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Appendices


Appendix 1: List of key organizations, traders, companies and experts on benzoin

A. Government organizations and officials:

Country

Name

Organization/Position

Mailing Address

Tel, Fax & E-mails

Australia

Mr. Khongsak Pinyopusarerk

Forest Research Officer, CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products (Team Leader, FAO Benzoin Project, 1996-98)

P.O. Box E4008
Kingston ACT 2604, Canberra

Tel.: 61-2-6281 8247
Fax: 61-2-6281 8266
khongsak@ffp.csiro.au

Indonesia

Ir Pipin H. Pandjaitan

Head, Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara [North Sumatra Forestry Service] (Information source of Sumatra benzoin)

Jl Sisingamangaraja,
14, km 5.5
Medan

Tel: 62-61-762065

Lao PDR

Mr. Sianouvong Savathvong

Chief, Forestry Section, Provincial Agriculture and Forestry (PAFO), (Province Coordinator, FAO Benzoin Project, 1996-98)

Luang Prabang Forestry Section,
P.O. Box 530
Luang Prabang

Tel.: 856-71-212 016
Fax: 856-71- 212 915

Lao PDR

Mr. Sommay Souligna

Forestry Section, Provincial Agriculture and Forestry (PAFO), (Field Manager, FAO Benzoin Project, 1996-98)

Luang Prabang Forestry Section,
P.O. Box 530
Luang Prabang

Tel.: 856-71-212 016
Fax: 856-71-212 915

Lao PDR

Mr. Kong Keo Silisack

District Agriculture and Forestry Office (DAFO), (Staff, FAO Benzoin Project, 1996-98)

Nam Bak town,
Nam Bak district,
Luang Prabang province

Not available

Lao PDR

Mr. Kamphai Manivong

Director, Forestry Research Centre, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI)

P.O. Box 7174
Vientiane

Tel./fax: (856-21) 732298
Mobile: (856-20) 513138
frcfiss@laotel.com

Lao PDR

Mr. Kamphone Mounlamai

Forestry Research Centre, NAFRI (National Project Coordinator, FAO Benzoin Project, 1996-98)

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), (He is now studying at AIT, Bangkok.)

st017009@ait.ac.th

Lao PDR

Mr. Bandith Ramangkoun

Director, Non-Timber Forest Products Information Centre (NIC), NAFRI

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), Vientiane

Tel/Fax: 856-21-415 774

Lao PDR

Mr. Sounthone Ketphanh

National Project Coordinator, NTFP Project, NAFRI

P.O. Box 4340
Vientiane

Tel./fax: 856-21-732 298
Mobile: 856-20- 511 653
frclao@laotel.com

Lao PDR

Mr. Chanpheng Bounnaphol

Acting President, Lao National Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Phonsay Road,
P.O. Box 4596
Vientiane

Tel.: 856-21-412 392
Fax: 856-21-414 383

Lao PDR

Mr. Diederik Koning

Co-Director, EC Micro Projects II (1998-2002), (Follow-up work of FAO Benzoin Project up to 2002)

P.O. Box 535
Luang Prabang

Tel.: 856-71-212 890
Fax: 856-71-212 776

Lao PDR

Mr. Chan Pheng Vilay

Coordinator for forestry activities, EC Micro Projects II

Luang Prabang Forestry Section,
P.O. Box 530
Luang Prabang

Tel.: 856-71-212 016
Fax: 856-71-212 915

Thailand

Mr. Prachoen Sroithongkham

Forestry Officer, Royal Forest Department (RFD) (Tapping consultant, FAO Benzoin Project, 1997-98)

NWFP Research Station,
Kladong, Pak Chong,
Nakorn Ratchasima 30320

Tel: 66-44-361 128

B. Benzoin tappers, traders and companies:

Country

Name

Organization/Position

Mailing Address

Tel, Fax & E-mails

Indonesia

Mr. Ali Johnsen

Vice President,
CV Aroma & Co.,
(major extractor of benzoin)

