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As a guide to the interested reader, this bibliography includes significant contributions to the debate on regionalism in the 1990s regardless whether they are explicity mentioned in the text or not.

Anderson, K. and Blackhurst, R. ed. 1993. Regional Integration and the Global Trading System, London and New York, Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Asante, S. 1997. Regionalism and Africa’s Development: Expectations, Reality and Challenges, Basingstoke, Macmillan Press.

Baldwin, R. 1997. Review of theoretical developments on regional integration. In Oyejide, A., Elbadawi, I. & Collier, P., eds. Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in SubSaharan Africa, Volume 1, Framework, Issues and Methodological Perspectives, Basingstoke, Macmillan Ltd.

Baldwin, R. & Venables, A. 1995. Regional Economic integration. In Grossman, G. & Rogoff, K. eds. Handbook of International Economics, volume 3. North Holland.

Bhagwati, J., Krishna, P. & Panagariay, A. eds. 1999. Trading Blocs: Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Preferential Trade Agreement, Cambridge, MIT Press.

Bhagwati, J., Greenaway, D. & Panagariya, A. 1998. Trading preferentially: Theory and Policy, Economic Journal, 108: 1128-48

Bhagwati, J. 1997. The causes of regionalism, The World Economy, 20 (7): 865-888.

Bhagwati, J. & Panagariya, A. eds. 1996. The Economics of Preferential Trade Agreements, Washington, D.C. AEI Press.

Bhagwati, J. 1995. U.S. Trade Policy: The Infatuation with Free Trade Areas. In Bhagwati, J. & Krueger, A. eds., The Dangerous Drift to Preferential Trade Agreements, Washington, D.C., American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Bhagwati, J. 1992. Regionalism versus multilateralism, The World Economy, 15, 5, 535-555.

Bilal, S. & Van Hove, K. 2002. An Overview of the ACP-EU Negotiations: Issues and Timeframe, CTA International Seminar “Meeting the Challenge of Effective ACP Participation in Agricultural Trade Negotiations”, Brussels, 27-29 November 2002.

Cook, L. & Sachs, J. 1999. Regional public goods in international assistance. In Kaul, I., Grunberg, I. & Stern, M., eds., Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press for the United Nations Development Programme.

Crawford, J. & Laird, S. 2000. Regional trade agreements and the WTO, CREDIT Research Paper No. 00/3, CREDIT, University of Nottingham.

DeRosa, D. 1998. Regional Integration Arrangements: Static Economic Theory, Quantitative Finds, and Policy Guidelines. Working Paper Series No. 2007. Washington, D.C., World Bank (available at

Ethier, W. 1998. The new regionalism, Economic Journal, 108 (July): 1149-1161.

European Commission. 2001. Orientations on the Qualification of ACP Regions for the Negotiation of Economic Partnership Agreements, mimeo, Brussels (available at

European Commission. 2000. Integration of food security objectives within a poverty reduction framework. Concept Paper. Brussels, February 2000.

European Commission. 1997. Regional Integration: European Union support for regional economic integration efforts among developing countries (available at

European Council. 2000. Statement on Development Cooperation (available at

Fajgenbaum, J., Sharer, R., Thugge, K. & DeZoysa, H. 1999. The Cross-Border Initiative in Eastern and Southern Africa. Washington, D.C., International Monetary Fund (available at

FAO. 2003. (Forthcoming) Agricultural Development Policy: Concepts and Experiences, Roger D. Norton, Rome.

FAO. 2002. Developing country experience with the implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture: Synthesis of the findings of 23 case studies, Paper No. 3, FAO Geneva Symposium on The Experience with Implementing the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and Special and Differential Treatment to Enable Developing Countries to Effectively Take Account of their Development Needs, Including Food Security and Rural Development, Geneva, 2 October 2002.

FAO. 2001. Statement by M. Hartwig de Haen at the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference, Doha, 11 November 2001, WT/MIN(01)/ST/95.

Fernandez, R. & Portes, J. 1998. Returns to regionalism: an analysis of non-traditional gains from regional arrangements, The World Bank Economic Review 12: 197-220.

Fouroutan, F. 1993. Regional integration in Sub-Saharan Africa: past experience and future prospects. In Melo, J. de & Panagariya, A., eds., New Dimensions in Regional Integration, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Frankel, J. ed. 1998. The Regionalization of the World Economy, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Frankel, J., Stein, E. & Wei, Shang-Jin. 1997. Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System. Washington, DC, Institute of International Economics.

Hoekman, B. & Schiff, M. 2002. Benefiting from regional integration. In Hoekman, B., Mattoo A. & English, P., eds., Development, Trade, and the WTO: A Handbook, Washington, DC., World Bank.

Hoekman, B., Schiff, M. & Winters, A. 1998. Regionalism and Development: Main Messages from Recent World Bank Research, Background Paper prepared for the World Bank-WTO Forum on Regionalism, March 1998. (available at

Ito, T. & Krueger, A. eds. 1997. Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Jenkins, C. 2001. Integration and Co-operation in Southern Africa. Technical Paper No. 172, Paris, OECD Development Centre (available at

Josling, T. 1997. Implications of Regional Trade Arrangements for Agricultural Trade. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 133, Rome, FAO.

