Mixed crop-livestock
farming

A review of traditional technologies
based on literature and field experience

FAO
ANIMAL
PRODUCTION
AND HEALTH
PAPERS

152

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ISBN 92-5-104576-3

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FAO 2001


CONTENTS

Foreword

Acknowledgements



Chapter 1
Introduction

Chapter 2
Characterization of mixed farms

WHAT IS MIXED FARMING?

FORMS OF MIXED FARMING

MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS, DIFFERENT MODES

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 3
Traditional technologies - types and suitability

TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY

MIXED FARMING AND THE COMMUNAL IDEOTYPE

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 4
Selection of animal species

UNCONVENTIONAL ANIMALS

DAIRY ANIMALS

ANIMALS FOR DRAUGHT AND TRANSPORT1

POULTRY

GOATS

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 5
Traditional technologies for animal production

ANIMAL HEALTH

HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT

FEEDING TECHNOLOGIES

ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETIC RESOURCES

REARING OF YOUNG ANIMALS

PROCESSING OF MEAT AND MILK

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 6
Crop-livestock technologies

INTEGRATING CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

CROP RESIDUE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT

DUNG AND URINE USE AND THE CYCLING OF NUTRIENTS

CROPPING PATTERNS, LIVESTOCK AND NUTRIENTS

ENERGY, BIOGAS AND NUTRIENTS

AGROFORESTRY AND SOIL FERTILITY

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 7
Management at farm, regional and policy level

THE COMMUNAL IDEOTYPE REVISITED AT THE FARM LEVEL

THE COMMUNAL IDEOTYPE AT COMMUNITY LEVEL

POLICY MEASURES

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Chapter 8
Successful mixed systems

THE INFIELD/OUTFIELD SYSTEM

THE KANO CLOSE-SETTLED ZONE 6

THE MACHAKOS CASE IN KENYA 7

THE FLEMISH/NORFOLK SYSTEM

THE MEDITERRANEAN LEGUME-GRAIN ROTATION

THE CIPAV SYSTEM 8

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 9
Concluding comments

References and suggested reading



TABLES

TABLE 1

Characterization of different modes of mixed crop-livestock farming

TABLE 2

Yields of napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in pure and mixed stands

TABLE 3

Optimum crop combinations, herd size and production at different individual cow productions with or without treatment of stover, when the farmer also has access to a small fixed area of good quality fodder

TABLE 4

Optimal farm crop areas as calculated with linear programming for an area with mixed crop-livestock systems in Kenya

TABLE 5

Milk production of tropical and commercial goats and tropical and western cows

TABLE 6

Classification of crop residues according to crude protein content (CP), energy content (TDN) and CP:TDN ratio

TABLE 7

Feeding systems based on the use of fibrous crop residues

Feeding system

Description

TABLE 8

Usefulness of straw feeding methods per mode of farming in mixed crop-livestock systems

TABLE 9

Terms and technologies associated with crop-livestock integration, soil fertility and animal nutrition

TABLE 10

Nutrient contents of manure and other organic

fertilizers (percentage)

TABLE 11

Cereal stover removals and manure returns during crop residue grazing in West Africa



FIGURES

FIGURE 1

An outline of different resource flows in mixed crop-livestock systems

FIGURE 2

The CIPAV model (FAO, 1992c)