3.A.1 Aerial photography
Photographie aérienne (F); Fotografía aérea (E)
Aerial photography is the process of photographing the earths surface from the air, usually from a specially fitted aircraft using high precision photographic equipment.
The large majority of topographical maps are based on aerial photography and photogrammetric methods. The height of the aircraft and the characteristics of the camera and film/sensitivity (black and white, colour, infra-red, digital, etc) determine the scale and character of the photograph. The nature of the photograph results in distortion around the edges of photographs which needs to be corrected using appropriate photogrammetric techniques to make maps. Although vertical photography is the most useful in its applications in mapping, non-vertical or oblique photographs may also be useful for other purposes, including for recording the condition of specific objects or areas.
As with a map, an aerial photograph is an historical document, recording characteristics of the subject area at a specific time. The technique is valuable not just for conventional topographic mapping, it is also used for a wide range of activities and surveys including for scientific research, archaeology, the environment, vegetation cover, and land management. For certain functions it may be necessary to conduct ground surveys in photographed areas for ground referencing of particular characteristics. DALE, P. F., and MCLAUGHLIN, J., 1990
3.A.2 Agrarian reform
Réforme agraire (F); Reforma agraria (E)
An agrarian reform is a collection of activities and changes designed to alter the agrarian structure of a country and the ways of using the land.
It invariably has political, economic and social/cultural dimensions. The objectives of an agrarian reform are generally to improve both qualitatively and quantitatively the levels of agricultural production and to improve the standards of living of agricultural producers. Such reforms will often involve elements of redistribution of land and changes to the land tenure system.
3.B.1 Boundary marking
Bornage (F); Deslinde / Amojonamiento (E)
Boundary marking is an operation that consists of fixing the boundaries of a parcel of land.
Most parcel boundaries are defined by stable marks or visible features on the ground, which can be natural or artificial. They can be represented by lines on maps, often described by bearings or azimuths and distances, or by coordinates. If the representation on the map has legal priority over the marks on the ground in cases of dispute, the demands for survey accuracy are usually higher than if the case is the opposite. Physical demarcation on the ground is important because it provides actual notice of the boundaries to the landowners. FIG, 1995
In many countries, and for the fixing to have legal validity, the boundary marking must be done by a qualified surveyor.
In situations where systematic registration is taking place, the process of boundary fixing will involve adjudication. Where agreement cannot be reached the decision on boundaries will usually be referred to the courts.
3.B.2 Building regulations approval
Permis de construire (aménagement) (F)
Building regulations approval is the process of approving the construction quality of proposed constructions and of their execution.
Charte (F); Carta (E)
A charter is a formal and fundamental statement at a governmental or inter-governmental level.
Historically the term charter was reserved for a grant or agreement between a monarch and a representation from the subjects. Perhaps the best known charter in English history is the Magna Carta, 1215. This charter is viewed as an important document defining the English constitution, provided significant restrictions on the power of the king and included guarantees of the right to trial for all freemen and justice for everyone.
Charters more recently continue to have some relevance for land related issues. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) for example, the professional body under which all qualified Chartered Surveyors practise, is enabled by the grant of a Royal Charter from the Queens Privy Council.
There are other charters of significance that may provide an opportunity for the defence of property as a fundamental human right. The European Charter of Human Rights, judicially administered by the European Court of Human Rights, for example, periodically hears appeals against national legislatures and judiciaries on property related issues.
Code (F); Código (E)
A code is a coherent body of law which pulls together all of the laws relating to a specific field.
It is a common approach to law making in many countries influenced by Roman law, including for example those influenced by the French legal system. Codification has been a particular feature of the law since the Code Napoleon, the first modern codification of French law, was introduced between 1804 and 1810. Codification of laws is also, for example, a common feature of the former Soviet Union republics where, in some cases, developing an effective Land Code has been an important priority.
The terms code and codification are not characteristic of the legal system in the United Kingdom, although it is an approach used to a greater or lesser extent in several states influenced by English law. In English law it is reasonably common, however, for consolidating laws to be passed. Although not the same as codification, such laws bring together in one place all of the legislation dealing with a particular issue rather than materially changing the law.
