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ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Wildlife and wildlife-derived products

From 1981 to 1989, wildlife and wildlife-product exports from Indonesia increased from US$2.4 million to US$36.4 million. Average earnings from unprotected wildlife sales from Indonesia amounted to US$11million per year. Breeding centres for monkeys, snakes, crocodiles, turtles, snails and other species are also found in Indonesia (Silitonga 1994). Most of the trade in wildlife does not adhere to the CITES regulations (Silitonga 1994).

Honey and beeswax

Honey, locally known as madu, and beeswax are produced from the dwarf bee (Apis florea), the giant or rock bee (Apis dorsata), the oriental bee (Apis cerana) and the common honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Menon 1989). The region in Indonesia that produces the best quality of honey is Sumbawa, thus it is known as madu sumbawa. No figures are available regarding the production of beeswax.

Table 14. Honey production from 1993 to 1998

Year

Production (kg)

1993/94

2 387 350

1994/95

1 800 000

1995/96

1 800 000

1996/97

2 330 348

1997/98

2 615 728

Total

10 933 426

Average

2 186 685

Source: Biro Perencanaan (2000)

As a home industry, beekeeping involves the whole family. The honey that bees provide is a valuable food that may be sold and consumed at home and beeswax can be used also at home and for industry (Menon 1989). The products of commercially managed beekeeping can be classified based on the source flower, i.e. honey from the flowers of kapuk randu (Ceiba pentandra), rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis), durian (Durio zybethinus), coffee, rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica), kaliandra (Calliandra sp.), jambu air (Eugenia aquaea) and mahagony (Swietenia mahagony).

An economical analysis on beekeeping conducted by Menon (1989) stated that a minimum of 30 colonies of Apis melifera is required, the cost of a colony being around Rp.200 000, for a business to be profitable. Each colony will then produce 40 kg of honey per annum, valued from Rp.6 000 to Rp.10 000/kg and a profit can be gained of up to 300 percent of the investment. This profit can increase remarkably when it also produces royal jelly at the same time, for which the price per kilogramme was around Rp.122 500 (US$70) during the time of the analysis.

The price of honey from different flower sources has different prices. The highest price is for honey coming from durian, cengkeh and kaliandra flowers.

Other non-edible animal products

Shellac (shellak, lac or lak [Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986]) is produced from the secretions of the shellac insect (Tachardia lacca, family Coccidae). The insect lives in the host trees of kesambi (Schleichera oleosa), akasia (Acacia catechu) and jamuju (Cuscuta australis).

The shellac industry is managed by a forest state enterprise, Perum Perhutani, at Banyukerta, East Java. The potential for shellac production seems to be high and could be increased in future. The volume of granule shellac traded domestically by Perum Perhutani each year is 80 tonnes.

Table 15. Shellac exported by Perum Perhutani, 1998 to 1999

Year

Export volume (MT)

Export value (US$)

Price (US$/MT)

1998

72

86 400

1 200

1999

93

130 200

1 400

Total

165

216 600

2,600

Avrg.

82.5

108 300

1 300

Source: Perum Perhutani (2000, recalculated)

Shellac is produced from the host tree kesambi with a density of 189 trees/ha. It has been predicted that each tree produces shellac of about 10 kg with a production cycle of three years resulting in the total production of about 918 526 kg per year.

 

REFERENCES

Anonymous. 2000. Kemenyan, Potensi Andalan Yang Menapak. Majalah Rimbun Nomor: 8/15 Mei 2000.

Asmindo. 2000. Data Base untuk Espor Barang Jadi Kayu dan Barang Jadi Rotan. Jakarta, Indonesia, Assosiasi Industri Permebelan dan Kerajinan Indonesia.

Astana, S. & Nasendi, B.D. 1996. Case study of the production-to-consumption system for the wild rattan from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Paper prepared for INBAR’s working paper. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, New Delhi, India. 1996.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2000. Statistik Indonesia 1999. Jakarta, Badan Pusat Statistik.

Bennett, C. & Barichello, R. 1996. Value-added and resources management policies for Indonesian rattan: aims, outcomes and options for policy reform. In B.D. Nasendi ed., From rattan production-to-consumption in Indonesia: policy issues and options for reform, pp 23–35. Bogor, Indonesia, Forest Products and Forestry Socio-Economics Research and Development Centre, Forestry Research and Development Agency.

Central Bureau of Statistics. 1990. The 1990 report.

Hadi, S. 1995. Social, economic and cultural dimensions of medicinal plants in Indonesia. In Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific. RAP publication 1995/13. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Hamzah, Z. 1980. Beberapa Aspek Ekologi dan Silvikultur Roran Manau. Prosiding Diskusi Hasil Hutan Non Kayu , Jakarta, 10–12 Juli 1980.

