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ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Honey and beeswax

The potential for annual honey production in China is estimated at 3 to 4 million tonnes.

Other non-edible animal products

In China there is a rich variety of insect and animal resources from which industrial materials are prepared (e.g. lacquer insects, wax insects and Chinese gallnut aphids). There are more than 300 species of host plants for lacquer insects. The annual production of lacquer was 1 482 tonnes in 1988 and 3 019 tonnes in 1996. Half of the total production of lacquer is exported to over 45 countries around the world.

REFERENCES

Agriculture Yearbook of China. 1985–1996. Ed. Ministry of Agriculture, China. China Agriculture Publishing Service.

Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF). 1998. Forestry towards the 21st century. China Agriculture Scientech Press.

Jiang Chunqian. 1999. High-effective use of forest resource. In Report on strategy of sustainable forestry development for the 10th five-year plan. China, State Administration of Forestry.

Jiang Chunqian. 1997. Introduction of NTFPs in China.

Forestry Yearbook of China. 1995–1997. Ed. Ministry of Forestry, China. China Forestry Publishing Service.

Forestry Statistics of China. 1980–1996. Ed. Ministry of Forestry, China. China Forestry Publishing Service.

Kunshan, S. 1994. China. In Non-wood forest products in Asia. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Li Yucai (Ed.). 1996. Strategy for forestry development towards the 21st Century.

Wang Yufeng. (Ed.) 1995. Forest recreation of China. China Forestry Publishing Service,

Co. Forestry Publishing Service.

Zhu Zhaohua & Jiang Chunqian (Ed.). In press. Non-timber forest products.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Jiang Chunqian and Chen Binhao, The International Farm Forestry Training Centre, CAF, Beijing 100091 China. All data quoted in their study are officially issued by the National Forestry Bureau, China in forestry yearbooks and other forestry information materials.

Additional information on NWFP in China would be appreciated and duly acknowledged.

CONTACTS

The following persons and institutions have also contributed to the preparation of the report: International Network on Bamboo and Rattan; State Administration of China; Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science; The Information Institute, CAF; Sustainable Forestry Development Research Centre; Prof Wang Heran, Research Institute of Forestry, CAF; Mr Liu Dan, the Information Institute, CAF; and Prof Zhu Zhaohua, International Bamboo and Rattan Network, Beijing 100101, China.

The most relevant local, national, regional (or international) agencies involved in NWFP for China are:

 

The Center of Eucalyptus Development and Research, CAF

Director: Yang Mingshen

Address: No.30, Renming Road, Zhanjiang City 524022, Guangdong Province

Tel: 86 759 3380685

Fax: 86 759 3380674

E­mail: cerclb@pub.zhanjiang.gd.cn


Research Institute of Forestry Sci-tech Information

Director: Shi Kunshan

Address: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091

Tel: 010-62888856 010-62883772

Fax: 010-62882317

E-mail: lknet@public3.bta.net.cn

Research Institute of Wood Industrial

Address: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091

Director Ye Kelin

Tel :86-10-62889410

Fax :86-10-62881937

E-mail: office.mg@wood.forestry.ac.cn

Research Institute of Resource Insect

Address: Wang Daqiao, Renming Donglu, Kunming, Yunnan Province

Director: Chen Xiaoming

Tel: 86- 871-3845120

Fax: 86-871-3854821

E-mail: xmchen@public.km.yn.cn

Research Institute of Forest Ecology and Protection

Address: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China

Director: Liu Shirong

Tel: 86-10-62889510

Fax: 86-10-62884972

E-mail:office.hb@prot.forestry.ac.cn

Research Institute of Forestry

Address: RIF, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China

Director: Meng Ping

Tel: 86-10-62889610

Fax: 86-10-62872015

Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry

Address: Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Fuyang City 311400, Zhejiang Province

