Previous PageTable Of ContentsNext Page

BHUTAN

INTRODUCTION

Main non-wood forest products

The most important NWFP of Bhutan are food, fodder, rattan, bamboo, medicinal plants, natural dyes, exudates, lemon grass, handmade paper, fibres and flosses, brooms, handicraft items, ornamentals and incense sticks. Other NWFP include honey and beeswax.

General information

NWFP affect nearly every aspect of the life of a Bhutanese citizen. The country's forests provide food, fodder, medicine, oils, resins, fibres, dyes and raw materials for baskets, traditional paper, houses, brooms, mats and numerous other items (FAO 1996). Approximately 840 species of NWFP used for various purposes have been documented but most of the species used by rural people remain undocumented.

Table 1. Exports of forest products in Bhutan

Commodities

Years

1997

1998

1999

Total export (Nu. in million)

4 274 000

4 455 000

4 987 000

Wood and wood products excluding NWFP (Nu. in million)

584 280

444 475

304 067

NWFP export (Nu. in million)

49 477

46 910

29 000

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Besides the use of NWFP by local people, NWFP are utilized for commercial purposes (e.g. paper making, handicraft items, extraction of edible oil and manufacturing of incense sticks). Some NWFP are also traded internationally. People in rural areas earn extra income by collecting and processing NWFP or working in small manufacturing units established in the country. NWFP collection, by nature, is seasonal and occurs during the off-farm season (FAO 1995).

 

PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

Food

Forests play an important role in assuring food security in the country. Due to variable climatic conditions, drought and poor soil, food problems occur throughout Bhutan periodically. For instance an important substitute for grains is Dioscoria. Fern shoots, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, cane shoots and even orchid flowers and other wild vegetables from the forests are used by villagers (FAO 1995).

The most common edible mushrooms are jilli namcho (Auricularia auricula), jichu kangroo (Calvaria spp.), ga shamu (Clitocybe odora), sisi shamu (Cantherellus cibarius), taa shamu (Polyporus spp.) and sangay shamu (Tricoloma matsutake), which has the highest price of all mushrooms. Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) is cultivated by many farmers in Thimphu and there is considerable potential for cultivating other mushrooms like Pleurotus spp. and sangay shamu. Sangay shamu normally grows wild in Bhutan. Mushrooms are also exported. In 1998, the amount of Tricoloma matsutake exports increased, due to their high price. Mushrooms in general, and Cantharellus cibarius in particular, are canned and sold for as much as Nu.50 (US$1.65)/kg (FAO 1995).

Table 2. Quantity of mushrooms exported

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

13 191

13 362 079

1998

7 143

18 916 469

1999

7 525

6 962 475

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Many plants yield high quality edible oil but the demand for edible oil is largely met by imports. Coconut oil, soya-bean oil and mustard oil are imported from India and palm oil from Malaysia. Small quantities of mustard oil are produced locally. There is good potential for producing edible oils within the country. The potential for exporting edible oils needs to be studied further as there are many wild plants that yield edible oil in Bhutan, such as: Gynocordia odorata, Aesandra butyracea, Symplocos paniculata and Shorea robusta.

Some of the important fruit-bearing plants are Eleagnus latifolia, Aegle marmelos, Docynia indica, Zizyphus spp. and Phyllanthus emblica. A variety of forest fruits is collected (e.g Phyllanthus emblica) and marketed (FAO 1995).

Forests also produce spices, which are used locally and exported. Pepper is one of the most important spices that is collected. Cinnamomum bark and leaves are collected and exported. The seeds of Zanthoxylum are used extensively in the country (FAO 1995). Other important plants used as spices are Allium spp., Illicium anisatum and Zingiber officinales.

The seeds and nuts of Castanopsis spp., Juglans regia, Phoenix humilis and Pinus roxburghii are edible, but they are used at the local level only. However, the nuts of Juglans regia have a high potential for export.