113-115 Jl Timor
Medan 20231

Tel. 62-61-530188
Fax 62-61-527338

Lao PDR

Mr. Sichanh

Benzoin tapper,
Headman of Ban Kachet village

Ban Kachet, Nam Bak district, Luang Prabang province

Not available

Lao PDR

Mr. Gong

Benzoin tapper,
Ban Kachet village

Ban Kachet, Nam Bak district, Luang Prabang province

Not available

Lao PDR

Mr. Tavanh

Benzoin tapper
Ban Kachet village

Ban Kachet, Nam Bak district, Luang Prabang province

Not available

Lao PDR

Mr. Francis Chagnaud

Benzoin trader,
Export Forestry Products Company

23-45 Pierre Morin Road,
P.O. Box 6622
Vientiane

Tel.: 856-21-216 276
Fax: 856-21-216 261
France:
Tel: 331-42760658
Fax: 331-42786926

Lao PDR

Mr. Kampheng Vongkanty

Benzoin trader,
Export Forestry Products Company

23-45 Pierre Morin Road,
P.O. Box 6622, Vientiane

Tel.: 856-21-216 276
Fax: 856-21-216 261

Lao PDR

Mr. Somsack Chantaphone

Benzoin Trader,
Society Development of Forest Export

P.O. Box 3859
House 073/1, Nokeo
Khoummane Road, Vientiane

Tel.: 856-21-215 812
Mobile: 020-511 289

Lao PDR

Mr. Bounpheng Chantaphone

Benzoin trader,
Society Development of Forest Export

Nokeo Khoummane
Road, 073/1
P.O. Box 3859
Luang Prabang

(Through Mr. Somsack)

Singapore

Mr. Quah Eng Hwee

Managing Director,
New Nanyang Benzoin Factory Private Ltd.
(major Sumatra benzoin trader and producer of block benzoin)

61 Defu Lane 12,
Defu Industrial Park,
Singapore 539147

Tel: 65-283 5709
Fax 65-280 0263

Singapore

Mr. Lee Cheng Suan

Manager;
Tjiat Seng & Co Pte Ltd.
(major Sumatra benzoin trader and producer of block benzoin)

P.O. Box 1893,
Singapore 913899

Tel: 65-289 5022
Fax: 65-234 0691

C. Individual experts who are familiar with benzoin:

Country

Name

Organization/Position

Mailing Address

Tel, Fax & E-mails

France

Mr. Renaud Costaz

Marketing consultant

88 bd Lepic 73100,
Aix Les Bains

Tel: 33-04-7961-0869
Fax: 33-04-7934-1472
RenaudC73@aol.com

Indonesia

Ms. Esther Katz

Researcher (benzoin),
Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
(Note: She left CIFOR for France.)

P.O. Box 6596
JKPWB
Jakarta 10065

Tel: 62-251-622622
Fax: 62-251-622100

Lao PDR

Mr. Manfred Fischer

Programme Adviser,
DANIDA Natural Resources and Environment Programme, Dept. of International Cooperation (DIC)
(Associate Professional Officer, FAO Benzoin Project, 1997-98)

DANIDA
P.O. Box 9990
Vientiane

Tel: 856-21-223 687
Fax: 856-21-223 688
silkfish@laonet.net Germany:
silkfish@gmx.net
(will leave for Germany in March 2002.)

Thailand

Mr. Masakazu Kashio

Forest Resources Officer,
FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific

Maliwan Mansion,
Phra Atit Road,
Bangkok 10200

Tel.: 66-2-697 4141
Fax: 66-2-697 4445
Masakazu.Kashio@fao.org

United Kingdom

Mr. John J. W. Coppen

Non-Timber Forest Products Specialist
(Marketing and processing consultant, FAO Benzoin Project)

12 Devon Close,
Rainham,
Kent ME8 7LG

Fax: 44-1634-379231
john.coppen@virgin.net

Appendix 2. Results of TLC analysis of 15 samples of benzoin[2]

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a means of separating mixtures of compounds into their component parts. A small amount of a solution of the mixture - in this case that of a benzoin sample - is spotted near the bottom of a glass plate coated with a thin layer of silica gel. When immersed in a shallow depth of solvent, the solvent is absorbed and travels up the plate, dragging each of the constituents of the mixture with it. Different constituents travel at different rates and the end-result is that when the solvent reaches the top of the plate they are spread in a line from bottom to top. By using a suitable detection system, the constituents are visibly revealed as spots on the plate. If more than one sample is analyzed on the same plate, spots which travel the same distance represent the same (or a similar) compound. TLC can therefore be used qualitatively to identify the same compounds in different samples. If standards are available then it may be possible to identify the compounds themselves. Some spots fluoresce under ultra-violet light. If a chemical spray reagent is used to detect the spots, different colors may be produced by different compounds, and this, too, assists identification.

