283 117
32 518
15 618
40 611
8 671
3 069
383 604

 

Table 11: Angola - Breakdown of projected average WFP's assistance, by province and by commodity (tonnes)

Province
Maize
Pulses
Oil
CSB
Sugar
Salt
TOTAL
Bengo
7 632
927
406
899
237
81
10 180
Benguela
20 157
2 158
1 159
3 491
607
225
27 797
Bie
49 400
5 258
2 824
8 420
1 469
553
67 924
Cuando Cubango
7 453
833
415
1 123
224
82
10 130
Cuanza Norte
8 540
1 056
451
957
268
89
11 361
Cuanza Sul
10 760
1 320
567
1 211
334
113
14 306
Cunene
4 416
474
249
713
130
49
6 031
Huambo
44 249
5 242
2 486
6 659
1 427
473
60 536
Huila
31 815
3 717
1 720
4 163
968
342
42 726
Luanda
4 868
521
279
836
146
54
6 705
Lunda Sul
12 314
1 494
652
1 431
380
130
16 402
Malanje
42 932
4 930
2 342
5 896
1 297
465
57 863
Moxico
14 258
1 696
764
1 772
437
152
19 079
Namibe
4 153
448
233
655
122
46
5 657
Uige
13 906
1 674
741
1 670
429
148
18 567
Zaire
6 262
769
331
714
196
66
8 339
TOTAL
283 117
32 518
15 618
40 611
8 671
3 069
383 604

 

As indicated above, the 283 117 tonnes of cereal requirements will be reduced by 71 000 tonnes (carry-over stocks and quantities pledged as at 31/03/2000), resulting in an actual deficit of 212 117 tonnes.

Intervention Types:

Relief Assistance Feeding : This type of intervention is targeted at beneficiaries who are mainly IDPs who have become displaced as a result of renewed conflict, are included in resettlement programmes until their first harvest or participate in food-for-work programmes to rebuild infrastructure - roads, clinics, schools etc. Food-for-work rations are given to the worker at a rate of five family members per worker.

Institutional Feeding: This category includes both physiologically and socially vulnerable groups irrespective of their origin (IDP/resident).

Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding: This type of intervention is comprised largely of programs that are focussed on children aged 0-5 who are moderately or severely malnourished. Expectant and nursing mothers are also included in these interventions.

In principle, WFP's strategy is to provide, in partnership with the local Government structures, NGOs and other partners, relief assistance feeding to the targeted beneficiaries over a limited time span in order to save their life and/or enable them to undertake productive activities so as to recover sustainable livelihood. There are three main processes by which this occurs - integration into the local economy (including land distribution schemes), re-settlement in their areas of origin or emigration. In addition to its targeting vulnerable children (malnourished, and/or those from very poor households who attend primary schools or kindergartens), the institutional feeding and supplementary and therapeutic feeding categories are focussed on those adult members of the vulnerable population who are food insecure for short periods during the year and need assistance until their incomes or food supplies recover sufficiently to allow them to regain their independence. Main food-for-work activities for the coming year will involve the rehabilitation of social and agricultural infrastructures.

Logistics

WFP's activity network in Angola covers 17 provinces run through eleven provincial sub-offices, including that of Luanda where the Country Head Office is also based. High levels of insecurity have rendered most major road corridors too insecure to transport food using road transport and as a result WFP currently reaches most of the besieged cities in Angola by air. The situation is under constant review with the objective of resuming road transport wherever the security allows, on a case by case basis.

WFP Angola can at present deliver 15 000 tonnes to 17 000 tonnes of food per month to Emergency Drop-off Points. The present distribution ratio is road transport 45 percent, air transport 55 percent. All cargoes are received through the three main seaports in Angola: Luanda, 47 percent of food received, Lobito 41 percent and Namibe 12 percent. The average vessel discharge capacities at the respective ports are 1 000 tonnes per day for Luanda, 1 000 tonnes per day for Lobito and 5 to 600 tonnes per day for Namibe. Sufficient transport capacity is available for receipt of these quantities as they are discharged subsequent transfers to intermediate storage points. These figures reflect significant improvements compared to last year as a result of constant review of the WFP logistics management strategy based on security situation and other relevant factors.