The following forest plants are used as vegetables: Cymbidium grandiflorum (flowers), Adhatoda vasica (terminal shoots), Braken fern (shoots), Pandanus sp. (terminal shoots), Musa sp. (terminal shoots and inflorescence), bamboo (shoots), Asparagus (shoots), Alocasia sp. and Elatosteme sp. Asparagus is cultivated by farmers in Thimphu and it commands a high price in local as well as export markets.

 

Table 3. Quantity of asparagus exported

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

2 277

98 791

1998

2 004

198 637

1999

1 718

185 582

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999).

Fodder

More than 80 percent of the people of Bhutan depend on agriculture and animal husbandry for their livelihoods. The farming system in Bhutan depends on the forests (FAO 1995). About 80 percent of the total animal fodder requirement is met by utilizing agricultural residues but the pressure in the forest is very high in districts where the head of cattle is very large.

Almost every household maintains a few cattle for draught power, animal products and for their manure. Many people maintain large herds as a status symbol or as insurance in times of difficulty. The animal population has been recorded as 300 000 cattle and buffaloes; 28 000 yak; 40 000 sheep; 42 000 goats and 22 000 horses (FAO 1995). These animals largely depend on the forests for fodder. Herders drive the animals into the forests to forage for whatever is available and thus much of the forest is used as grazing land. During winter, when fodder in the forests of the colder highlands becomes scarce, cattle are moved down to warmer areas in the valleys.

Medicines

More than 600 medicinal plants have been reported in Bhutan. About 250 plants are used commonly by the traditional practitioners of the Gso-ba-rig-pa system of medicine. Almost all the medicinal plants are collected from the forest. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants is handed down from father to son. Some healers combine spiritualism and perform elaborate rituals while dispensing medicines (FAO 1995).

The National Institute of Traditional Medicine (NITM) is the only institute with a programme for cultivating medicinal plants. Large quantities of Innula helenium (manu) and Saussurea lappa (ruta) are cultivated and are used locally for medicinal purposes either at the NITM or by the villagers themselves. There is good scope for the cultivation of more medicinal plants and for developing a medicinal plants industry that could generate employment for a large number of people and also earn foreign exchange.

Pipla (Piper longum) is one of the most important medicinal plants. Chirata (Swertia chirata) is used as medicine by the local people. The exact quantity used by the villagers is not documented. The heartwood of Acacia catechu (khair) contains catechin (katha) and catechu tannic acid (cutch). Katha is exported to India. Oil is also extracted from agarwood (Aquilaria agallocha). In Bhutan, oil from agar is not extracted because the quantity available is so small that setting up an extraction unit is not viable. Only a small quantity of agarwood is exported and this quantity is reported together with the exports of katha. From 1999 the export of katha roots has been banned with the implementation of the Timber Marketing and Pricing Policy by the Ministry of Agriculture.

Table 4. Exports of selected medicinal plants and plant parts

Product

1997

1998

1999

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

Pipla

21 578

2 300 586

9 618

607 265

5 874

350 801

Chirata

3 755

92 650

18 405

432 519

3 367

265 131

Khair and agar

12 640

204 320

72 770

2 018,610

35 580

641 210

Khair roots

280 380

3 094 530

15 000

18 000

Na

Na

Herbal medicinal plants

Na

Na

297

78 867

Na

Na

Na = not available

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Perfumes and cosmetics

Currently the most important essential oil-bearing plant is lemon grass (Cymbopogan flexousus). Essential oils occur in some 60 plant families and almost any part of a plant may yield oil (FAO 1996).

Table 5. Exports of lemon grass oil

Year

Quantity (litres)

Value (Nu)

1997

58 636

13 457 608

1998

16 306

9 960 555

1999

21 504

6 480 413

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Lemon grass collection and oil extraction have enormous potential as a source of employment for villagers and oil exports have good prospects for earning foreign exchange. Lemon grass distillation provides incomes for around 400 families in the eastern districts. For these families, distillation has become an even more important source of income than farming (FAO 1995). Of all the Bhutanese NWFP this commodity has the most direct impact on the earning capacity of a large number of villagers in areas where the plant is abundant.