The intensity (size) of the spot is proportional to the concentration of the compound in the mixture and so quantitative analysis is also possible under carefully controlled conditions.

15 samples of benzoin collected during the regional fieldwork were analyzed at the Royal Forest Department[3] and the results are shown below (over). Some of the conclusions to be drawn are discussed in the main body of the report but the characteristic patterns of spots (and their colours) can be seen to distinguish the Siam from the Sumatra types (although some spots are common to both types). The forms of block benzoin which contain damar are also clearly seen.[4]

Experimental conditions were as follows:[5]

Samples:

100 mg dissolved in 2 ml ethyl acetate; 2ml spotted

Plates:

Silica gel GF254

Solvent system:

Benzene/methanol (95:5)

Detection:

Fluorescence at 254 nm; anisaldehyde spray reagent

B = blue, V = violet, P = pink, C = crimson

Sample identification:

1 Sumatra, grade 1, ex Singapore [company A]
2 Sumatra, grade 2, ex Singapore [company A]
3 Sumatra, grade 3 (dust), ex Singapore [company A]
4 Sumatra, grade 1, ex Singapore [company B]
5 Sumatra, grade B, ex Indonesia [company C]
6 Siam, grade A, ex Lao PDR [company D]
7 Siam, grade B, ex Lao PDR [company D]
8 Siam, grade C, ex Lao PDR [company D]
9 Siam, grade D (dust), ex Lao PDR [company D]
10 Siam, mixed grade, freshly collected, ex Lao PDR
11 Sumatra block (low quality), ex Kuala Lumpur
12 Sumatra block (good quality brand), ex Singapore [company A]
13 Sumatra block (low quality brand), ex Singapore [company A]
14 Sumatra, mixed (low quality) ex Singapore [company B]
15 Siam, ex Bangkok

Appendix 3: Pharmacopoeia monographs on benzoin[6]

Pharmacopoeia monographs on benzoin are listed below. They were the latest available at the time of the fieldwork for the FAO project (1997) and give descriptions and definitions of benzoin (either Siam or Sumatra types or both), identification tests, specifications and assay methods.

In addition to the British Pharmacopoeia (1993), which only describes Sumatra benzoin, an earlier one (1980) is also listed since this includes Siam benzoin and describes a method for thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis of benzoin.

1. British Pharmacopoeia (1980, Siam benzoin)

British Pharmacopoeia (1980) Siam Benzoin; Sumatra Benzoin. Vol. 1, pp. 51-53.

2. British Pharmacopoeia (1993)

British Pharmacopoeia (1993) Sumatra Benzoin. Vol. 1, p. 75. [Benzoin Inhalation and Compound Benzoin Tincture are described in Vol. 2, p. 791]

3. French Pharmacopoeia

Pharmacopée Française, 10th edition (1996) Benjoin du Laos. 3 pp.

4. Swiss Pharmacopoeia

Pharmacopoea Helvetica, 7th edition (1995) Benzoe Tonkinensis = Benjoin du Laos. 2 pp.

5. US Pharmacopoeia

The United States Pharmacopeia, 23rd edition (1994) Benzoin. pp. 177-178.

6. Thai Pharmacopoeia

Thai Pharmacopoeia (1987) Benzoin. Vol. 1, Part 1, pp. 47-49.

7. Japanese Pharmacopoeia

The Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 13th edition, English version (1996) Benzoin. p. 741.

8. Chinese Pharmacopoeia

Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, English edition (1992) Benzoin. pp. 5-6.

