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SRI LANKA

INTRODUCTION

Main non-wood forest products

The most important NWFP in Sri Lanka are rattan, bamboo, medicinal plants and kitul products. Other important NWFP in Sri Lanka are edible plants, honey and grazing.

General information

According to the Forest Ordinance of Sri Lanka the following materials are declared "non-wood forest produce":

Leaves, flowers and fruit, seeds, juice, catechu, wood oil, resin, natural varnish, bark, lac, gum and myrabolans.
Plants that are not trees, including grass, creepers, reed moss and all parts or produce of such plants.
Tusk horns, shed horns and edible bird nests.
Peat, surface soil, rocks and minerals, including limestone, laterite, bitumen, bituminous shale, asphalt, mineral oils and all products of mines or quarries (Bharathie 1994).

Due to cultural and socio-economic factors, such as the caste system and poverty, even those people who live at a considerable distance from forests are also engaged in the collection of NWFP (FD/IUCN 1995).

Table 1. Important NWFP in different forest types in Sri Lanka

 

NWFP

Forest services

Forest type

Rattan

Bamboo

Medicinal plants

Kitul produce

Edible plants

Honey

Bushmeat

Ecotourism

Grazing

Montane

-

-

*

-

*

*

*

**

*

Submontane

*

**

**

***

*

*

*

*

*

Lowland rain

**

**

*

***

*

*

*

***

*

Moist monsoon

*

*

*

-

*

*

**

*

**

Dry monsoon

*

-

*

-

*

*

**

***

***

Savannah

*

-

**

-

**

*

**

*

*

Mangroves

-

-

*

-

*

-

*

*

-

*** - Very significant * - Marginal

** - Significant - - Not significant

Generally collection is undertaken by the entire family (Bandaratillake 1995). Few NWFP enter the foreign market, with the exception of handicrafts made from bamboo and rattan. The sales of bamboo and rattan goods were SL Rs2.5 million in 1986. According to Bharathie (1994) sales have declined since then.

Table 2. Average number of NWFP collected by forest type

Forest type

Climatic region

Number of NWFP

Montane forests

Montane zone

13

Submontane forests

Wet zone

37

Lowland rain forests

Wet zone

37

Moist monsoon forests

Intermediate zone

46

Dry monsoon forests

Dry zone

48

Savannah forests

Dry zone

38

Source: FD/IUCN (1995)

Only little processing is done prior to their sale. Most industries based on NWFP generate only part-time employment, with the exception of the bamboo and rattan industries (Bharathie 1994).

 

PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

Food

Kitul (Caryota urens) is a multipurpose tree species found in natural forests and home gardens. This species provides a variety of popular products, of which the sap is the most important. Kitul sap is the base for local beer (toddy), treacle and jaggery. Treacle and jaggery are sugary substances which are used in preparing a variety of traditional sweets. Other non-wood kitul products include the sago-like pith, which forms a valuable food, and kitul fibre, which is obtained from the leaves (Bandaratillake 1995).

Kitul tapping has a long history in Sri Lanka. A special cast (hakuru) makes their living from kitul tapping and jaggery making. In general the income generated by villagers from tapping is sufficient for their normal livelihoods. In most of the wet zone forests, kitul products generate over 70 percent of NWFP income for village communities (Bandaratillake 1995). The average value of kitul products from lowland rain forests is around SL Rs.20 000/ha/year (US$200/ha/year). The average household income from kitul products ranges between SL Rs.15 00020 000/year.

Table 3. Income from kitul products in wet zone forests (US$1.00 = SL Rs.50)

Forest

Extent (ha)

Ave. income from forest (SL Rs./ha/y)

Income from kitul

(SL Rs./ha/y)

% income from kitul

Dellawa

3 394

13 085

9 260

70.7

Eratne-gilimale

4 920

17 564

15 749

89.6

Kalugala

2 892

10 479

2 399

22.8

Bambarabotuwa

4 540

15 675

13 741

87.6

Source: Bandaratillake (1995)

Although production is localized, there is a high demand for kitul products all over the country in both rural and urban markets. Products are marketed either through middlemen or directly by producers. One of the basic problems in marketing jaggery and treacle is the lack of quality control measures. Kitul toddy marketing has been affected seriously by current legal restrictions. As a result, toddy is either consumed by the tappers or sold secretly in villages. Kitul products are not exported at present (Bandaratillake 1995).