Iqbal, M. 1993. Tengkawang or illipe nut. In International trade in non-wood forest products: An overview. FO: Misc/93/11 Working Paper. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Kompas. Gaharu, Mengangkat Petani Bersarung dan Berdasi. Harian Kompas, 2 Maret 2001.

Mai, R.R. & Suripatty, B.A. 1996. Pengaruh Wadah Penyimpanan dan Kelas Diamter Terhadap Pertumbuhan Stump Wikstroemia polyantha. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan, Volume 1. No. 1 (1996). Balai Penelitian Kehutanan, Manokwari, Irian Jaya.

Menon, S. 1998. Rekrerasi Hutan, Bukan Kebutuhan Mewah Setelah Kerja Keras. In Hutan: rimbawan dan masyarakat. Bogor, Penerbit IPB Press.

Nasendi, B.D. 1994. Forest biodiversity management for socio-economic development: inter-generational equity. Jakarta, Lokakarya Nasional Keanekaragaman hayati Tropik Indonesia. Dewan Riset Nasional.

Perum Perhutani. 1980. Pengusahaan Hasil Hutan Non Kayu di Masa Pembangunan. Prosiding Diskusi Hasil Hutan Non Kayu , Jakarta, 10–12 Juli 1980.

Purnama, B.M. & Prahasto, H. 1996. A case study on production-to-consumption system of rattan in Kalimantan, Indonesia. In B.D. Nasendi, ed. From rattan production-to-consumption in Indonesia: policy issues and options for reform, pp 1–10. Bogor, Forest Products and Forestry Socio-Economics Research and Development Center, Forestry Research and Development Agency.

Saragih, B. 2000. Policy and market system impacts on rattan price development. A paper presented at the seminar on rattan held by CIFOR, Bogor.

Sarong, F. 2001. Cendana Yang Terabaikan Dalam Otonomi Daerah di NTT. Harian Kompas, 2 Maret 2001.

Sidik. 1994. Perkembangan Industri Fitofarmaka di Indonesia. Lokakarya Nasional Keanekaragaman hayati Tropik Indonesia. Jakarta, Dewan Riset Nasional.

Silitonga, T. 1994. Indonesia. Non-wood forest products in Asia. RAP publication 1994/28. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Soehartano, T. & Newton, A.C. 2000. Conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria II. The impact of gaharu harvesting in Indonesia. Biological Conservation No 97.

Soenardi, A. 1980. Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Potensi Produksi Hasil Hutan Non kayu. Prosiding Diskusi Hasil Hutan Non Kayu , Jakarta, 10–12 Juli 1980.

Soetanto, AG. 1980. Prospek Produk Getah-Getahan di Kalimantan Tengah. Prosiding Diskusi Hasil Hutan Non Kayu , Jakarta, 10–12 Juli 1980.

Soewardji, R.I. & Hutahuruk, S. 1980. Prospek Perdagangan Hasil Hutan Non kayu. Prosiding Diskusi Hasil Hutan Non Kayu , Jakarta, 10–12 Juli 1980.

Subarudi, Erwidodo & Hariyatno, D. 2000. Rattan trade policy and related issues in Indonesia. A paper presented at the seminar on rattan held by CIFOR, Bogor.

Sukardi, P. 2000. Pengembangan Rotan di Indonesia. Direktorat Pengembangan Aneka Usaha Kehutanan, Dirjen Rehabilitasi dan Perhutanan Sosial, Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta.

Suryamiharja, S. & Buharman. 1986. Hasil Hutan Non-Kayu Di Indonesia. Sylvatropika Volume 1, No. 1, 1986. Badan Litbang Kehutanan.

Universitas Nusa Cendana. 1996. Prospek Pengusahaan Gaharu di Nusa Tenggara Timur: Studi

Potensi dan Manajemen Eksploitasi. In B.D. Nasendi & A. Fauzi Mas’ud, eds. Kajian Permasalahan Lokal dan Nasional Hutan & Kehutanan Indonesia: Tinjauan Prospek dan Strategi Menuju Pengelolaan Hutan dan Pembangunan Hutan Yang Berkelanjutan, halaman, 189–196. Jakarta, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan dan Perkebunan. Departemen Kehutanan dan Perkebunan RI.

Universitas Sebelas Maret. 1996. Kajian Teknis Ekonomis Pengolahan Gondorukem Dalam

Rangka Meningkatkan Nilai Tambah: Studi Kasus di PGT Paninggaran dan PGT Cimanggu. In B.D. Nasendi & A. Fauzi Mas’ud, eds. Kajian Permasalahan Lokal dan Nasional Hutan dan Kehutanan Indonesia: Tinjauan Prospek dan Strategi Menuju Pengelolaan Hutan dan Pembangunan Hutan Yang Berkelanjutan, halaman, 189–196. Jakarta, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan dan Perkebunan.Departemen Kehutanan dan Perkebunan RI.