Appendix 4:[7] Examples of traditional Thai/Chinese medicines containing benzoin[8]

Medicine A (taken internally twice a day for digestive disorders)

1. Myristica fragrans Houtt.

2. ?

3. Mansonia gagei Drumm.

4. Tarenna hoaensis

5. Dracaena lonriri

6. ?

7. ?

8. Alyxia nitens Kerr.

9. Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.

10. Cinnamomum sp.

11. Cinnamomum sp.

12. Kaempfera roscoeana Wall.

13. Vetiveria zizanoides Stapf.

14. ?

15. Mimusops elengi L.

16. Mesua ferrea L.

17. Mammea siamensis Kosterm.

18. Nelumbo rucifera Gaertn.

19. Jasminum sambac Ait.

20. Jasminum sp.

21. Michelia champaca L.

22. Cananga odorata Hokker F.et Thoms.

23. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

24. ?

25. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

26. ?

27. Picrorrhiza kurroa Benth.

28. Artemisia vulgaris L.

29. Angelica sylvestris L.

30. Saussurea lappa Clark

31. Conioselinum univitatum Turczaninow

32. Levisticum officinale Koch.

33. Atractyodes lyrata Sieb. et Zucc.

34. Citrus hystrix DC.

35. Mansonia gagei Drummond

36. Benzoin (Styrax benzoin)

37. ?

38. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

39. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Medicine B (taken internally for heart problems)

1. Conioselinum univitatum Turczaninow

2. Levisticum officinale Koch.

3. Angelica sylvestris L.

4. Atractyodes lyrata Sieb. et Zucc.

5. Artemisia vulgaris L.

6. Jasminum sp.

7. Mimusops elengi L.

8. Mammea siamensis Kosterm.

9. Nelumbo rucifera Gaertn.

10. Mesua ferrea L.

11. Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.

12. Cinnamomum bejolghola (Hom.) Swect.

13. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

14. Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

15. Albizia myriophylla Benth.

16. Diopyros sp.

17. Amomum krervanh Pierre

18. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry

19. Benzoin (Styrax sp.)

Note:

? - Indicates species name not known

Appendix 5: Results of the follow-up studies in 1999 and 2000[9]

The FAO project “Improved Benzoin Production” initiated activities which needed further attention after the project was completed. The results of the study on tapping techniques and other field experiments such as provenance and agroforestry trials were still inconclusive.

In 1999, the EU Micro Project Luang Prabang (Phase II) took over the funding for a follow-up programme. Project implementation stayed with the Luang Prabang Forestry Section.

The follow-up programme covered mainly maintenance of the field trials as well as data collection and analysis. In 1999 and 2000 a former staff of the “Improved Benzoin Production” project was fielded for two short-term missions. The objectives of these missions were:

1. To supervise harvesting of benzoin resin in the experimental plots;

2. To analyse the collected data concerning quantity and quality of the benzoin harvest and evaluate the tapping techniques; and

3. To evaluate the activities carried out in the other project field trials.

The main findings and results from the two missions are briefly described as follows:

A. Benzoin Tapping Trials

1. Trial to identify the best tapping method

2. Trial on the relationship between tree size and resin production

3. Trial on the effects of undergrowth on the benzoin yield

4. Trial to test the effect of beating the bark in order to stimulate resin flow

5. Comments and recommendations concerning the tapping trials

B. Provenance Trials

C. Agroforestry Trial

Appendix 6: Bibliography

The following references on benzoin include both cited and non-cited sources in this publication for the convenience of its readers. Some of the older books or articles are likely to be out of print but should be accessible through libraries.

Anon. 1980. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1, pp. 51-53. British Pharmacopoeial Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Anon. 1983. State regulations on Styrax tonkinensis. Ministry of Forestry. Publishing House of Agriculture, 57 pp. Hanoi, Vietnam.

Anon. 1987. Thai Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 1, Part 1, pp. 47-49. Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nontaburi, Thailand.

Anon. 1992. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, English edition. pp. 5-6. The Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing.