The role of edible plants may not be very important at the national level, but quite a large number of people who live in the vicinity of forest areas still depend on the forests for some of their food needs. In the intermediate and dry zone forests, collection rates are high (6570 percent of households), while in montane forest zones, far fewer people collect food from the forests (20 percent of households) (Bandaratillake 1995). Common edible plants gathered from Sri Lankan forests are listed in Bandaratillake (1995).

There are two major groups of edible plants: edible higher plants and fungi (mushrooms). Most of the parts of edible higher plants such as roots, tubers, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, are used as food (Bandaratillake 1995). Four major types of yams are collected. These are: katuala, gonala, jamburala and hiritala (Dioscorea spp.). The katuala yam is the most common. Harvesting yams from the forest for domestic consumption is an island-wide activity (Bandaratillake 1995). Fruits of goraka (Garcinia cambogia), madu (Cycas circinalis), beraliya (Monochoria hastata), hal (Jateria copallifera), gal siyambla (Dialium ovoideum) and wood apple (Feronia limonia) are consumed as both fruits and vegetables (Bandaratillake 1995). Some other fruits collected by the villagers are palu (Manilkara hexandra), weera (Drypetes sepiaria), thumba-karawila (Momordica dioica), etamba (Mangifera zeylanica), mora (Nephelium), wira (Drypetes sepiaria) , madan (Syzygium cumini), katuboda (Culleia ceylanica), beraliya (Shorea dyeri), jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and beli (Aegle marmelos) (Bharathie 1994). Some of these fruits fetch high prices in the local market.


Many other food items collected from the forest are consumed as vegetables or fruits; for instance the dried seeds of mee (Palaquim grande) are used for the extraction of edible oil (Bandaratillake 1995). Most foods are used for household consumption, although a limited number of items are sold in markets (Bandaratillake 1995).

Mushroom collection is a country-wide activity in every forest type. Kamalhathu and aturuhatu are found in the lowland rain forests and submontane forests, and indololu and several other types are found in the moist monsoon and dry monsoon forests. The highest mushroom collections have been recorded in the submontane and lowland rain forests. Generally, mushrooms are collected by villagers for domestic consumption only. Collection for sale is very rare (Bandaratillake 1995).

Medicines

Medicinal plants are collected from the forest for both domestic use and sale. The medical system practised in Sri Lanka is called Ayurveda. This science was developed in India and it has spread to almost all Asian and Southeast Asian countries (Pilipitiya 1995). The flowers, roots, bark and leaves of numerous natural forest plants are used to cure a variety of health problems.

About 2 700 plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic books. Bharathie (1994) has listed the most common medicinal plants. Different plant parts are used in medicines (e.g. bark, leaves, seeds and flowers). The largest volume of medicinal plants collected and the highest family income from collection have been recorded from the savannah forests in Bibile (the average family income from collection represents around 70 percent of the total income derived from the collection of all NWFP). Over 60 percent of the villagers are involved in this activity (Bandaratillake 1995).

A new industry has developed to produce local pharmaceutical herbal products and there are about 75 manufacturing units in the country (Pilipitiya 1995). Shops selling indigenous medicines and herbal preparations are common in both rural and urban areas (Bandaratillake 1995).

No systematic large-scale cultivation of medicinal plants exists as yet (Pilipitiya 1995). Many medicinal plants have been overexploited due to the lack of planned management, and as a result, many herbal medicines that could be grown in Sri Lanka are now imported (e.g. kohomba (Munronia pumila), weniwel (Cosciniun feenestratum). Currently, kohomba is imported from India at a cost of about SL Rs.1 000/kg (Bharathie 1994). Average annual income from the collection of medicinal plants in savannah forests and other forest types ranges from SL Rs.20 00025 000 and SL Rs.3 0008 000 respectively (Bandaratillake 1998).

