Manual on the Diagnosis of Nipah Virus Infection in Animals













Table of Contents


RAP publication no. 2002/01


Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

Animal Production and Health Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA)



January 2002

The designation employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) not of the Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 974-680-208-9

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Application for the reproduction, should be addressed to Senior Animal Production and Health Officer/Secretary of APHCA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP), 39 Maliwan Mansion, Phra-Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.

© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


Editorial panel

Foreword

Summary

Chapter 1: The emergence of Nipah virus

Introduction
The emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia
The economic and social impacts of the outbreak
The putative natural host

Chapter 2: Working safely with Nipah virus

Risk assessment in field investigations - general principles
Safety procedures on Nipah-infected or suspected farms
Safety procedures in the laboratory with Nipah-infected or suspected samples

Chapter 3: Reaching a presumptive diagnosis on-farm

The clinical disease in pigs
Other susceptible domestic species
Necropsy findings in pigs
The epidemiological pattern of the disease

Chapter 4: Confirmatory laboratory diagnosis

Serological tests
Histopathology
Immunohistochemistry
Virus isolation
Electron microscopy
PCR

Chapter 5: Control and eradication

Advance planning
The organization of the control operation
Movement controls on pigs
Mass culling of active disease farms
Financial assistance
A national testing and surveillance programme
A national abattoir monitoring and testing programme

Chapter 6: Managing pig industries for freedom from Nipah virus infection

Actions from the pig industry
Actions from governments
Managing the risk from the wildlife reservoir

References

Appendices

Appendix 1: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for working on suspected Nipah virus infected premises
Appendix 2: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for performing necropsies and collecting serum samples on Nipah virus infected premises
Appendix 3: Checklist of equipment and supplies for Nipah virus field investigations
Appendix 4: A guide to sampling tissues for Nipah virus diagnosis: samples from natural and experimental cases in which Nipah virus has been identified
Appendix 5: Laboratories with PC4 facilities and Nipah virus research programmes
Appendix 6: Packing infectious substances - International Air Transport Association (IATA) packaging instruction 602
Appendix 7: Packing diagnostic specimens with a low probability of being infectious - International Air Transport Association (IATA) packaging instruction 650