Anon. 1993a. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1, p. 75. British Pharmacopoeial Commission, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Anon. 1993b. Informasi Pasar Industri Produksi Lokal Jenis Tanaman Kemenyan di Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara [Industrial market information for local benzoin tree production in North Tapanuli]. Report of the Institute of Land Rehabilitation and Conservation, Ministry of Forestry, Regional Office, Medan, North Sumatra. 26 pp.

Anon. 1994. The United States Pharmacopeia, 23rd edition. pp. 177-178. The United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc., Rockville.

Anon. 1995. Pharmacopoea Helvetica, 7th edition. Benzoe Tonkinensis = Benjoin du Laos. 2 pp. Departamente Federal de l'Interieur, Berne, Switzerland.

Anon. 1996a. Pharmacopée Française, 10th edition, [Benjoin du Laos. 3 pp.]. La Commission Nationale de Pharmacopee, Paris.

Anon. 1996b. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 13th edition (English version). p. 741. The Society of Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Tokyo.

Arctander, S. 1962. Benzoin. pp. 87-91. In: Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Publ. Allured.

Ash, M. and Ash, I. 1995. Gum benzoin. p. 506. In: Handbook of Food Additives. Publ. Gower.

Boelens, H.M., de Rijke, D. and Haring, H.G. 1982, Studies of some balsamics in perfumery. Perfumer and Flavorist, 6(6), 7-14.

Burdock, G.A. 1995. Benzoin. p. 54; Benzoin resin. p. 46. In: Fenaroli’s Handbook of Flavour Ingredients, 3rd ed. CRC Press.

Burdock, G.A. 1997. Benzoin. p. 252; Benzoin resin. pp. 253-254. In: Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives, Vol. 1. CRC Press.

Burkill, I.H. 1935. Styrax, In: A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. II, pp. 2101-2108. The Government of the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.

Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. FAO Non-Wood Forest Products series. Vol. 6. Rome

Coppen, J.J.W. 1997. Gum Benzoin: Its markets and Marketing and the Opportunities and Constraints to their Improvement in Lao PDR. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project consulting report for FAO Bangkok. 108 pp.

Coppen, J.J.W. 1998. Sample collection and training of staff at Food & Drug Quality Control Centre, Vientiane, in benzoin analysis. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project consulting report for FAO Bangkok. 36 pp.

Coppen, J.J.W. 1999. Benzoin: production, uses and international trade. Perfumer & Flavorist, 24(3), 11-12, 14-18, 20-22.

Crevost, C. 1927. Benzoin [In French]. pp. 103-113. In: Catalogue des Produits de l’Indochine, Vol. 4.

Costaz, R. 1999. Benzoin marketing in European market. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project consulting report for FAO Bangkok.

De Beer, J.H. 1993. Benzoin, Styrax tonkinensis. p. 17. In: Non-Wood Forest Products in Indochina. Focus: Vietnam. FAO Working Paper FO: Misc/93/5. Rome.

Delnoye, R. 1994. Back-to-office Report: Benzoin TCP project formulation mission in Lao PDR. FAO Representative Office, Vientiane. 6 pp.

Den, X.Q., Cheng, S.P., Pan, N.X. and Chen, J.L. 1978. The effects of ethrel upon benzoin production and balsamic ducts of Styrax hypoglauca Perk. [In Chinese, English summary]. Acta Botanica Sinica, 20(1), 26-30.

Doan Van Nhung, Nguyen Huu Dong and Nguyen Quang Tang. 1978. Study on harvesting, storage and seed stand establishment of Styrax tonkinensis. Report on scientific activities of the Forest Research Institute during 1961-1977. Vietnam. pp. 25-26.

Druet, L. 1924. Le benjoin d’Indochine. Les Parfums de France. 18:209-215.

FAO, 1992. Benzoin gum [published in FAO Nutrition Meeting Report Series 57, 1977]. pp. 187-188. In: Compendium of Food Additive Specifications. FAO Food and Nutrition Specifications from 1st through 37th Meetings, 1956-1990). Rome.

FAO, 1996a. Improved benzoin production. Project document for FAO/TCP Benzoin Project, TCP/LAO/6611. Rome. 12 pp.

