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ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Honey and beeswax

Nests of honey bees are found in all forest types. The estimated production of honey is about 5 to 10 tonnes per year. Bee management and beekeeping are still not developed in Lao PDR, but if developed, they could provide a sustainable, long-term means of exploiting the available flora. Honey is collected for household use as a food, as a sweetener and for the production of medicine. Wax is used for polishes, cosmetics and candle making (Ketphanh 1995).

In local markets, honey and wax can be sold quite easily, but export is difficult because the volume of production (10 tonnes per year) is small and producers lack information on quality improvement and marketing. The price paid to collectors is about US$0.80 to 1.00/litre, but in town markets, the price is about US$2.00/litre. Solidified wax is sold in local markets for US$4.00 to 5.00/kg (Ketphanh 1995).

Bushmeat

Several species of fish, frogs, shrimps, soft-shelled fresh water turtles, crabs, and other water animals are probably the most important sources of protein in most areas of Lao PDR. Wildlife is also an important source of protein in most rural areas. Over 1 400 species of wild animals have been identified and about 90 percent probably are used by local people (IUCN 2001). Some 31 mammal species, 24 bird species and 13 reptile species were recorded as being eaten (Foppes and Ketphanh 1997).

No official permit is issued for hunting and people hunt unprotected species. The species under the controlled category can also be hunted during the non-breeding season but only for food and not for sale. However, most animal species have been hunted heavily for subsistence use and local sale. Not only unprotected species, but a number of protected wildlife species like pangolins and several other animals are suffering from heavy illegal hunting.

REFERENCES

Enfield, N.J., Ramangkhoun, B. & Vongkhamsao, V. 1998. Case study on constraints in marketing of non-timber forest products in Champasak Province, Lao PDR. Consultant’s Report 1/98. National Agriculture & Forestry Research Institute. Vientiane, Lao PDR, Forest Research Center.

Flint, C. 2000. Conservation and development for guardian villages in Dong Huasao national biodiversity conservation area. Consultancy Report. Biodiversity Conservation Project, IUCN.

Forsen, M., Larsson, J. & Samuelsson, S. 2001. Paper mulberry cultivation in the Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR: production, marketing and socio-economic aspects. Minor Field Studies No. 140. Uppsala, Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Foppes, J. & Ketphanh, S. 2000. Draft: Forest extraction or cultivation ? Local solutions from Lao PDR. Paper for the workshop on The Evolution and Sustainability of "Intermediate Systems" of Forest Management, FOREASIA, 28 June to 1 July 2000, Lofoten, Norway.

Foppes, J. & Ketphanh, S. 1997. The use of non-timber forest products in Lao PDR. Paper presented at the workshop on Protected Area Management, Xishuangbanna, 3–8 November 1997. National Agriculture & Forestry Research Institute. Forest Research Center. Vientiane. Lao PDR.

IUCN. 2001. Draft: Conserving forests and alleviating poverty through sustainable production and trade in NTFPs. Proposal for the second phase of the Non-Timber Forest Products Project in Lao PDR. Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Ketphanh, S. 2001. Non-wood forest products in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. In Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific. RAP Publication 1995/13. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Lamxay, V. 2001. Important non-timber forest products of Lao PDR.. Vientiane, Lao PDR, Forest Research Center.

Manivong, K. 1996. Forest resources dependency of rural community: a case study in two villages of Thaphabath District, Bolikhamxay Province, Lao PDR. A Master of Rural Development Management thesis. Khonkaen, Thailand, Khon Kaen University.

NTFP/Dept. Forestry. 1992. Proposal for sustainable utilisation of non-timber forest products in Lao PDR. Vientiane, Government of Lao PDR.

Saydala, K. & Lamxay, V. 2000. Non-timber forest products with commercial potential in Lao PDR. Vientiane, Lao PDR, Forest Research Center.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Mr Khamphay Manivong.

The following persons have also contributed to the preparation of this report:

Mr Pheng Souvanthong, Deputy Head of Division of Forest Management and Protection, Department of Forestry; Mr Viloun Soydara, Senior Adviser, IUCN-NTFP Project; Mr Sounthone Ketphanh, IUCN-NTFP Project Director; Mr Soupany Siripoungno, Head of Provincial Forestry Section Champassak Province; Mr Bounsay Saphangthong, Deputy Director of the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office, Champassak; Mr Houmpheng, Director of the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office, Oudomxai; Mr Khamphone Sengdara, Deputy Head of NTFP Section, Forestry Research Centre; Mr Vongvilay Vongkhansao; Mr Vichit Lamxay and Mr Bandith Ramangkoun.