Director: Fu Maoyi

Tel: 86-571-3310184, 3310001

Fax: 86-10-3310009, 3341304

E-mail: risf@caf.forestry.ac.cn or risf@fyptt.zjpta.net.cn

The International Farm Forestry Training Centre

Address: PO Box 38, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China

Acting Director: Jiang Chunqian

Tel: 86-10-62889093

Fax: 86-10-62888345


Research Institute of Tropical Forestry

Address: Longdong, Guangzhou 510520

Tel: 86-20-87725622,87708845

Fax: 86-20-87725622

E-mail: ritf@caf.forestry.ac.cngzritf@public1.guangzhou.gd.cn

Research Institute of Chemical Process and Forest Products

Address: No.16, 5 Sujin cun, Nanjing 210042

Director: Shen Zhaobang

Tel: 86-25- 5412131
Fax: 86-255413445

E-mail: ricpufp@public1.ptt.js.cn

Institute of He Long-Jiang Forest By-Products

Address: No.15, Beishan St. Mudanjiang City157011, Helongjiang Province

Tel: 86-435-6521910

 

ANNEX 1. FOREST SERVICES

China has made efforts to develop its national parks and forest recreation services; 874 national parks had been established in China by the end of 1997 with an area of 7.48 million ha accounting for 0.75 percent of the total land area. Of the national parks, 292 were established at the national level with an area of 5.37 million ha.

Within the nature reserves, 13 forest recreation spots, 2 hunting ranges and 11 forest recreation services have been established. According to China Green Times (1999), from 1992 to 1996 over 300 million people visited the national parks contributing ¥180 million, the total income from the tour industry exceeded ¥1 000 million.

In 1997, 52.11 million tourists, of whom 0.68 million came from overseas, visited the national parks; they generated an estimated income of ¥819 million and provided job opportunities for nearly 150 000 people.

 

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF CHINA

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

1

Apple

Malus pumila

fr

P

C

N, I

Annual production of 4.50 million MT

Area of 1.69 million ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

1

Pear

Pyrus bretschneideri

fr

P,O

C

I, N

Annual production of 2.50 million MT

Area of 480 000 ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

2

Orange

Citrus reticulata

fr

P

C

N

Annual production of 4.6 million MT

Area of 1 02 million ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

1

Grape

Vitia spp.

fr

P,O

C

N

Annual production of 870 000 MT

Area of 140 000 ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

2

Banana

 

fr

P

C

N

Annual production of 1.40 million MT

Area of 110 000 ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

2

Kiwi fruit

Actinidia chinensis

fr

P,O

C

N

Annual production of 347 000 MT

According to Kunshan (1994), annual production is 300 000 MT

Area of 670 000 ha

Kunshan 1994

2

Bamboo

shoot

Phyllostachys edulis,

Phyllostachy praecox

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Ph. vivax

st

F,P

C

N,I

Annual production of dry bamboo shoots is 20 000 MT and fresh bamboo shoots is 1.5 million MT

Li Yucai 1996

 

1

Walnut

Juglans regia

nu

P,O

C

I, N

Annual production of 150 000 MT

Annual export of 100 000 MT

Annual exports: 47 000 MT (US$30–50 million)

Area of 1 million ha

Zhang Anling, 1993

Kunshan 1994

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

 

1

Chestnut

Castanea henryi

nu

P,O

C

I, N

378 183 MT in 1997

Area of 300 000 ha

Kunshan 1994

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–97

1

Chinese date

Jujube

Ziziphus jujuba

nu

P,O

C

N, I

Annual production of 400 000–500 000 MT

Exports of 4 700 MT of dry jujube (US$5 million) p/a

Area of 550 000 ha

Kunshan 1994.