Wiyono, B. 1995. Peningkatan Kualitas Kemenyan Dengan Menggunakan Pelarut Organik (the improvement of the quality of benzoin by using organic solvent). Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 13 No. 8, 1995. Bogor, Puslitbang Hasil Hutan dan Sosek Kehutanan.

Wiyono, B. 1995. Pengolahan Lemak Tengkawang Dengan Cara Pengempaan Hidrolik (fat processing of illipe nuts with a hydraulic pressing technique). Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol. 13 No. 6, 1995. Bogor, Puslitbang Hasil Hutan dan Sosek Kehutanan.

Zich, F. & Compton, J. 2001. Agarwood (gaharu) harvest and trade in Papua New Guinea: a preliminary assessment. An information document prepared by TRAFFIC Oceania for the Eleventh Meeting of the CITES Plants Committee, with reference to CITES Decisions 11.112 and 11.113 regarding Aquilaria spp. Canberra, Australia, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO Plant Industry.

Zuhud, E.A.M. 1994. Pelestarian dan Pemanfaatan Keanekaragaman Tumbuhan Obat Hutan Tropika Indonesia, Latin, Bogor.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Nurcahyo Adi, Coordinator of Foreign Cooperation at Directorate General of Production Forest Management; Subarudi, Researcher at the Centre for Social Economic Research on Forestry; Bambang Wiyono, Researcher at the Centre for Research and Development of Forest Products; and Doddy S. Sukadri, Research Dissemination Manager at the Centre for Social Economic Research on Forestry.

Additional information on NWFP in Indonesia would be appreciated and duly acknowledged.

CONTACTS

Nurcahyo Adi

Directorate General of Production Forest Management,

Ministry of Forestry

Manggala Wanabakti Building Block I/6,

Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto, Senayan- Jakarta 10270

Phone: 62-21-5730268

E-mail: n-adi@usa.net, nadi@dephut.cbn.net.id


ANNEX 1. FOREST SERVICES

Ecotourism is a non-wood service (NWS) and is in high demand at the present time as indicated by the 333 596 people who visited national parks in 1998/1999. Visitors who visited conservation areas exceeded 3 million during the same year. In 1985, 4.4 million tourists entered wildlife sanctuaries, paying the government Rp.17.7 million in entrance fees (Silitonga 1994).

Priasukmana (1999) stated that ecotourism should be prioritized in the national forestry programme because tourism is well known as a green and smokeless industry. Manan (1998) pointed out that forest tourism has physical, mental and spiritual impacts on human life, through such activities as: hunting, fishing, walking, horse riding, picnicking, camping, hiking, boating, swimming and other hobbies (photography, painting, handicrafts and nature watching). Therefore he suggested that the forests located in Java and Sumatra should be used not only for timber production, but also as recreation sources for the local communities. This will be the main task for foresters, ecologists, sociologists and landscape architects in establishing natural recreation and forest tourism.

Most of people who live in big cities enjoy outdoor recreation. Many suitable places for recreation (hills, lakes, rivers, beaches and small islands) are distributed widely in Indonesia. These can be scenic spots, natural monuments, wildlife sanctuaries or historical, geological, archeological and biological sites.

Table 16. Visitors to Perum Perhutani’s tourism targets in 1999

Name of

target

No. of targets

(unit)

No. of visitors

(persons)

Revenue

(Rp. 1 000)

Forest tourism

86

1 945 358

2 104 472

Natural recreation parks

4

876 083

1 748 946

Camping

14

170 126

199 272

Nature watching

13

85 872

132 730

Total

117

3 007 439

4 185 420

Source: Perum Perhutani (2000)

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF INDONESIA

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

2

Illipe nut Tengkawang

seed

Shorea stenoptre

Shorea lepidota

Shorea gysbersiana

Shorea seminis

se

F

W

N,I

Export of 213 MT in 1997/1998

 

 

Suryamihardja and Buharman 1986; Menon 1989;

Biro Perencanaan 1999

Medicines

 

Jamu medicines

   

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export value: Rp.1.06 billion (US$503 000) in 1991/1992

6 848 people employed by jamu industries in 1993

Hadi 1995

   

Cayeput oil

Melaleuca leucadendron,

Melaieuca minor

le

F, P

W, C

N, I

357 035 litres in 1998/1999

According to Perum Perhutani (2000) in 1999: leaf production of 42 560 MT, oil production of 312 700 kg; value: Rp.7 858 362 000

