|Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme||GCP/RAF/277/BEL|
ALCOM Field Document No. 27
Three overviews on Environment and Aquaculture in the Tropics and Sub-tropics
By Birgitta Larsson
(Associate Professional Officer)
SWEDISH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
BELGIAN ADMINISTRATION FOR DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Harare, Zimbabwe, December 1994
Aquaculture has both positive and negative effects on the environment. ALCOM (Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme) seeks to promote the positive effects and mitigate the negative ones.
ALCOM's activities concerning the environment focus on three areas -- water resources management; water-borne diseases; and environmental aspects of aquaculture in the tropics.
This document summarizes and finalizes ALCOM's environmental desk studies. It consists of three separate review papers: “Environmental impact of aquaculture in the tropics and sub-tropics”; “The use of sewage in aquaculture”; and, “Aquaculture and schistosomiasis”.
These studies followed the outcome of ALCOM's Fourth Steering Committee meeting in February 1991, which stated that ALCOM should address environmental aspects of aquaculture “within the concept of water resources management for biological production”.
Previous papers published by ALCOM on the subject were “Aquaculture/inland fisheries and water resources management in southern Africa” (1992) and “Vectors and vector-borne diseases in connection with aquaculture” (1993).
ALCOM is a regional aquaculture and fisheries programme of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, it covers all the member-countries of SADC (Southern African Development Community): Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The aim of ALCOM is to assist member-countries improve the living standards of rural populations through the practice of aquaculture. Towards this end, pilot activities are conducted in member-countries to demonstrate new techniques, technologies or methodologies. Successes achieved, ideas derived, lessons learnt, are applied on a wider scale by member governments.
ALCOM is funded by Sweden and Belgium. Its preparatory phase began in 1986, ALCOM, Harare and its first implementation phase in 1990.
Abstract: Environmental aspects of aquaculture in the tropics and subtropics
Abstract: The use of sewage in aquaculture
Abstract: Aquaculture and schistosomiasis
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Section 1: Environmental aspects of aquaculture in the tropics and sub-tropics
Section 2: The use of sewage in aquaculture
Section 3: Aquaculture and schistosomiasis
2. AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS
3. RESOURCE USE
3.1 Land use and space
3.2 Water use and water quality
3.2.1 Water resources
18.104.22.168 The availability of water
22.214.171.124 Losses of water
126.96.36.199 Conservation of water
3.2.2 Water quality
188.8.131.52 Pollution and pesticides
3.5 Construction materials
4.1 Lime and fertilizers
4.2 Bioactive compounds
4.2.1 Therapeutants and antibiotics
4.2.2 Hormones and growth promoters
4.2.3 Antifoulants and chemicals introduced via construction materials
4.2.4 Recommendations on the use of inhibitory compounds in aquaculture
4.3.1 Uneaten food, excreta and mortalities
4.3.2 Bacteria and other microorganisms
4.3.3 Effects of Aquaculture wastes
4.5 Introduction and transfers
4.6 Ecological impacts -- interactions with the food web
4.7 Disturbance to Wildlife, and habitat destruction
4.8 Implications on human health
1. Most desired values of some water quality parameters in tropical and sub-tropical aquaculture
2. HUMAN WASTE AS A RESOURCE -- AQUACULTURE USING EXCRETA AND WASTE WATER
3. PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS
3.1 Health aspects of excreta and waste water use in aquaculture
3.2 Epidemiological evidence
3.3 Microbiological quality criteria
4. SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS
5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
6. TECHNICAL OPTIONS FOR HEALTH PROTECTION IN AQUACULTURE USING WASTE WATER AND EXCRETA
1 Environmental classification of excreted organisms
2 Tentative microbiological quality criteria for the aquaculture
2. LIFE CYCLE
3. INTERMEDIATE HOSTS
7. PREVENTION AND CONTROL
8. RECOMMENDATION TO MINIMIZE THE HAZARDS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS RESULTING FROM AQUACULTURE PONDS
9. CASE STUDY - ZIMBABWE
9.1 Intermediate hosts
9.2 Distribution and prevention
10. ROLE OF ALCOM
1. Schistosoma parasites infecting man in Africa.
2. Endemity of S. haematobium and S. mansoni in the SADC countries.
1a. The life cycle of Schistosomiasis haematobium, also known as urinary bilharzia; the eggs pass out with the urine.
1b. The life cycle of Schistomiasis mansoni, intestinal bilharzia, in which the eggs pass out with the faeces.
2. Snails that act as intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis.
3. Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and S. intercalatum in Africa.
4. Distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Africa.
5. The prevalence of S. haematobium among eight to ten year old children in Zimbabwe.
6. The prevalence of S. mansoni among eight to ten year old children in Zimbabwe.