2

Blackwood ear

Auricularia auricula

pl

F,O

C

I,N

Exports: about 1 000 MT (US$8 million) p/a

46 000 MT p/a

 

Jiang Chunqian 1997

2

Whitewood ear

Tremella fucifomis

pl

F,O

C

I,N

Annual production of 1 000 MT

Exports: 300 MT p/a

 

Jiang Chunqian 1997; Li Yucai 1996

2

Shiitake

Lentinus edodes

pl

F,O

C

I,N

Annual production of 120 000 MT (38.3% of total world production). Annual export: 1 000 MT, value US$2 000/MT

Exported to Southeast Asia and Japan. 90% of shiitake in Hong Kong is from China

Jiang Chunqian 1997; Li Yucai 1996

2

Wild brake

Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn

st

F,P,O

W

I, N

2 000 MT p/a

Production potential of 100 000 MT

Jiang Chunqian 1997

2

Wild brake

Osmunda cinnamomea

st

F,P,O

W

I, N

     
 

Wild brake

         

1980: the price for wild brake was US$ 400/MT, in 1994 it was US$1 400/MT

   

1

Camellia tea

Camellia oleifera

fr

P,O

C

N

150 000 MT p/a

Area of 4 million ha

Zhang Anling 1993

2

Shingleaf yellowhorn

Xanthoceras sorbifolia

fr

P

C

N

300 MT p/a

Export: 3 750 MT p/a

Area of 3 000 ha Introduced from Europe in the 1960s, about 5 million individual trees exist. Total area of 50 000 ha

Kunshan 1994

1

Olive

Olea europaea

fr

P

C

N

200 MT p/a

Area of 13 000 ha

 

1

Green tea, black tea

Cumellia sinesis

le

P,O

C

N,I

1996: 75 822 MT of which 56 603 MT were green tea

1/3 of the production was exported in 1996

 

Medicines

2

Eucommia

Eucommia ulmoides

ba,le

P,F

W,C

N ,I

2 000 MT p/a

Area of 80 000 ha

Zhu and Jiang 1998

Anlin Zhang 1993

2

Officinal magnolia

Magnolia officinalis

ba

P,F

W,C

N, I

1 300 MT p/a

Area of 23 000 ha

 

1

Ginkgo

Ginkgo biloba

nu,le

P

C

I, N

Annual production of kernels: 5 000–6 000 MT. Annual production of leaves: 7 000 MT

Annual production of fleshy seed coats:

10 000– 12 000 MT Export earnings of about ¥1 5 000 million

Leaf extracts can be sold at US$30 000/kg

100 kg of leaves produce 1 kg of leaf extract

 

2

Corktree

Phellodendron amurense

ba

P,F

W,C

I, N

2 000 MT p/a

Area of 9 000 ha

 

1

Wolfberry

Lycium chinensis

fr

P,F

C

I, N

4 500 MT p/a

Area of 9 000 ha

 
 

Pilose antler

         

Price ¥1 300–1 400/kg

 

Kunshan 1994

 

Pine needle powder

         

15 000 MT p/a

 

Kunshan 1994

1

Chinese pr ickly ash

Zanthoxylum bungeanum

nu

P,O

C

I, N

31 000 MT p/a

Area of 520 000 ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

 

Plants and plant products

Perfumes, cosmetics

2

 

Eucalyptus

fl, le

P

C

I,N

4 500 MT p/a, of which 2 580 MT are exported (the amount of exports equals 80% of the world trade)

The price of this essential oil in the world market depends on the oil extracted from eucalyptus in China

Li Yucai 1996

CAF 1998

Dyeing, tanning

2

 

Acacia mearnsii

ba

P

C

I,N

50 000 MT in 1987 and 20 000 MT in 1997

Area of 10 000 ha in the subtropical area. Production has declined gradually over the last few years

National Forestry Statistics 1996

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

2

Palm

Txachycarpus fortunei

ba

O

C

I, N

40 000 MT p/a

 

Forestry Yearbook 1996

 

2

Bamboo poles

Phyllostachys edulis

st

F,P

C

N,I

6–7 milliion MT p/a

 

Li Yucai 1996

 

2

Bamboo products

Phyllostachys edulis

st

F,P

C

N,I

Production value of bamboo (1993):

¥5.5 billion, exports of US$150 million

Bamboo manufacture contributed ¥12 000 billion in 1997 and US$400 million through exports

   
 

2

Rattan

 

st

F

C

I,N

4 000–5 000 MT p/a

   