Medicinal plants are exported from Sri Lanka to several countries and the value of exports in 1999 amounted to SL Rs.116 million (US$1.7 million). The import of medicinal plants to Sri Lanka in 1999 was about SL Rs.66 million (US$943 000). In 1993 the value of exports was US$2 million.

Utensils, handicrafts and construction materials

The uses of rattan range from housing construction material (for wattle and daub houses), raw material for furniture and artifacts, small wood needs, house and kitchen utensils and other uses such as roping material. At present some rattan is imported due to the shortage in raw material from natural forests (Bandaratillake 1998).

In Sri Lanka, rattan comes primarily from the natural forests. The native species include Calamus zeylanicus (thambotu wel), Calamus ovoideus (sudu wewel), Calamus thwaitesii, (ma wewel, wanduru wel), Calamus pseudotenuis (heen wewel, kola hangala), Calamus rivalis (kaha wewel, ela wewel), Calamus delicatulus (nara wel), Calamus rotang and Calamus didltatus, C. radiatus, C. pachystemonus (kukulu wel) (De Zoysa and Vivekanandan 1991).

According to surveys conducted in formulating the Master Plan for Handicraft Development in Sri Lanka (1987), about 2 100 to 2 200 persons earned their primary family income (over one-third of their income) from the rattan craft industry. Full-time and part-time workers are nearly equal in number.

A study carried out by the Forest Department (Epitawatta 1994) indicates that in almost every village near the wet zone forests, 20 to 60 percent of villagers collect rattan either for commercial purposes or for their own subsistence consumption. Only in some dry zone areas (e.g. Dimbulagala), do more than half of all villagers earn substantial income from rattan collection and cottage industry production. Polonnaruwa, Batticaloa and Ampara districts are the main rattan-producing districts in the dry zone. Average annual income from rattan for people involved in Polonnaruwa District ranges from SL Rs.20 000 to 30 000 per household (Bandaratillake 1998).

The main marketing channels for rattan craft products are handicraft and furniture shops in the major cities of Sri Lanka. Due to small-scale production, craft workers lack capital and very often they depend on middlemen for marketing. Rattan furniture and handicrafts are also manufactured and sold in a rattan craft village called Weweldeniya (land of rattan) (Bandaratillake 1995).

Rattan products are exported to seven countries and the value of exports in 1993 was SL Rs.1.5 million (US$20 000). The export of rattan products has declined during recent years because of the shortage of raw material and the poor quality of products. However, the value of imports of rattan in 1993 was SL Rs.2.4 million (US$32 000) which exceeds the value of exports of rattan products. Rattan exports have increased during recent years after the government's decision in 1996 to waiver the import duties on timber and rattan as a strategy for the conservation of forest resources in the country.

In addition to its major use as a construction material, bamboo is used in the production of furniture and domestic utensils such as baskets and ornamental items. In the construction industry, bamboo is used for scaffolding and for construction of temporary structures, water lines, and fences. Bamboo is very effective in reducing stream and river bank erosion, and commonly is planted for this purpose. The traditional industry of basketware and bamboo flutes is based almost exclusively on a single native species, bata (Ochlandra stridula). Davidsea attenuata and Pseudoxytenantherea monadelpha are two other local species used to produce crude basketware. Four bamboo species, Ochlandra stridula, Davidsea attenuata, Bamboosa vulgaris and Dendrocalamus giganteus are used widely in cottage industries (Bharathie 1994).

According to surveys carried out during the formulation of the Master Plan for Handicraft Development in Sri Lanka (1987), the number of workers engaged in bamboo craft production is fewer than those engaged in rattan production (Bandaratillake 1995). According to De Zoysa and and Vevekandan (1991) 330 workers worked full-time and 364 part-time in the bamboo industry, with varying incomes.

