Global estimates of gaseous emissions of NH3, NO and N2O from agricultural land



INTERNATIONAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2001

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ISBN 92-5-104698-1

FAO, 2001


Contents

Abstract

Acknowledgements

Acronyms

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Regulating factors

Factors regulating nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emission

General

Controls of denitrification, nitrification and N oxide fluxes

N availability

Nitrification and denitrification rates

Soil moisture and temperature

Wetting

Soil pH

Gas diffusion

Agricultural management factors

Crop type

Fertilizer management

Soil and crop management

Factors regulating ammonia loss

General

Flooded soils

Chapter 3. Measurement techniques

Chamber techniques

Micrometeorological techniques

Indirect open measurement technique

15N, n balance and n difference methods

Chapter 4. Measurements

Nitrous oxide, denitrification and nitric oxide measurements

Fertilizer induced emissions

Nitrous oxide

Nitric oxide

Analysis of regulating factors of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions

Data handling

Data interpretation for nitrous oxide emissions

Data interpretation for nitric oxide emissions

Summary of ammonia volatilization measurements

Upland systems

Anhydrous ammonia

Ammonium bicarbonate

Ammonium nitrate

Ammonium sulphate

Calcium ammonium nitrate

Calcium nitrate

Diammonium phosphate

Monoammonium phosphate

Urea

Urea ammonium nitrate

Flooded systems

Ammonium bicarbonate

Ammonium sulphate

Urea

Summary of regulating factors of ammonia volatilization

Data handling

Data interpretation for ammonia volatilization

Regression

Chapter 5. Global estimates

Data on land use, fertilizer management and environment

Extrapolation for nitrous oxide and nitric oxide

Extrapolation for ammonia

Chapter 6. Conclusions

Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions

Ammonia volatilization

Annex 1: Maps

Annex 2: Tables

References


LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1.
Global sources of atmospheric NOx, NH3 and N2O, 1990

TABLE 2.
Information collected for measurements

TABLE 3.
Measurement technique codes

TABLE 4.
Fertilizer induced N2O emission, % calculated directly from the data set

TABLE 5.
Fertilizer induced NO emission (%) and the NO/N2O ratio, calculated directly from the data set

TABLE 6.
Climate codes

TABLE 7.
Values of constants and factor classes in the models for N2O and NO

TABLE 8.
NH3 volatilization rates for various factors

TABLE 9.
Factor values in the linear regression model

TABLE 10.
N2O and NO emission estimates from N fertilizer and animal manure application on crops, 1995

TABLE 11. N2O and NO emission from N fertilizer and animal manure application on grasslands, 1995

TABLE 12.
Global N use and fertilizer induced N2O and NO emission estimates by fertilizer type

TABLE 13.
NH3 volatilization loss estimates from mineral N application on fertilized grasslands, upland crops and wetland rice by region, 1995

TABLE 14.
NH3 volatilization loss estimates from animal manure application on intensively used grasslands, upland crops and wetland rice by region, 1995

TABLE 15.
NH3 volatilization loss rates for mineral fertilizer category and for animal manure, 1995

TABLE 16.
N2O emissions from the data set (kg N2O-N/year/ha)

TABLE 17.
NO emissions from the data set (kg NO-N/year/ha)


LIST OF FIGURES

1. The nitrogen cycle

2. Fertilizer N application and nitrous oxide emission

3. Relation between fertilizer N application and nitric oxide emission