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Links to the texts of the most important agreements are included here, along with texts of example MTAs.

7.9.1 Convention of Biological Diversity (CDB)

For full text, see the webpublication

7.9.2 The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR)

For the full text, see the webpublication:

7.9.3 Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) examples

Here are examples taken from the following organisations.

Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI)

Danida Forest Seed Centre (DFSC)

Australian Tree Seed Centre (ATSC)

acknowledge the origin of the Material in all published and distributed information;

allow CSIRO access to assessment data and information on the characterisation procedures and performance of the Material;

allow CSIRO access, for research purposes, to germplasm samples from plants grown from Material included in this consignment;

take reasonable steps to ensure that these conditions are met in any subsequent deployment of the Material; and

use the Material at its own risk.

International Poplar Commission (IPC) (Working Party on Genetics, Conservation and Improvement)

7.9.4 Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

Widespread information nowadays about the endangered status of many prominent species, such as the tiger and elephants, might make the need for such a convention seem obvious. But at the time when the ideas for CITES were first formed, in the 1960s, international discussion of the regulation of wildlife trade for conservation purposes was something relatively new. With hindsight, the need for CITES is clear. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.

Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.

CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The text of the convention was finally agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington DC., United States of America, on 3 March 1973, and on 1 July 1975 CITES entered in force.

CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention ('joined' CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties - in other words they have to implement the Convention - it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to make sure that CITES is implemented at the national level.

Not one species protected by CITES has become extinct as a result of trade since the Convention entered into force and, for many years, CITES has been among the largest conservation agreements in existence, with now over 150 Parties"

7.9.5 Statement of Forest Principles

Text of the "The Non Legally Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests" can be found at the following webpublication:


Here you will find details of some links to help you locate material and providers of training. Many regional seed centres may be able to help provide support for training.

7.10.1 DANIDA Forest Seed Centre

DFSC can help in with training that is carried out in the recipient country, and has a series of leaflets and lecture notes that are valuable resource material. For more information see ORGANISATIONS - DFSC

7.10.2 Tree Seed Technology Training Course. Instructors Manual and Student Outline

Bonner, F.T.; Vozzo, J.A.; Elam, W.W.; LAnd, S.B. Jr. 1994
General Technical Report, SO 106 September 1994
USDA Southern Forest Experimental Station.

The manual is intended primarily for training seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course on forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. Topics covered are: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality evaluation, seed protection; seed basics for nurseries, and seed programs.

7.10.3 Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE)

CATIE undertake training in the Latin American region.


There are many projects and programmes worldwide that are concerned with forest reproductive material. Details of these will be included at a later date.


Many regions and countries have established their own Tree Seed Centres. Details of these will be added as we obtain information about them. Normally, the best way to make contact will be through the Forestry Department of the relevant government Ministry.


Indonesia Forest Seed project


Centre National de Semences Forestieres (CNSF)

7.12.3 AFRICA, southern

SADC Tree Seed Centre Network Project


National Tree Seed Centre (Morgoro)

7.12.5 SENEGAL

PRONASEF – Projet national de semences forestières




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