Exudates

There are several tree species in Sri Lankan forests from which gums and resins are collected, e.g. dawn (Angeissus latifolia), hik (Linnea coromandelica) and gammalu (Pterocarpus marsupium). The resin obtained from the latter is used widely in Sri Lanka to treat diabetes. Gum obtained from kaju (Anacardium occidentale) is used locally as an adhesive. Kaju is planted widely as an export crop for its nuts, but few trees occur naturally in the forests. Another gum, locally used as an adhesive, is kohomba gum (Azadiracta indica) (Bharathie 1994).

Resin from pine (Pinus caribaea) raised in forest plantations is now entering the export market. Except for pine resin, none of the other gums and resins is collected on a large scale. Damar resins are produced by various species of dipterocarps. The best known product, dorana oil, is obtained from the dorana tree (Dipterocarpus glandulosus). This oil mixed with other organic substances was used to paint murals in ancient temples in Sri Lanka (Bharathie 1994).

Kekuna (Canarium zeylaicum) produces an oleoresin that is collected in small quantities and is used as incense. When distilled, kekuna oleoresin yields phyllandrin which is exported (Bharathie 1994).

Dipterocarpus and Canarium species have been exploited heavily for timber in the wet evergreen forests of Sri Lanka. Of the dipterocarps, only about one tree per hectare with a diameter greater than 120 cm can be found in natural forests from which damar resin can be extracted (Bharathie 1994).

Others

Forest tree leaves are used widely in Oriental medical treatment. A few are also used as wrappers and as leaf vegetables.

The most important species and their uses are: bidi leaf (Diospyros melanoxylon) to wrap bidi, a cheap cigarette; kenda (Macaranga peltata) to wrap jaggery and other sweetmeats; beru (Agrostistachys hookeri) for thatching huts; bata leaves (Ochlandra stridula) to thatch village houses; madurutala (Hortonia floribunda) a mosquito repellent; blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) to distill oil that contains cineole (Bharathie 1994).

 

ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Honey and beeswax

Three types of beehives are identified by their locations: in the cavities of large trees, in termite mounds and among rocks (FD/IUCN 1995). Generally honey collection is more significant in moist monsoon, dry monsoon and savannah forest types than in other forest types. Only a few people (about 34 percent) in a village are involved in this activity.

The average collection in the dry monsoon and savannah forests is about 50 bottles/ household/year and the income range is around SL Rs.3 0005 000 per household/year. Bee honey is sold at village fairs by the collectors or by the members of their families, but sometimes it is accumulated and sold to middlemen.

Bushmeat

According to the current Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance, hunting of any animal in wildlife reserves and sanctuaries, and hunting of protected animals in other forests, is prohibited. Despite these legal restrictions, villagers in peripheral areas still use bushmeat to supplement their diets. The percentage of villagers who engage in hunting is greater in the dry zone (about 50 to 60 percent) than in the wet zone (about 6 to 10 percent). More than 80 percent of the villagers engaged in hunting, hunt either for family consumption or for sale. Others hunt to protect their crops from wild animals. Villagers use two methods of hunting game guns and traditional methods. Hunters use shot guns, muzzle loaders and trap guns. Traditional hunting methods include various types of traps and using hunting dogs. The method varies with the type of animal being hunted (Bandaratillake 1995).

The most common animal hunted in all regions is the wild boar (Sus scrofa). Other animals commonly hunted in the dry zone are spotted deer (Axis axis), sambhur (Cervas uriscolor), porcupine (Hystrix indica), mouse deer (Tragulus meminna), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura) and monkey (Macaca sinica). Among the birds most commonly hunted are: Ceylon jungle fowl (Gallus laffayettii), Ceylon spurfowl (Galloperdix bicalarta) and green pigeon (Treron pampadour). In general, small animals such as monkeys, giant squirrels, porcupines and jungle fowl are consumed by villagers. A high proportion of large animals like wild boar, sambhur and deer are sold. Although the sale of bushmeat is prohibited by law, there is a very high demand for this meat in urban areas. As a result, many of the large animals, other than wild boar, are threatened with extinction due to hunting. In some areas, the numbers of monkeys and deer are diminishing rapidly (FD/IUCN 1995). Large areas of forest and forest plantations are also destroyed every year as the result of careless use of fire to trap animals (Bandaratillake 1995).