Codification (F); Codificación (E)
The process of codification is the development of a coherent legal code from an existing body of law.
3.C.4 Compulsory acquisition / expropriation
Expropriation / expropriation pour cause dutilité publique (F); Expropiación/ Expropiación por causa de utilidad pública (E)
Compulsory acquisition or expropriation is a procedure by which public needs for land or property rights in the pursuit of government policy are met.
Processes of compulsory acquisition and needs vary from country to country. The processes of acquisition are statutorily defined, and will include detailed requirements and timetables for procedures and notices on the part of both parties. The processes will also include a basis for setting compensation for the loss of the owner expropriated.
Common requirements for the compulsory acquisition of land include for public infrastructure such as construction of roads and railways, for easements for power cables and pipelines, for hospitals, schools and public housing. In some countries, it may also for example form a part of land reform policy to compulsorily acquire land for redistribution.
The philosophical justification for the compulsory acquisition of land is that the private owner of land enjoys the benefits of living in society.
The owner accordingly should accept that if the public can legally establish a need for the land then it should be entitled to acquire the land in return for appropriate compensation. The issue of compensation and the right of citizens not to be arbitrarily deprived of their property is one that is often dealt with in principle in national constitutions.
The equivalent of compulsory purchase in England and Wales, is expropriation in continental Europe, taking in North America, and resumption in Australia.
3.C.5 Conservation management
Gestion patrimoniale (F)
Conservation management is an extension of land management that emphasises the need to protect and safeguard natural resources.
Conservation management may take a wide variety of forms, although it is increasingly widespread for there to be a strong element of local, or decentralised, input into implementation. The need for this has been repeatedly emphasised in UN conferences starting with the Rio Summit in 1992, and has been taken up by communities around the world.
Décentralisation (F); Decentralización / Decentralización de los procesos administrativos (F)
Decentralisation is a process of moving from the centre to the periphery. In governmental terms decentralisation is likely to involve the shifting of decision-making and executive powers to lower tiers of government and particularly to local government.
Decentralisation has become a significant issue of policy particularly since the 1980s when the World Commission on Environment and Development laid emphasis on the importance of bringing environmental and economic issues more effectively into decision-making. This emphasis on local responsibility has been repeated through successive UN conferences starting from the Rio Summit in 1992.
3.D.2 Development plan
Development plans identify proposed land uses adopted by the relevant planning authority in a given area. They are usually associated with urban or town and country planning.
3.G.1 General development order
A general development order identifies permitted development in a town and country planning system.
The general development order (GDO) is a provision in the planning system in the United Kingdom under the Town and Country Planning Acts to identify those developments that do not require planning permission, although they may require building regulation approval and listed building consent depending on circumstances.
The function of the GDO is to define a class of permitted development. This takes out of the development control system those actions that would come within the definition of development under the Act, but which are effectively marginal.
Géomatique (F); Geomática (E)
Geomatics is commonly defined as a discipline aimed at managing geographic data by means of the science and technology used to acquire, store, process, display and distribute them.(Canadian Institute of Geomatics - the first professional institution to make the change from, in this case, Surveying and Mapping.)
It is ... a field of activities which, using a systemic approach, integrates all the means used to acquire and manage spatial data required as part of scientific, administrative, legal and technical operations involved in the process of the production and management of spatial information. These activities include, but are not limited to, cartography, control surveying, engineering surveying, geodesy, hydrography, land information management, land surveying, mining surveying, photogrammetry and remote sensing. WILLIAMSON, I., P., et al., 1994
3.G.3 GIS (Geographical Information System)
SIG (Système dInformation Géographique) (F); Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG) (E)
GIS is: ... a set of computer tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data ... The development of computers and appropriate software has enabled maps to be transformed from a static past to a dynamic future. The uses to which GIS can be put reflect its capacity to model the real world and for the constituent data to be selected, interrelated, analysed and used for a specific set of purposes.