Dyeing and tanning

Natural dyes are another group of NWFP that are associated with the traditional art and culture of Bhutan. Cloth weaving is an important economic activity in the central and eastern districts. Gradually, natural dyes are being replaced by chemicals or ready-made thread. Improvements in the quality of natural dyes may revive their use. A project at Khaling in eastern Bhutan is compiling research results and other information on natural dyes (FAO 1995).

The dyes can be grouped under five categories: (i) leaf dyes (Symplocos sp., Strobilanthes flaccidifolious, Holicia nilagirica and Indigofera); (ii) bark dyes (Terminalia tomentosa, Berberis nepalensis, Acacia spp. and Alnus sp.); (iii) flower and fruit dyes (khomany-shing [Choenomeles lagenaria], robtangshing [Rhus similata], churoo, amla [Phyllanthus emblica], Cedrala toona, Michelia champaka and Mallotus phillipenensis); (iv) stem and root dyes, (Curcuma longa and Acacia catechu); and (v) mineral dyes (natural mineral salts [dochur] and oxidized iron [marchelo]).

Utensils, handicrafts and construction materials

Traditional hand-made paper is manufactured from Daphne spp. and Edgeworthia spp. About 4 000 to 5 000 acres are covered by these species. The hand-made paper is very strong and durable and no chemicals are added while manufacturing the paper. Many small family-operated factories are engaged in the manufacturing of this paper. The only semi-mechanized unit is in Thimphu (M/S Jungshi Hand-made Paper Factory). The annual raw material requirement of this factory is about 32 000 kg (full capacity) but since raw material is in short supply, utilization of the factory at full capacity is not possible. Hand-made paper has very high demand both within the country as well as in the export market and the paper is often preferred to other kinds of paper.

The most important rattan species are Calamus acanthospathus, Calamus tenuis, Calamus latifolius, Plectocomia himalayana and Daemonorops jenkinsianus. Rattan is used for making ropes, furniture frames, walking sticks, umbrella handles and other household items such as mats, screens and furniture. Raw rattan canes are also exported.

Table 6. Exports of rattan

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

18 220

138 632

1998

Na

Na

1999

21 600

132 200

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Bhutan has more than 19 species of bamboo. Important bamboo genera are Arundinaria, Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Thamnocalamus and Drepanostachyum. Bamboo is used for making baskets, rope and also containers. Young bamboo shoots are used as vegetables. Bamboo is consumed locally and internationally.

The making of fine bamboo baskets and containers is a specialty of the people in eastern districts. Such products are marketed all over Bhutan and are also popular with tourists (FAO 1995). Many poor houses are made entirely of bamboo. The small bamboos that are found in central and west Bhutan are also woven into mats, used for fencing and for roofing temporary shelters (FAO 1995).

Table 7. Exports of bamboo

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

60 551

27 248

1998

14 000

11 400

1999

2 700

7 150

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Bhutan's main sources of fibre are from various stems and leaves, though fibre may also be extracted from roots, fruits and seeds. Fibres of economic importance are obtained from the following families: Bombacaceae, Sterculaceae, Leguminoceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, Musaceae and Graminae. Local people use the fibres for various purposes (e.g. rope making and weaving mats). Bhutanese fibre species include odal (Sterculia villosa) for making rope, Girardiana spp. for producing ropes and gunny bags, Musa spp. for paper making and Areca catechu. Other fibre-producing species are Cannabis sp. (bark), Urtica sp. (jazu in Sharchop-kha), Girardiana palmata (zangjazu in Sharchop-kha), Boehmeria sp. (pu yangzewa in Sharchop-kha), Agave sp., Daphne sp., Edgeworthia sp., Kydia calycina and Grewia sp. (FAO 1996).