Although only few people (3 to 4 percent) in villages of peripheral areas are involved in hunting as a livelihood, they receive a high income from this activity. A recent survey in some of the dry zone protected areas showed that their incomes from hunting and sale of bushmeat is around SL Rs.120 000 to 150 000 per year (Bandaratillake 1998).

Other edible animal products

A significant feature in the southern part of the dry zone, is the sale of milk products, particularly curd, which is in high demand in urban areas (Bandaratillake 1995). In the dry zone apart from milk products, the villagers also sell cattle for meat. The average annual family income from cattle rearing on forest lands in this part of the country is about SL Rs.15 000 to 20 000 (US$150 to 225) whilst this income for large-scale cattle owners is around SL Rs.50 000 to 120 000 (US$550 to 1 300) per year (Bandaratillake 1998). The average annual family income from cattle rearing in the wet zone is reported to be less than SL Rs.9 000 (US$100). The production of milk products and meat is not sufficient for consumption in the country and therefore these products are not exported from Sri Lanka.

REFERENCES

Bandaratillake, H.M. 1995. Use of non wood forest products by village communities in Sri Lanka. In Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific. RAP Publication 1995/13. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Bandaratillake, H.M. 1998. Rattan genetic resources in Sri Lanka, bamboo and rattan genetic resources in certain Asian countries. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)/FORTIP/INBAR.

Bandaratillake, H.M. 1998. Opportunities for utilization and development of non wood forest products in the priority protected areas. Biodiversity Conservation Project, Sri Lanka. (Unpublished.)

De Soyza, N.D. & Vivekanandan, K. 1991. The bamboo and rattan cottage industry in Sri Lanka, livelihood in danger. Sri Lanka, Forest Department.

FD/IUCN. 1995. Traditional use of natural forests in Sri Lanka, Vol. I and II. Sri Lanka, Forest Department, Sri Lanka/IUCN The World Conservation Union.

Pilapitiya, U. 1995. Traditional use of non wood forest products in Ayurvedic Medicine in Sri Lanka. In Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non wood forest products in Asia and Pacific. RAP Publication 1995/13. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Mr H.M. Bandaratillake, Forest Department, "Sampathpaya", Rajamalwatta Road, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.

The following persons have also contributed to the preparation of the report: D. Kariyawasam, Conservator of Forests (Operations), Forest Department; M.P.A.U.S. Fernando, Conservator of Forests (Research & Education), Forest Department; H.G. Gunawardane, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Forest Department; M.P. Attanayake, Divisional Forest Officer, Polonnaruwa; P.L.B.T. Premaratna, Divisional Forest Officer, Hambantota; Sunil Liyanage, former Additional Director, Department of Wildlife Conservation; S. Wickramasinghe, Deputy Director, Forest Resource Management Project, Ministry of Forestry & Environment; and N.B. Karunaratna, Consultant, Medicinal Plant Conservation Project.

Additional information on NWFP in Sri Lanka would be appreciated and duly acknowledged.

ANNEX 1. FOREST SERVICES

Ecotourism activities in Sri Lanka are concentrated mainly in the following areas: national parks (12) managed by the Department of Wild Life Conservation (DWLC), World Heritage Site (National Heritage and Wilderness Area) and conservation forests (2) managed by the Forest Department (FD). Facilities such as ecolodges, camping sites, nature trails, interpretation centres, guided excursions etc. are available in most of these areas. In addition there are nature reserves (3), strict natural reserves (3), sanctuaries (52) and conservation forests (30) in the network of protected areas. Some of these areas have good potential for development to cater to the ecotourism industry.

Currently Sri Lanka is not a popular ecotourism destination for foreign tourists. According to the information available, out of an annual average of 350 000 foreign tourists during the last few years, only about 10 to 12 percent have visited ecotourism facilities.

 

Table 4. Visitors to the main protected areas in 1997

Protected area

Management agency

Foreign visitors

Local visitors

Total

(quantity)

Value

(US$)

Yala National Park (NP)

DWLC

12 921

30 709

43 630

 

Udawalawe N.P.