BURROUGH, P. A., and MCDONNELL, R. A., 1998
3.G.4 GPS (Global Positioning System)
GPS (Système de positionnement universel) (F);
Sistema de posicionamiento por satélite (GPS) (E)
The global positioning system consists of 24 satellites orbiting the earth in six orbital planes. Locations on the ground can be fixed and their coordinates calculated on the basis of signals picked up from these satellites by receivers. The high degree of accuracy and consistency of measurements using this positioning capability make it an excellent option for almost all types of geodesy and surveying, including cadastral work. UNECE, 1996
3.I.1 Integrated coastal zone management
The complexities and frequent overlaps of the processes, ownership, and administrative structures in coastal zones, coupled with their physical and environmental fragility, have led to the common recognition that they require careful integrated planning, referred to as integrated coastal zone management.
3.G.4 GPS (Global Positioning System)
A Global Positioning System, an instrument to determine the precise location of locust's infestation. This information is transmitted to a centre in Tulear, Malagasy, which then organizes their elimination.
A. Proto, FAO photo.
3.L.1 Land consolidation
Remembrement (F); Concentración parcelaria (E)
Land consolidation is a sequence of operations designed to reorganise land parcels in an area, regrouping them into consolidated holdings of more regular form and with improved access.
Consolidation of parcels of land into a single holding, whether voluntary or enforced, is intended to provide a more rational distribution of land to improve the efficiency of farming. Each agricultural enterprise, consisting prior to the consolidation of many parcels spread over a wide area, will consist afterwards of a small number or perhaps a single parcel. Land consolidation operates on the basis of assessing the quality of land and providing owners with equivalent land in exchange. Once the consolidation scheme is agreed, the proposals are made available to the public for a period of notice to enable any appeals to be made. The consolidation process should not therefore affect the size or number of agricultural enterprises. UNECE, 1996
Land consolidation schemes are increasingly associated with other improvements, for example, highway and access road layouts, removal of hedgerows, drainage or irrigation systems, and wildlife and conservation projects.
3.L.2 Land development
Land development is the application of resources to improve land that should enable it to be used more efficiently. These resources may include capital (constructing buildings), labour (clearing or draining land for agriculture) or enterprise (securing or revising planning permissions).
Land development is a facet of land management, and applies to both rural and urban land. Development may result in increased value of the land, and where properly managed will release an element of development value enabling the developer to recoup investment and other costs and make a profit. In some circumstances this may be referred to as betterment and may be subject to a special tax.
This is distinct from the French use of the term amenagement foncier now based on the droit de lamenagement foncier rural which aims to improve farm working conditions and productivity and is integrated with urban planning schemes in mixed farmland and urban development land reallocations. LORVELLEC, L., 1992
3.L.3 Land management
Gestion de terroir (F);
Decentralización de la gestión territorial (E)
Land management is identified by the International Federation of Surveyors as follows: Land management is the process of managing the use and development of land resources. Some of the critical, and sometimes conflicting, objectives that must be addressed by land management policies today include:
> improving the efficiency of land resource use to support the rapidly growing population of many countries;
> providing incentives for development, including the provision of residential housing and basic infrastructure such as sewer and water facilities;
> protecting the natural environment from degradation;
> providing equitable and efficient access to the economic benefits of land and real estate markets;
> supporting government services through taxation and fees related to land and improvements. FIG, 1991
Land management is distinct from farm management. The latter deals with issues such as what to produce, how much to produce and how to produce. The land manager, on the other hand, focuses on the management of the land, whether urban or rural. Land management in its broadest sense deals, therefore, with issues relating to:
> the achievement of an acceptable return from the land interests owned.
> the maintenance or enhancement of the value of the land interests owned.
> such returns and values are likely to include a mixture of financial/economic, social and environmental (including sustainability) qualities.
NIX, J., HILL, P., WILLIAMS, N., and BAUGH, J., 1998
The land manager is the person undertaking such management, whether as an owner or agent, and whether in the public or the private sector. This area of land management is often referred to in United Kingdom practice as estate management.