Additional information on NWFP in Lao PDR would be appreciated and duly acknowledged.

CONTACTS

Government organizations, projects and consultancy firms

Contact persons, organization, district, phone, fax

Soupany Siripungno, Provincial Forestry Section, Pakse, (856-31) 212177

Bounthong Xaisida, National Food Programme, Chanthaboury

Chanthanet Boualapha, Science Technology and Environment Organization, Chanthaboury

Houmchitsavath Sodarak, Agroforestry Research Station, Luang Prabang, (856-71) 212099, 856 71 212467

Khamphay Manivong, Forestry Research Centre, Chanthaboury, (856-21) 513138, 856 21 732298

Mr Bandith Ramangkoun, Non-Timber Forest Products Information Centre, Xaythany, 0205118827, (856-21) 732298

Mr Bounlieng, Provincial Forestry Section, Phonhong, (856-23) 215590

Mr Chanthavone, Service of Border Trade, Xayabury

Mr Kham Deng Keopaseut, Agriculture and Forestry Division, Xamneua

Mr Bounlith, Provincial Forestry Section, Lamarm, (031) 212476

Mr Soukkaseum Bounsou, Provincial Forestry Section, Saysettha

Mr Bounthavy, Provincial Forestry Section, Thakhek, (856-51) 212067

Mr Khamsavai, Provincial Forestry Section, Xanakham

Mr Larmphone, Service of Border Trade, Xayabury

Mr Phouthong Sensulintha, Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office, Phonhong

Mr Some Ine, Provincial Forestry Section, Xamneua

Mr Syhanouvong, Provincial Forestry Section, Luang Prabang, (856-71) 212016, (856-71) 212016

Mr Sypheng Hommasouk, Trade Division, Xamneua

Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara, Medicinal Plant Information Centre, Chanthaboury

Sichanh Vonglokham, Ministry of Education, Chanthaboury

Sithisone Thephasy, Ministry of Finance, Chanthaboury

Sounthone Khetphanh, NTFP Project, Chanthaboury, (856-20) 511653, 856 21 732298

Sykeo Sayaphet, Provincial Forestry Section, Khanthabo, (856-41) 212007, 856 41 212941

Phetsamay Vongkhammonty, Department of Forestry, Chanthaboury

Mr Veung Vang Boudtalad, (856-21) 215000

Dr Bounhoung, Medicinal Plant Research Centre, Sisattanath

Martin Grahame, Consultancy: Project Management and Development and Exports from the Lao PDR, Sikhottabong, (856-21) 214992; (856 20) 511952; e-mail: nockiwi@pan-laos.net.la, (856 21) 214992

Dr Don Gilmore, IUCN Representative Office, Chanthaboury, (856-21) 216421, (856 21) 216422

Companies, factories, traders

Mrs Phouvieng, Phai Exclusive Trading Co. Ltd., Chanthaboury, (856-21) 214804

Mrs Vanh Seng Sisongkham, KLK Company, Chanthaboury, (856-21) 213320

Food Export-Import Enterprise Company, Pakse, (031) 212696

Bounhome Phommasan, Attapeu Export-Import Enterprise Ltd., Samakkhix, (031) 212449

Dr Visiane Luangkhamkeo, Phou doi Rattan Factory, Khamkheut, (846-54)

Kikham Phonsouk, Champakham Factory Plywood Industry Co., Ltd., Bachiangc, (031) 214121

Mr Armphaivarn, Oudom Sarp Co., Ltd., Pakse, (856-31) 212495

Mr Bounyoung, Saysanit Bamboo Factory, Naxaithong

Mr Bounphet, Say kham Export Co., Luang Prabang, (856-71) 212221, (856-71) 212221

Mr Chanua Fracis, Exp-Imp Forest Products Co., Chanthaboury, (856-21) 215665, (856-21) 222622

Mr Hong Phanthavong, Phanthavong Bamboo Factory, Sikhottabong, (856-21) 312384

Mr Kham Phet, Rattan Factory Lak Seip, Hadxaiphong

Mr Khampheng Vongkhanty, Exp-Imp Forest Products Co., Chanthaboury, (856-21) 215665, (856-21) 216261

Mr Maeisien, Semi and Finished Rattan Product Factory, Pakse, 856 (020) 212232

Mr Man Chai, Bamboo Shoot & Sugar Palm Cane Factory, Tonpheung, (856-84)