Floss is obtained from tree pods, and collected from kapas (Gossypium spp.) and semul (Bombax ceiba). The capsules of these trees yield floss which is soft, yet strong. Gossypium and Bombax ceiba grow in the subtropical areas of southern Bhutan. Rural Bhutanese collect floss to make pillows and mattresses. Another floss species is kapok, Ceiba pentandra (FAO 1996).

The most common species used to make brooms is Thysanolaena maxima, known locally as kucho, amkso or tsakusha. Other materials used for brooms are lemon grass, pal (cari or sysam in Sharchop-kha), Phoebe, Sida, bamboo leaves and split bamboo culms, and coconut leaves (FAO 1996). About 1 500 kg of grass for making good quality brooms were exported in 1997 (earnings of Nu.1 162). Locally, the use of grass for making brooms is quite high, but no data are available.

Handicraft items are famous in Bhutan. These items are used locally for various purposes, as well as being exported. The socio-economic importance of the units manufacturing handicraft items is high because many people depend on this profession.

Table 8. Exports of handicraft items

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

2 690

755 332

1998

7 059

3 825 260

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997 and 1998)

Leaves, barks and whole plants are used as incense. The demand for incense sticks is very high since they are used daily in households for offering morning and evening prayers. Some of the commonly used species used are Juniperus spp., Nardostachys jatamansi, Tancetum tibeticum, Cannarium sikkimensis and Rhododendron spp. There are good prospects for setting up small-scale units for manufacturing incense sticks and creating more jobs in Bhutan.

Table 9. Exports of incense sticks

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

1997

394

24 680

1998

46

8 430

1999

110

32 947

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

Ornamentals

Many domesticated plants are used by people for ornamental purposes. They are planted either in their houses, in compounds or in public places. In 1997 about 28 000 planting materials such as bulbs, tubers and roots of different plants were exported; they were valued at Nu.435 000. Important ornamental plants at the national level include Cupressus cahmerina, Cupressus himaliaca, Daphne bholua, Deutzia bhutanensis, Magnolia campbellii, Mahonia nepalensis, Michelia doltsopa, Michelia nepalensis, Rhododendron kesangiae, Rhododendron thomsonii, Rhododendron triflorum, Viola bhutanica and Juniperus pseudosabina.

Exudates

In Bhutan, the following gum-yielding plants are found: khair (Acacia catechu), semla gum (Bauhinia retusa), simal (Bombax ceiba) and brongshang (Ficus elastica). Ficus elastica is cultivated also. Resin is obtained from tapping chirpine trees (Pinus roxburghii). Turpentine and rosin are two important bi-products obtained by resin distillation and they are exported mainly to India. Resin tapping is one of the most important economic activities in the eastern part of Bhutan. According to the study conducted by FRDD/DoFs (2000) about 44 percent of the population in eastern Bhutan is engaged in this activity.

Table 10. Production of resin

Year

Quantity (kg)

1998

472 869

1999

431 053

Source: Tashi Commercial Corporation (2000)

Table 11. Exports of turpentine oil and rosin

Products

Year

Quantity (kg)

Value (Nu)

Turpentine oil

1997

52 000

855 000

1998

47 040

536 100

1999

66 000

717 500

Rosin

1997

453 767

12 892 935

1998

233 129

7 412 463

1999

504 310

12 570 684

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan (1997, 1998 and 1999)

More than 270 tonnes of resin are collected by villagers in the eastern districts and sold to distilleries. As the distilleries are next to farms, local farmers work in the distilleries when they are free. These activities directly contribute more than Nu.30 million (US$1 million) to the rural economy. No major expansion is envisaged for resin production and the main emphasis is to refine the tapping technique so that the trees are not damaged.

Wax is obtained from the seeds of Rhus verniciflua and Rhus syccedanea.