Kowalczyk, C. ed. 1999. Economic Integration and International Trade, International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar

Kreinin, M. & Plummer, M. 2002. Economic Integration and Development: Has Regionalism Delivered for Developing Countries? Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.

Krueger, A. 1999. Are preferential trading arrangements trade-liberalizing or protectionist? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13 (4): 105-24.

Laird, S. 1999. Regional trade agreements: dangerous liaisons? The World Economy 22 (9): 1179-1200.

Langhammer, R. 1992. The developing countries and regionalism, Journal of Common Market Studies, 30 (2): 211-31.

Langhammer, R. & Hiemenz, U. 1990. Regional Integration Among Developing Countries: Opportunities, Obstacles And Options, Kieler Studien No. 232. Tuebingen: Mohr.

Lawrence, R.Z. 1997. Regionalism, Multilateralism and Deeper Integration. The Brookings Institution, Washington.

Lloyd, P. 2002. New bilateralism in the Asia-Pacific, The World Economy 25 (9): 1279-1296.

Mattli, W. 1999. The Logic of Regional Integration, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Mattoo, A. & Fink, C. 2002. Regional Agreements and Trade in Services: Policy Issues, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2852, June 2002.

McCarthy, C. 1995. Regional integration: part of the solution or part of the problem? In Ellis, S. ed., Africa Now: People, Policies, and Institutions. London, James Currey/Portsmouth, Heinemann.

Melo, J. de & Panagariya, A. 1993. New Dimensions in Regional Integration. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Melo, J de., Panagariya, A. & Rodrik, D. 1993. The New Regionalism: A Country Perspective. In New Dimensions in Regional Integration, Melo, J. de & Panagariya, A. eds., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Melo, J. de & Panagariya, A. 1992. The New Regionalism in Trade Policy. Washington, D.C. World Bank and London, Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Mellor, J. 2000. Faster More Equitable Growth: The Relation between Growth in Agriculture and Poverty Reduction, CAER II Discussion Paper No. 70, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA.

OECD. 1995. Regional Integration and the Multilateral Trading System: Synergy and Divergence, Paris, OECD.

Page, S. 2000. Regionalism among Developing Countries, London, Macmillan for the Overseas Development Institute.

Panagariya, A. 2000. Preferential trade liberalisation: the traditional theory and new developments, Journal of Economic Literature, 37 (June): 287-331.

Panagariya, A. 1999. The regionalism debate: an overview, The World Economy 22 (4): 477-511

Panagariya, A. 1999. Preferential trade liberalization: the traditional theory and new developments, University of Maryland (available at

Robson, P. 1998. The Economics of International Integration, 4th edition. London, Routledge.

Robson, P. 1993. The new regionalism and developing countries, Jnl. Common Market Studies 31 (1): 329-348.

Schiff, M. & Winters, A. 2003. Regional Integration and Development, Washington, D.C., World Bank and Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Schiff, M. & Winters, A. 2002. Regional Cooperation, and the Role of International Organizations and Regional Integration, Policy Research Working Paper 2872, Development Research Group, Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Scollay, R. 2001. The Changing Outlook for Asia-Pacific Regionalism. The World Economy 24 (9): 1135-1160.

Scollay, R. & Gilbert, J. 2001. New Regional Trading Arrangements in the Asia-Pacific? Washington DC, Institute for International Economics.

Skully, D. 1998. Regional integration and farm household adjustment. In Burfisher, M. & Jones, E., eds., Regional Trade Agreements and U.S. Agriculture, AER-771, Washington, DC., Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.

Stevens, C. 2002. The WTO and its implications for the negotiations on agriculture in an ACP-EU trade agreement: current status and prospects. Paper presented at CTA International Seminar ‘Meeting the challenge of effective ACP participation in agricultural trade negotiations: the role of information and communication’, Brussels, 27-29 November 2002.

Venables, A. 1999. Regional integration agreements: a force for convergence and divergence? Paper prepared for the Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, Paris, June 1999. Working paper No. 2260, Washington, D.C., World Bank. Available from (Also published as Winners and Losers from Regional Integration Agreements, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 2528).

Vollrath, T. 1998. RTA’s and agricultural trade: a retrospective assessment. In Burfisher, M. & Jones, E., eds., Regional Trade Agreements and U.S. Agriculture, AER-771, Washington, DC., Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.

Winters, A. 1996. Regionalism versus Multilateralism, Policy Research Working Paper 1687, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

World Bank. 2000. Trade Blocs. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

WTO. 2002. Regional Trade Integration under Transformation, Paper presented to the Seminar on Regionalism and the WTO, 26 April 2002.

WTO. 2000a. Mapping of Regional Trade Agreements, WT/REG/W/41, 11 October 2000, Geneva, WTO.

WTO. 2000b. Synopsis of “Systemic” Issues Related to Regional Trade Agreements, WT/REG/W/37, 2 March 2000, Geneva, WTO.

WTO Secretariat. 1995. Regionalism and the World Trading System, Geneva, WTO.

York, R. 1993. Regional Integration and Developing Countries. Paris, OECD.

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