3.L.4 Land policy
Politique foncière (F); Política agraria (E)
Land policy is the set of intentions embodied in various policy instruments that are adopted by the state to organise land tenure and land use.
Land policy will usually be guided by a set of basic principles, some of which owe their origin to international agreements, others to specific national circumstances. These principles may include:
> encouragement of efficiency and promotion of economic development
> promotion of equality and social justice
> preservation of the environment and sustainable patterns of land use GTZ, 1998
Not all countries have a coherent, consciously integrated and formally stated land policy.
3.L.5 Land reform
Réforme foncière (F); Reforma agraria (E)
Land reform is the generic term for modifications in the legal and institutional framework governing land policy. Land reform is intended to implement changes in land policy that are designed to realise desired changes in a changing political, economic and social environment. The most common types of land reform are probably those dealing with reallocations of land and those redistributing legal rights of ownership. Land reform is invariably a part of agrarian reform. There is a common perception that land reform is the prerogative of developing and transforming economies. The reality is that land policy and the legislative and institutional framework implementing that policy are constantly changing in all societies as political, economic and social circumstances change.
3.L.6 Land system
Système foncier (F); Sistema de tierras (E)
Land system is synonymous with land tenure system. It provides the basis for access to land and natural resources. It defines the ways in which land and natural resources can be held and the security of those rights. The system comprises the legislative and administrative frameworks relating to land and natural resources and to their application.
3.L.7 Land use plan
Plan doccupation des sols (F);
Plan de ocupación del suelo (E)
Land use planning is The systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting and adopting land use options which are most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment, together with the selection of measures most likely to encourage such land uses.
CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Land use planning in its statutory sense is undertaken under the Town and Country Planning legislation in England and Wales through its structure and local plans. The main focus for this planning is to control the current and future development of the defined areas.
This is distinct from the French approach where around half of the 36,000 French municipalities have formally adopted a zoning map (Plan doccupation des sols - POS). Under the latter, land is divided into urban districts (U zones) and natural districts (N zones): NAfor future urbanisation, NB with existing settlement frozen, NC with just agricultural use, and ND with environmentally sensitive areas. A local farmersparliament is involved in the drafting prior to final approval by local government. LORVELLEC, L., 1992
The term land use plan is also used in the context of a tool for the management of land within a specific ownership.
3.M.1 Maps / Mapping / Cartography
Carte / Cartographie (F); Mapa / Carta / Generalización cartográfica / Cartografía (E)
Traditionally, maps represent physical, vegetational or political features of a spatially defined area on paper or some other flat medium. Such maps have been a vital part of development and of all aspects of land management and administration since earliest records began. They are, however, relatively static and are difficult to change and update compared with modern digitally based GIS.
Orthophotographie (F); Ortofoto (E)
Orthophotography is a process that creates undistorted photographic images using stereo pairs of aerial photographs.
Orthophotography has been developed to maximise the potential use and accuracy of aerial photography. It achieves this accuracy by using stereo pairs of photographs mounted in a special machine which enables the distortion that is inherent in aerial photographs to be minimised, maintaining a constant scale across the image. These distortions result from the effects of terrain and the perspective effects inherent in the use of the camera. The digitised image is processed into a particular map projection giving a uniform scale and known accuracy. A mosaic of such photographs is used to build up an orthophotomap. GIS often uses orthophotographs to provide a rich visual context, integrated with other geographic information.
DALE, P. F., and MCLAUGHLIN, J., 1990
3.P.1 Parcel plan / Cadastral plan / Map
Plan parcellaire (F); Plan parcelario / Carta predial (E)
A parcel plan is generally a large scale map of an area showing all of the property parcels and their use, the boundaries and the distances between them and the buildings and improvements. Generally the parcel plan includes a register of the parcels. In the context of land administration, a cadastral plan is a parcel plan. The nearest equivalent in land management in jurisdictions influenced by English practice is termed an estates terrier.
3.P.2 Perimeter / Boundary
Périmètre (F); Perimetro (E)
A perimeter is a boundary.