 

ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Honey and beeswax

Honey in Bhutan is provided by wild bees (Apis dorsata) and domesticated bees (Apis indica). Most of the honey collected is consumed locally and only a small quantity is exported to India. In 1999 about 1 020 kg of honey were exported (from the Apis indica bees), with a reported value of Nu.98 100 (Trade Statistics of Bhutan 1999).

Beeswax is obtained from the honeycomb of bees and wasps (Apis spp.). Villagers collect the honeycombs, drain the honey and melt the empty honeycombs. The impurities are removed and the remaining material is wax.

 

REFERENCES

FAO. 1995. Non-wood forest products of Bhutan. In Beyond timber: social, economic, and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific. RAP Publication 1995/13. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

FAO. 1996. Non wood forest products of Bhutan. RAP Publication: 1996/6. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Royal Government of Bhutan. 1991. Master plan for forestry development (main report). Department of Forestry Services. COWI consult. Jaakko Pöyry, ADB/DANIDA.

Royal Government of Bhutan. 1995. Land cover figures for Bhutan, (national figures). Land Use Planning Project.

Royal Government of Bhutan. 1997. Bhutan trade statistics for the year 1997. Department of Revenue, and Customs.

Royal Government of Bhutan. 1998. Bhutan trade statistics for the year 1997. Department of Revenue, and Customs.

Royal Government of Bhutan. 1999. Bhutan trade statistics for the year 1997. Department of Revenue, and Customs.

Tashi Commercial Corporation, Bhutan. 2000. Production statement (a leaflet). Resin Tapping Company.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Mr D.B. Dhital.

Additional information on NWFP in Bhutan would be appreciated and duly acknowledged.

 

CONTACTS

Organizations involved in the development of NWFP in Bhutan (FAO 1995):

Forest Research Section, REID, Ministry of Agriculture

Forestry Services Division

Research, Extension and Irrigation Department (REID), Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Trade and Industries

National Institute of Traditional Medicine (NITM)

Handloom Weaving Centre, Khaliling

Cottage industries (Yatha weaving centres).

ANNEX 1. FOREST SERVICES

Bhutan has extensive areas managed under the Protected Area Management system including areas such as National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Reserves. These areas account for 26 percent of the geographical area of the country. Another 9 percent is declared as biological corridors, which link the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries located in different ecological zones.

The most important non-wood services derived from forest are grazing and fishing.

About 90 percent of the population in Bhutan own livestock. Livestock is an integral feature of the farming system and it supports agricultural land use through the provision of manure and draught power. The Forest and Nature Conservation Act (1995) allows grazing and collection of firewood, fodder and leaf mould for domestic use, either free or on payment of royalty. Firewood collection is permitted only from dead and fallen trees.

There are some areas (tsamdos) within the Government Reserved Forest, which are leased annually to herdsmen or communities at Nu.100.00/year/tsamdo. Grazing is a usufructuary right of the villagers. The Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan, 1995 gives authority to the Department of Forestry Services to regulate and restrict grazing anywhere in the country, in order to prevent environmental damage.

The national cattle population is decreasing (in 1992 about 310 000 compared to 400 000 in 1990). This decrease may be attributed to the introduction of improved breeds, but it is also a possible result of exceeding the carrying capacity of the shrinking grazing resources (Dorji 1993, quoted in Davidson 2000). This decrease in the cattle population might also reduce cattle-grazing pressure in the forest. Because of heavy and free range grazing, the productivity of the forest seems to have declined. The decline may also be because of the expansion of unpalatable plant communities dominated by genera such as Eupatorium, Artemisia, Anaphallis, Rumex, Pterinium, Cassis, Berberis, Elaeagnu and Rubus.