FAO, 1996b. Benzoin gum. p. B-3. In: Summary of Evaluations Performed by JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Rome.

FAO, 1998. Terminal statement, Improved benzoin production in Lao PDR. FO: TCP/LAO/6611. Rome.

Fischer, M. 1998a. Physical and socio-economic conditions of benzoin production in northern Laos. Report on a survey in two villages in Nam Bak district, Luang Prabang province. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Fischer, M. 1998b. Back-to-office Report: Study tour on benzoin production and marketing. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Fischer, M. 1999. Benzoin Production Consultancy: Mission Report, EU Micro Projects Luang Prabang Phase II, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR.

Fischer, M. 2000. Benzoin Production Consultancy: Second Mission Report, EU Micro Projects Luang Prabang Phase II, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR.

Foppes, J., and Ketphanh, S. 1997. The use of Non-Timber Forest Products in Lao PDR. Paper presented at the Workshop on Sustainable Management of Non-Wood Forest Products, 14-17 October. Selangor, Malaysia.

Hansen, P.K. and Sodarak, H. 1997. Potentials and constraints on shifting cultivation stabilisation in Lao PDR. Paper presented at the Stakeholder Workshop on Shifting Cultivation Stabilisation, Vientiane, 6-7 Feb. 1997. 11 pp.

Helliwell, K. and Jenningsd, P. 1983. A critical evaluation of commercial Sumatra benzoins. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 35 (Supplement). 17 pp.

Hoang Chuong. 1974. Storage of Styrax tonkinensis seeds. Forest Research Institute, Vietnam. Forestry Review, No. 8. 8 pp.

Hoesen, D.S.H. 2000. Styrax L. In: Boer, E. and Ella, A.B. (eds.) Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA), No. 18, Plants producing exudates, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands, pp. 112-119.

Jafarsidik, Y. 1986. Benzoin-producing species. Journal of Forestry Research and Development, 2 (1):4-6. Agency for Forestry Research and Development, Bogor.

Kangkarn, Yanyong. 1997. Mission report: benzoin processing. FAO/TCP Benzoin Project consulting report for FAO Bangkok. 21 pp.

Kashio, M, 1994. Back-to-office Report: Benzoin TCP project formulation mission in Lao PDR. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 12 pp.

Kashio, M. 1996. Back-to-office Report: Problem solving in the recruitment of an international expert for the benzoin TCP project. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 6 pp.

Kashio, M. 1997. Back-to-office Report: Technical backstopping mission for the benzoin TCP project. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 9 pp.

Kashio, M. 1998. Back-to-office Report: Support to the national workshop on benzoin. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 15 pp.

Ketphanh, S. 1994. Benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis). pp. 5-7. In: Country Paper of Lao. Paper presented at the Regional Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products: Social, Economic and Cultural Dimensions, 28 Nov.- 2 Dec. 1994, Bangkok. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Ketphanh, S., and Soydara, V. 1998. The use of Non-Timber Forest Products in northern Lao PDR. Paper presented at the Sino-Lao Trans-boundary Biodiversity Management & Development Workshop, 26-29 October, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, PR China. 6 pp.

Kiew, R. 1982. Germination and seedling survival in kemenyan, Styrax benzoin. The Malaysian Forester, Vol. 45 (1):69-80.

Lam Cong Dinh. 1964. Planting Styrax tonkinensis. Forest Research Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam. 24 pp.

Le Nam Hung. 1990. Integrated control method of green larva, Fentona sp. (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), defoliator of Styrax tonkinensis in Vietnam. In: C. Hutacharern, K.G. MacDicken, M.M. Ivory, K.S.S. Nair, ed. Proceedings - IUFRO workshop on pests and diseases of forest plantations. 5-11 June 1988. RAPA Publication: 1990/9. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, pp. 282-283.

Le Quang Dang. 1966. Methods of collection, selection and treatment of Styrax tonkinensis seeds. Forest Research Institute, Vietnam. Forestry Review, No. 7. 2 pp.

Marsden, W. 1811. Benzoin. pp. 154-155, 184. In: The History of Sumatra, 3rd edition. Publ. Oxford, 1966, reprinted 1975.