Domestically all production is traded by Perum Perhutani

Badan Pusat Statistik 2000;

Perum Perhutani 2000

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

1

Manau rattan

Sega rattan

Irit rattan

Calamus manan

Calamus caesus

Calamus trachycoleus

st

F, P

W

N, I

Export of 112 078 MT of rattan-finished

products in 1999 (value US$294 million)

Production of 62.664 MT in 1998/1999

Estimations about area and production vary considerably

150 000 employed at the end of the 1980s. Price of rattan at farm gate in 1999: Rp. 450/kg (US$0.2)

Hamzah 1980; Asmindo 2000;

Badan Pusat Statistik 2000; Silitonga 1994; Saragih 2000

Bamboo

Dendrocalamus asper

Phyllostachys aurea

Schizostachyum blumei

Gigantochloa apus

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of US$1.2 million in 1989. In 1985 the consumption of bamboo totalled 146 million stalks

50 000 ha of bamboo plantations in East Java and South Sulawesi

Silitonga 1994

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Exudates

2

Godorukem (rosin, colophonium, and

turpentine)

Pinus merkusii

rs, st

P

C

N,I

1999: gondorukem,

62 110 MT; turpentine 12 306 MT

Exports: gondorukem,

39 166 MT (value US$18.5 million) in 1999; turpentine 7 188 MT (value US$2.13 million) in 1999

The pine stands in Java provide work for at least 70 000 people

Soenardi 1980; Universitas Sebelas Maret 1996;

Perum Perhutani 2000;

Silitonga 1994;

Badan Pusat Statistik 2000

2

Jelutong

Pontianak

Jelutung gum

Dyera costulata

Dyera lowii

Dyera latifolia

re

F

W

N, I

Export of 2 785 MT in 1997/1998

Soetanto 1980; Suryamihardja and Buharman 1986;

Biro Perencanaan, 1999

2

Damar

Gum damar

Resin damar

Shorea sp.

Hopea sp.

Vatica sp.

Dryobalanops sp.

n

F

W

N, I

Export of 18 609 MT in 1996/1997

Soetanto 1980; Suryamihardja and Buharman 1986

Biro Perencanaan 1999

2

Benzoin Kemeyan

Styrax benzoin

Styrax sumatrana

re

F, P

W, C

N, I

2 000–3 000 MT p/a in North Tapanuli

Price of kemeyan is US$4.00/kg on the intl. market. 22 670 ha of kemeyan in North Tapanuli in 2000

Wiyono 1985; Anonymous 2000

2

Gaharu

Aquallaria malaccensis

Wilkstroemia adorosaemifolia

Gyrinops cumingia

st

F

W

N, I

Export of 309.8 MT at

Rp.6 .2 billion in 1995 The present price is about Rp.2–3 million/kg for the super class

Sidiyasa and Suharti 1987;

Universitas Nusa Cendana

1996;

Kompas 2001

2

Kopal

Resin copal

Agathis lorentifolia

Aghathis damara

Agathis alba

re

P

C

N, I

Export of 1 600 MT in 1996/1997

Soenardi 1980; Suryamihardja and Buharman

1986; Perum Perhutani

2000;

Biro Perencanaan, 1999

2

Sandalwood

Oil of sandal

Oil of santal

Santalum album

l, st

F/P

W/C

N, I

145 446 MT in 1997

Price of sandalwood

varies significantly

(Rp. 5 000–100 000/kg)

Menon 1989; Sarong 2001

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Animals and animal products

Honey and

beeswax

2

Common ho-

ney bee

Oriental bee

Apis mellifera

Apis cerena

Apis florea

Apis dorsata

P

C

N

2 615 728 MT (1997/98)

Menon 1989; Biro Perencanaan 1999

Other non-edible animal products

2

Shellac

Lac

Lak

Tachardia lacca (Hosts:

Schleichera oleosa

Acacia catechu

Cuscuta australis)

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 93 MT

valued at US$130 200 in 1999

Perum Perhutani, 1980;

Suryamihardja and Buharman 1986; Perum Perhutani 2000

Importance: 1 – high importance at the national level; 2 – high importance at the local/regional level; 3 – low importance

Parts used: an – whole animal; ba – bark; bw – beeswax; le – leaves; nu – nuts; fi – fibres; fl – flowers; fr – fruits; gu – gums;

ho – honey; la – latex; oi – oil; pl – whole plant; re – resins; ro – roots; sa – sap; se – seeds; st – stem; ta – tannins

Habitat: F – natural forest or other wooded lands; P – plantation; O – trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W – wild, C – cultivated

Destination: N – national; I – international

 

 

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