Due to the precarious security situation it is expected that an increasing amount of cargo will have to be transported by air. Although road movement from Lobito and Luanda are limited, WFP is using road transport for limited deliveries within the provinces of Bengo, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Malange, Benguela, Huila, Namibe and Cunene and will continue to closely monitor the security condition along the main corridors - Luanda to Malange and from Lobito and Lubango to Huambo. All the movements along the southern corridor through Namibe/Lubango will be made using commercial road transporters.

In Luanda WFP works with approximately 20 transporting companies, which can mobilise around 200 trucks with an average loading capacity of 25 tonnes each. In Lobito WFP works through 80 individual transporters who can generate about 150 trucks with the same average capacity. WFP sub-offices in the provinces are responsible for ensuring prompt dispatch of food commodities from Emergency Drop-off Points to distribution sites. This is done in close co-operation with WFP's implementing partners. The greatest impediment to secondary transport in many locations is the shortage of fuel, which has to be airlifted into those locations due to the lack of road access.

a) Ports

From a logistical perspective the main long term objective is to minimise transport costs by using road transport wherever possible. The present distribution of arrivals through the three ports Namibe, Lobito and Luanda WFP is designed to minimise costs under the present circumstances. The quantities of food arriving in each port are under constant review and will be modified as security on the roads alters. During April 2000 WFP sent by road 3 842 tonnes of commodities to beneficiaries in Malange, N'Dalatando, Porto Amboim and Sumbe.

The provinces of Huambo and Bie are major destination points for WFP with Huambo receiving 2 900 tonnes per month by air. It is therefore hoped that the security situation will improve sufficiently to allow road transport to be used from Namibe and/or Lobito to deliver food to Huambo and Kuito as this would considerably reduce the airlift from Luanda and therefore result in major cost savings. The urgency for such an improvement is magnified by the current poor condition of the airstrip at Kuito which is no longer used by most carriers and which needs major repair works.

b) Warehouse

The primary warehouses located in Luanda , Lobito and Lubango are rented commercially and the respective capacities of 20 000 tonnes in Luanda, 15 000 tonnes in Lobito and 5 000 in Lubango can easily be increased to 25 000 tonnes , 20 000 tonnes and 8 500 tonnes in order to absorb any projected tonnage and pipeline fluctuations. With regards to the storage capacities at WFP provincial sub-offices, WFP has secured sufficient storage through either MINARS or commercial enterprises to meet local needs. For emergency storage WFP Angola maintains a stock of portable temporary storage facilities which can be dispatched immediately to any destination if and when required.

This report is prepared on the responsibility of the FAO and WFP Secretariats with information from official and unofficial sources. Since conditions may change rapidly, please contact the undersigned for further information if required.

Abdur Rashid
Chief,
Global Information and Early

Warning System, FAO
Fax: 0039-06-5705-4495
E-mail: GIEWS1@FAO.ORG

Mohamed Zejjari
Regional Director,
Africa Bureau (OSA), WFP

Fax: 0039-06-6513-2839
(Attention: Bienvenu Djossa)
E-Mail: Bienvenu.Djossa@WFP.org

The Special Alerts/Reports can also be received automatically by E-mail as soon as these are published, subscribing to the GIEWS/Alerts report ListServ. To do so, please send an E-mail to the FAO-Mail-Server at the following address: mailserv@mailserv.fao.org, leaving the subject blank, with the following message:

subscribe GIEWSAlerts-L

To be deleted from the list, send the message:

unsubscribe GIEWSAlerts-L


back to the table of contents Back to menu

1 Main sources include: UNDP Human Development Report, 1999; UNDP's Angola Economic Developments in 1999; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Angola Report on Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs (April 2000); various publications from the National Bank of Angola and the Ministry of Planning.

2 Per caput consumption has been increased from 70 kg used by previous missions to 85 kg, to take into account WFP's planned increase in ration to 180 kg per person for 1.9 million IDPs who will depend entirely on food aid in 2000/01.

3 The numbers of confirmed IDPs do not include those which the Government has reported, but which cannot be confirmed because they live in areas where access is not possible due to insecurity.

4 New IDPs are those which have become displaced since November 1998, date when the outbreak of the large scale fighting began following the collapse of the Lusaka Accord.