DWLC

3 275

54 006

57 281

 

Bundala N.P*

DWLC

16 448

17 300

33 748

 

Wasgamuwa N.P.

DWLC

349

13 443

13 792

 

Horton Plains N.P.

DWLD

1 859

152 853

154 712

 

Subtotal

     

303 163

700 000

Sinharaja World Heritage Site

FD

1 287

22 409

23 696

 

Knuckles Conservation Forest

FD

-

3 819

3 819

 

Udawattakele Conservation

Forest

FD

2 274

14 439

16 713

 

Subtotal

     

44 228

17 000

Total

 

38 413

308 978

347 391

717 000

* Wetland and forest

Forests in Sri Lanka also have religious, cultural and social values for local people. From a home garden or a forest, the villagers gather firewood, leaves, fruits and medicinal plants. The villagers also enjoy watching birds. There are important food items which villagers prepare with plants and leaves as part of the rituals of daily life. These include the taking of herbal gruel in the morning and herbal tea between meals. This traditional habit is said to have ensured the health of Sri Lanka's people in ancient times. Western-qualified doctors are encouraging people to resurrect the ancient practice of having a cup of herbal gruel each day. Many restaurants in Colombo have begun providing herbal gruel for sale on a regular basis (Pilipitiya 1995).

Villagers living in the vicinity of forests still use the forests for grazing their cattle. Despite the introduction of tractors, most of the villagers, particularly those in remote areas, still use buffaloes as traction animals for agriculture and they consider cattle-rearing to be an important domestic activity which benefits them economically (Bandaratillake 1995).

 

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF SRI LANKA

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

1

Kitul

Caryota urens

sa

F, O

W, C

N

Av. value of kitul products from lowland rain forests is around SL Rs.20 000/ha p/a (US$200/ha p/a)

Av. household income from kitul products is

SL Rs.15 000 20 000 p/a

Bandaratillake 1995

Medicines

 

Medicinal plants

         

Export of SL Rs.116 million (US$1.7 million), import of SL Rs.66 million (US$943 000) in 1999

Av. value of plants p/a: SL Rs.20 00025 000 (savannah forests) and

SL Rs.3 0008 000 (other forests)

Bandaratillake 1998

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

1

Rattan

Calamus spp.

st

F

W

N, I

1993: export of

SL Rs.1.5 million (US$20 000)

Import of rattan in 1993: SL Rs.2.4 million (US$32 000)

Bandaratillake 1998

   

Bamboo

         

Export of bamboo and bamboo products:

SL Rs.80 000 (US$1 150) and import of SL Rs.55 000 (US$800) in 1999

Villagers collecting bamboo from state forests for basket making have an annual income of about SL Rs.4 000

8 000/household

Bandaratillake 1998;

Sri Lanka Custom Report

 

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Animals and animal products

Honey, beeswax

     

ho

F

W

N

Average collection in the dry monsoon and savannah forests: 50/bottles/household p/a, which generates an income of SL Rs.3 000 5 000 p/a

   

Bushmeat

     

an

F

W

N

Income from the sale of bushmeat in the dry zone: SL Rs.120 000150 000 p/a

 

Bandaratillake 1995

Grazing

     

an

 

C

N

Household income in the dry zone: SL Rs.15 000 20 000 p/a (US$150225);

SL Rs.50 000120 000 p/a(US$5501 300) for large- scale cattle owners in the same area. Household income in the wet zone less than SL Rs.9 000 p/a (US$100)

 

Bandaratillake 1998

Importance: 1 - high importance at the national level; 2 high importance at the local/regional level; 3 low imp ortance

Parts used: an whole animal; ba bark; bw beeswax; le leaves; nu nuts; fi fibres; fl flowers; fr fruits; gu gums;

ho honey; la latex; oi oil; pl whole plant; re resins; ro roots; sa sap; se seeds; st stem; ta tannins

Habitat: F natural forest or other wooded lands; P plantation; O trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W wild, C cultivated

Destination: N national; I international

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