Mr Saikham, Rattan Factory, Phonhong, 856 (020) 511 171

Mr Sangthong, Rattan Handicraft Factory, Xayabury

Mr Sanine, Bamboo Shoot Factory, Phonhong

Mr Sombat, S.P Bamboo Factory, Chanthaboury, (856-21) 212856, (856-21) 212856

Mr Somsack, Forestry Development Co., Luang Prabang, (856-71) 212325

Mr Viliem Laolie, Sengpha Trading Import Œ-Export Co.Ltd, Pakse

Mr Viphet Sihachack, Societe Commerciale Lao, Sisattanak, (856-21) 313964-5, (856-21) 313962

Mr Visai Sinchalien, Sinchalien Trading Import Œ-Export Company, Khanthabo, (856-41) 212734

Mr Xiengkhamdie, Trading Development Exp-Imp Co., Luang Prabang, (856-71) 212215-6, (856-71) 212809

Mr Khambong Sivisay, Export-Import Development Company, Khanthabo, (856-41) 212794

Mr Khanphanin Lathsamy, D. Siva Trading, Khanthabo, (856-41) 212351

Mr Khonesavanh, Phathanaphanit Import- Export, Khanthabo

Mr. Manivanh Sengchane, No. 2 Company, Khanthabo, (856-41) 212234

Mrs Kham Ngod Vongsakda, Phet Khamxay Co. Ltd, Pakse, (856-31) 212202

Source: Non-Timber Forest Products Information Centre, Forestry Research Centre

 

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF LAO PDR

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

1

Bamboo shoots

Dendrocalamus spp.

F, O

 

W, C

N, I

Export of 10 000 kg (US$5 167) in 1998

Quota for dried shoots 2000–01:

187 MT

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

NIC Database

1

Rattan fruits

Calamus spp.

fr

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of rattan fruits: 65 882 kg in 1998

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

NIC Database;

Enfield et al. 1998;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project;

Ketphanh 1995

1

Sugar palm fruit

Arenga westerhoutii

Arenga pinnata

fr

F

W

N,I

Export of 982 000 MT in 1998 (US$320 132)

Quota 1994–98:

6 020 MT. The main market is Thailand

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997; IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

 

1

Malva nuts

Scaphium macropodum

fr

F

W

I,N

US$ 3.00–3.70/kg

Export of 837 940 kg in 1998 (US$1 340 704)

Due to irregular fruiting, production and exports are irregular. Most recent harvesting years: 1995, 1998 & 2001. Main market: China. Quota 2000–01:

1 700 MT

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

Flint 2000;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Medicines

1

Cardamom

Amomum sp.

(f)

F,P,O

W,C

I

Export of 424 347 kg in 1998 (US$23 763 43)

Annual production of at least 200–250 MT of seeds. Export price/kg: US$5.60

Quota 1994–98:

3 877 MT. 300–600 kg/ha yield. It accounts for 90% of export income

Saydala and Lamxay 2000;

IUCN/DOF;

Lamxay 2001;

Ingles et al. 1998;

Ketphanh 1995;

NIC Database

Yahoa medicine

Smilax glabra

Export of 33 000 kg in 1998

Quota 2000–01:

10 MT

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Perfumes, cosmetics

1

Eaglewood

Aquilaria spp.

pl

F

W

I

Export of 26 192 kg in 1998

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project; Foppes and Ketphanh 1997

1

Bong bark

Notaphoebe umbelliflora

Persea kuzii

Persea umbelliflora

ba

F

W

N, I

Export of 286 710 kg in 1998 (US$91 747)

Quota: 1 200 MT in 2000–01

Saydala and Lamxay 2001

1

Sa pan, peuak meuak

Boemeria malabarica

ba

F

W

N

Exports for 1996–98 averaged 168 MT p/a (annually US$37 800)

Mainly exported to China

Flint 2000

Utensils, handicrafts and construction materials

2

Paper mulberry

Broussonnetia papyrifera

bark

P,O,F

W,C

N,I

Export of 400 000 kg in 1998 (US$ 200 000)

Quota 2000–01: 825 MT. Farm gate price for dried bark: US$ 0.23/kg in 2000,export price for Grade A US$0.92/kg and for Grade B US$0.85/kg Production of pulp 440 MT p/a of which 80% is exported to Thailand, 10% to South Korea and 10% to China

Jensen et al. 2001; Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

Forsen et al. 2001;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

3

Broom grass

Tiger grass

Thysanolaema maxima

Thysanolaema latifolia

(l)

F,O

W,C

N, I

Price at local markets: US$0.25–0.60/kg Export: 825 542 kg (US$350 022)