Fishing is a major source of nutrition for most rural households. Many people living in urban areas enjoy fishing as a hobby. Fishing is allowed after obtaining a license issued by the Department of Forestry Services. The fee structure is as follows:

for one day Nu.200

for one month Nu.1 000

for six months Nu.2 000

for one year Nu.2 500

 

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF BHUTAN

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

 

Mushrooms

Auricularia auricula

Calvaria spp. Clitocybe odora

Cantherellus cibarius Polyporus spp. Tricoloma matsutake Lentinus edodes

 

F

W, C

N, I

1999: export of 7 525 kg. Prices for canned mushrooms can reach Nu.50 (US$1.65)/kg

 

RGB 1999

FAO 1995

 

Asparagus

Asparagus

   

W, C

N, I

1999 export: 1 718 kg (Nu.185 582)

 

RGB 1999

Medicines

 

Herbal medicinal plants

   

F

W

N, I

1998 export: 297 kg (Nu.78 867)

 

RGB 1998

 

Pipla

Piper longum

 

F

W

N, I

1999 export: 5 874 kg (Nu.350 801)

 

RGB 1998

 

Chirata

Swertia chirata

 

F

W

N, I

1999 export: 3 367 kg (Nu.265 131)

 

RGB 1999

 

Khair and agar

Acacia catechu

     

N, I

1999 export: 35 580 kg (Nu.641 210)

 

RGB 1999

 

Khair roots

Acacia catechu

ro

     

1998 export: 15 000 kg (Nu.18 000)

 

RGB 1998

Perfumes, cosmetics

 

Lemon grass oil

Cymbopogan flexousus

     

N, I

1999 export: 21 504 litres (Nu.6 480 413)

 

RGB 1999

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

 

Hand-made paper and paperboards

Daphne spp.

Edgeworthis spp.

     

N, I

1999 export: 497 kg (Nu.310 612); 1998 export: 33 269 kg (Nu.2 848 810)

The raw material for hand-made paper is in short supply

RGB 1998 and 1999

 

Rattan

Calamus spp.

Plectocomia himalyana,

Daemonorops jenkisianus

     

N, I

1999 export: 21 600 kg (Nu.132 200)

 

RGB 1999

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

 

Bamboo

Arundinaria

Bambusa

Dendrocalamus Thamnocalamus Drepanostachyam

           

RGB 1999

 

Broom

e.g. Thysanolaena maxima

     

N, I

   

FAO 1996

 

Handicraft items

       

N, I

1998 export:

7 059 kg

 

RGB 1998

 

Incense sticks

Juniperus spp., Nardostachys jatamansi, Tancetum tibeticum, Cannarium sikkimensis, Rhododendron spp.

     

N, I

1999 export: 110 kg (Nu.32 947)

 

RGB 1999

Ornamentals

 

Planting materials

       

N, I

1997 export: 28 000 planting materials

Planting materials include bulbs, tubers

 

Exudates

 

Resin

Pinus roxburghii

     

N, I

4 310 53 kg in 1997

More than 270 MT collected by villagers in the eastern districts (direct contribution to the rural economy Nu.30 million [US$1 million])

Tashi Commercial Corporation 2000

   

Turpentine and rosin

Pinus roxburghii

     

N, I

1999 production of turpentine: 66 000 kg (Nu.717 500) and of rosin 504 310 kg(Nu.12 570 684)

 

RGB 1999

 

 

Animals and animal products

Honey, beeswax

 

Honey

Apis dorsata,

Apis indica

 

F, O

W, C

N, I

1999: export of 1 020 kg (Nu.98 100)

Most of the honey collected is consumed locally. Exports mainly of Apis indica honey and mainly to India

RGB 1999

Importance: 1 high importance at the national level; 2 high importance at the local/regional level; 3 low importance

Parts used: an whole animal; ba bark; bw beeswax; le leaves; nu nuts; fi fibres; fl flowers; fr fruits; gu gums;

ho honey; la latex; oi oil; pl whole plant; re resins; ro roots; sa sap; se seeds; st stem; ta tannins

Habitat: F natural forest or other wooded lands; P plantation; O trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W wild, C cultivated

Destination: N national; I international

Previous PageTop Of PageNext Page