Exudates

2

Turpentine

Pinus spp.

le

F, P

C

I,N

47 009–61 627 MT (1991-93)

 

CAF 1998

National Forestry Statistics 1996

1

Resin

Pinus massoniana Lamb.

st

F,P

C

I,N

450 000/530 000 MT in 1996 and 1997 respectively

The production is 60% of that in the world

Jiang Chunqian 1999

Others

1

Chinese rose

Chrysanthemum

Azalea

Rosa chinensis

Dendranthema morifolium

 

Rhododendron

 

O

O

 

 

O

C

C

 

 

C

N, I

Until 1997 planted area reached 88 000 km2 and 1.94 million bonsai pots were produced. Production value was ¥9.6 billion and value of exports reached ¥0.8 billion

Till 1997, about 11 bases for the production of flowers and plants were established

Forestry Industrial Economy 1997

1

Tung oil

Vernicia spp.

fr

P,O

C

I, N

Annual production of

120 000 MT

Annual exports of 20 000 MT

Area 2.07 million ha

Zhang Anling 1993

 

 

 

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

   

Tong oil tree seed

Aleurites fordii

       

1997: 453 355 MT

1989: 105 000 MT Annual export volume, 20 000 MT, foreign exchange for 12 000 MT about US$15 million

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

Kunshan 1994

1

Chinese tallow tree

Sapium sebiferum

fr

P,O

C

I, N

Annual production of seeds: 50 000 MT

Annual production of oil: 20 000 MT

The area is 200 000 ha and the annual production is 85 000 MT. Production of tallow tree seed: 40 912 MT in 1997

Area of 250 000 ha

Kunshan 1994

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

2

Raw lacquer

Toxicodendron verniciflum

pl

C

C

I,N

Area of 450 000 km2, annual production: 3 000 MT. Production in 1997 was 4 415 MT

The Chinese exports account for 80% of the total world exports

National Forestry Statistics 1996; China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

Camellia oil seed

1997: 856 868 MT

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

 

Chinese gallnut

         

1997: 11 060 MT

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

 

Palm tree bark

         

1997: 58 158 MT

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

 

Pine seed

         

1997: 702 982 MT

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

   

Dried bamboo shoots

         

1997: 217 216 MT

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

 

Scraped lac

         

1997: 2 711 MT

 

China Forestry Yearbook 1995–1997

 

Seabuckthorn

Hippophae rhomnoides

       

Production capacity of 150 seabuckthorn -processing factories of about 150 000 MT in 1990

A variety of products are being produced in various factories

Kunshan 1994

 

American ginseng

Panax quinquefollius

       

Annual production of over 50 MT

 

Kunshan 1994

Animals and animal products

Honey, beeswax

 

Honey

         

Potential annual honey production of 3–4 million MT

Over 5 000 ha of nectar plants exist

 

Other non-edible animal products

2

Chinese gallnut

Chinese gallnut aphid + Rhus spp.

 

F,P

C

I,N

Annual production is 5 000 MT

 

Zhu and Jiang 1996

2

Chinese wax

Chinese wax insect + Ligustrum spp.

 

F,P

C

I,N

Production of 600 MT

100 million individual host trees

Zhu and Jiang 1996

2

Lac

Lac insect, Kerria spp.

 

F,P

C

I,N

Production of 300 000 MT

Area of host trees: 50 000 ha

Jiang Chunqian 1997

Importance: 1 – high importance at the national level; 2 – high importance at the local/regional level; 3 – low importance

Parts used: an – whole animal; ba – bark; bw – beeswax; le – leaves; nu – nuts; fi – fibres; fl – flowers; fr – fruits; gu – gums;

ho – honey; la – latex; oi – oil; pl – whole plant; re – resins; ro – roots; sa – sap; se – seeds; st – stem; ta – tannins

Habitat: F – natural forest or other wooded lands; P – plantation; O – trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W – wild, C – cultivated

Destination: N – national; I – international

 

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