Quota: 1 140 MT in 2000–01

Lamxay 2001;

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

IUCN/DOF NTFP

1

Bamboo

Gigantochloa albociliata

Bambusa arundianaria

Bambusa nana

Bambusa tulda

Cephalostachyumvirgatum

Oxythenanthera parvifolia

Bambusa blumeana

Neuhouzea mekkhongensis

Dendrocalamus sp.

st

F, O

 

W, C

N

Export of culms 161 466 kg (US$5 167) in 1998. The use of bamboo culms in Vientiane about 1 000 000 culms p/a; price for 5 m long culm is US$0.20–0.40

Quota issued

2000–01 for culms: 1 633 000 pieces

In Vientiane, bamboo processing factories provide work for about 1 500 people

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

NIC Database;

Ketphanh 1995

1

Rattan

Calamus tenuis

Daemonorops schmidtiana

Calamus javanensis

Calamus poilanei

Calamus palustris

st

F,P

W,C

N, I

Export value

1994–98 was

about $0.5 millillion

Export of rattan fruits 65 882 in 1998 and of rattan canes 12 000 kg (US$1 200)

Quotas issued:

2000–01: 1 150 000 pieces of big cane, 565 000 pieces of small cane, 11 MT of fruit

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997;

NIC Database;

Enfield et al. 1998;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project;

Ketphanh 1995

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Ornamentals

1

Orchid stems

Dendrobium spp.

st

F

W

N, I

Export of 68 015 kg in 1998

Quota 2000–01:

33 MT

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Exudates

1

Damar resin

Shorea spp.

(Shorea obtusa

Shorea derrii

Vatica cinerea

Anisoptera costata)

F

W

I

Quota issued 1994-98

96 566 MT. Export of 1 525 566 kg in 1998 (US$305 113)

Production potential of a tree with a diameter more than 30 cm: 15–20 kg

Exports mainly to Thailand

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997; Lamxay 2001;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project; Manivong, 1996;

NIC Database

1

Oleoresin

Dipterocarpus alatus

(e)

F

W

N,I

Export of 274 400 kg (US$92 198) in 1998

Foppes and Ketphanh 1997; NIC Database;

Cleron 1998

1

Benzoin

Styrax tonkinensis

(e)

F

W

I

Export of 15 500 kg in 1998 (US$46 500)

Quota: 35 MT in 2000–01

NIC Database;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Meuak bark

Debregaesia hypoleuca

I

Export of 91 500 kg (US$18 300) in 1998

Quota 2000–01:

70 MT

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

1

Fern roots

Helminthostachys zeylanica

F

W

N, I

Export of 816 kg (US$2 530) in 1997

Quota 1994–98:

50 MT

Quota 2000–01:

50 MT

NIC Database;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

1

Vomica nuts

Strychnos nux-vomica

nu

F

W

N, I

Export of 25 130 kg (US$2 010) in 1998

Quota 2000–01:

35 MT

NIC Database;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

1

Dragon’s blood plants

Draceana spp.

e

F

W

N, I

Export of 178 000 kg in 1998 (US$71 200)

Quota 2000–01:

105 MT

Foppes and Ketpanh 1997;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Sisiet bark

Pentace siamensis

Export of 8 780 kg in 1997

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Sticklack

Lacca spp.

Export of 156 500 kg in 1998

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

1

Berberin vine

Coscitum usitatum

st

F

W

N,I

Export of 23 900 kg in 1998

Quota 2000–01:

1 690 MT

NIC Database;

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Animals and animal products

Honey, beeswax

 

Honey and wax

   

F

W

N

Estimated production p/a: 5–10 MT

In local rural markets the price paid to collectors is US$0.80–1.00/litre, in town markets US$2.00/litre Solified wax sold in local markets for US$4.00–5.00/kg

Ketphanh 1995

Other edible animal products

 

Dried lizards

Gecko spp.

       

Export of 2 114 kg (US$25 232) in 1996

 

IUCN/DOF NTFP Project

Importance: 1 – high importance at the national level; 2 – high importance at the local/regional level; 3 – low importance

Parts used: an – whole animal; ba – bark; bw – beeswax; le – leaves; nu – nuts; fi – fibres; fl – flowers; fr – fruits; gu – gums;

ho – honey; la – latex; oi – oil; pl – whole plant; re – resins; ro – roots; sa – sap; se – seeds; st – stem; ta – tannins

Habitat: F – natural forest or other wooded lands; P – plantation; O – trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W – wild, C – cultivated

Destination: N – national; I – international

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