Moyler, D.A. and Clery, R.A. 1997. The aromatic resins: their chemistry and uses. Paper presented at Royal Society of Chemistry Symposium on Flavours and Fragrances, 1 May 1997, University of Warwick, UK.

Nguyen Ba Chat. 1979. Discussion on planting techniques for Styrax tonkinensis. Forest Research Institute, Vietnam. Forestry Review No. 4, 7 pp.

Nguyen Thai Ngoc. 1989. Styrax tonkinensis provenance trial. Forest Research Centre, Phu Ninh, Vietnam. 5 pp.

Nicholson, K. 1997. Marketing feasibility study for NTFP exported from Lao PDR to Thailand (draft). IUCN-NTFP Project consultant paper. Vientiane. 20 pp.

Ody, P. 1996. Benzoin. p. 100. In: Handbook of Over-the-Counter Herbal Medicines. London: Kyle Cathie Ltd.

Pinyopusarerk, K. 1994. Styrax tonkinensis: Taxonomy, ecology, silviculture and uses. ACIAR Technical Report No 31. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Canberra. 20 pp.

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Pinyopusarerk, K. 1997a. Second mission report for ‘Improved benzoin production (TCP/LAO/6611)’, FAO, Bangkok. 26 pp.

Pinyopusarerk, K. 1997b. Third mission report for ‘Improved benzoin production (TCP/LAO/6611)’, FAO, Bangkok. 40 pp.

Pinyopusarerk, K. 1997c. Fourth mission report for ‘Improved benzoin production (TCP/LAO/6611)’, FAO, Bangkok.

Pinyopusarerk, K. 1998. Fifth mission report for ‘Improved benzoin production (TCP/LAO/6611)’, FAO, Bangkok. 59 pp.

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Savathvong, S., Fischer, M., Pinyopusarerk, K. 1997. Fallow management with Styrax tonkinensis for benzoin production in upland cultivation systems in northern Lao PDR. Paper presented at the workshop on "Indigenous Strategies for Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Southeast Asia", 23-27 June, Bogor, Indonesia.

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Appendix 7: Examples of products using Siam benzoin

From left to right: alcoholic perfumes (Egoïsre from Chanel and Shalimar from Guerlain); cleansing cream; toilet soap; and toothpaste.

Incenses

From left to right: ice creams; caramel; vanilla flavours; cookies; and yogurts

Cigarettes


[2] This is derived from the report Gum Benzoin: Its Markets and Marketing and the Opportunities and Constraints to Their Improvement in Lao PDR. July 1997, by J.J.W. Coppen.
[3] The analyses were carried out by Ms. Pannee Denrungruang.
[4] Subsequent TLC in the UK of a sample of damar and of block benzoin confirmed that the crimson spots in samples 11 and 13 were due to the presence of damar.
[5] Subsequent work at the Food & Drug Quality Control Centre, Vientiane, showed that silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC (high performance TLC) plates give an improved separation of spots compared to the TLC plates used here (Sample Collection and Training of Staff at Food & Drug Quality Control Centre, Vientiane, in Benzoin Analysis, April 1998, J.J.W. Coppen). Furthermore, use of a methanolic dip solution containing the anisaldehyde detection reagent (into which the HPTLC plate is dipped for a few seconds) was found to give much better results than applying the reagent as a spray: a more uniform application of the reagent to the plate was achieved, resulting in more sharply defined spots. It is preferable, also, to substitute dichloromethane for benzene in the solvent system.
[6] This is derived from the report Gum Benzoin: Its Markets and Marketing and the Opportunities and Constraints to Their Improvement in Lao PDR. July 1997, by J.J.W. Coppen.
[7] This is derived from the report Gum Benzoin: Its Markets and Marketing and the Opportunities and Constraints to Their Improvement in Lao PDR. July 1997, by J.J.W. Coppen.
[8] Botanical names were identified from the Thai words;
[9] This is derived from the two reports: 1) Benzoin Production Consultancy: Mission Report, April 1999; and 2) Benzoin Production Consultancy: Second Mission Report, April 2000, by M. Fischer.

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