Photogrammétrie (F); Fotogrametría / Restitución (E)
Photogrammetry is the set of measurement techniques by which aerial photographs, converted into orthophotographs, are analysed and converted into maps and geographical information.
Photogrammetry measures position and altitude from stereo aerial photographs or images using a stereoscope or stereoplotter.
Photomapping is the analysis of aerial photographs to provide the information for creating maps and geographical information.
This is generally undertaken by assembling orthophotographs from stereo pairs of aerial photographs, and using photogrammetric techniques to create the maps.
3.P.5 Photoplan / Orthophotoplan
Photoplan / Orthophotoplan (F); Fotomapa (E)
A photoplan is an assembly of enlarged aerial photographs. An orthophotoplan is an accurately scaled photoplan that has had any distortions corrected.
An orthophotoplan is made by assembling accurately positioned and geometrically corrected aerial photographs. An orthophotoplan has the characteristics of a map, with orientation, a scale and a key to identify relevant features. It combines the accuracy of a map with the ease of understanding of a photograph.
Plan (F); Plano (E)
A plan is a representation of an object in a horizontal projection, for example, of a building or group of buildings, of a farm, or of a land parcel.
A plan is also used in a town and country, or other planning context. Local plans in England and Wales, for example, are based on a large scale map, usually with a descriptive statement of the planning policies for a given area. Aplan differs from a map typically in its scale.
3.R.1 Regularisation of ownership / Formalisation of ownership
Régularisation foncière (F); Regularización de tierras (E)
Regularisation of ownership is where informal or illegal occupation of land is legalised by statute, giving occupiers the legal right to private ownership of the land.
Regularisation of ownership usually occurs where there has been a large amount of irregular settlement, and there is a need to preserve the investments made by the illegal occupiers. It is therefore a policy that retains the population in place and minimises displacement. The approach favours the rehabilitation and integration of an illegal settlement rather than its systematic destruction. This results from the size of these illegal settlements and because governments can neither afford the financial costs of the classical solution of resettlement, nor the political cost of destruction of the illegal settlements.
3.R.2 Remote sensing
Télédétection (F); Teledetección / Percepción remota (E)
Remote sensing is the set of techniques used for gathering information about the environment without being in direct contact with it.
These techniques extend human perception by recording in different ways the radiation emitted or reflected by objects, and using the characteristic radiation patterns of individual objects that enable their identification. Remote sensing techniques are extensively used to record physical and biological characteristics of objects as the basis for thematic mapping and for measuring change. These include for the mapping of urban, agricultural, forestry and aquatic themes. Remote sensing techniques are particularly closely associated with satellite imagery range but also range from aerial photography, through radar, to sonar. DALE, P. F., and MCLAUGHLIN, J., 1990
3.R.3 Reserve / Land reserve / Nature reserve
Réserve / réserve foncière / Réserve naturelle
Reserva de bienes raíces / Reserva natural (E)
The word reserve signifies a defined area of land set aside for a particular purpose. The term is commonly used in the following contexts:
> reserve land: land reserves may be identified and set aside for specified public purposes in some jurisdictions
> nature reserve: land may be designated and set aside as a nature reserve for the purposes of protection of valued fauna and flora
> native reserve: land may be designated and set aside for the exclusive use of indigenous peoples
Examples of the use of the term reserve in the context of reserve land include:
Examples of the use of the term reserve in the context of native reserve include:
3.R.2 Remote sensing
FAO expert discusses mapping and analysis of remote sensing data.
Students are learning to use a mirror stereoscope (left) for aerial photos, and a stereopret (right), an instrument for topographical and contour-mapping use
I. de Borhegyi, FAO photo.
3.R.4 Right of abode
Permis dhabiter (F); Permiso para habitar un lugar (E)
A right of abode is an administrative authorisation given by the municipal or local authority to the occupier of an area, restricting the right of abode to that area.
Échelle (F); Escala (E)
The scale is the relationship between the representation of an object on a plan or map, and its size in reality. Agraphic scale is a graduated line, divided into equal sections, indicating the relation between the distances marked on the map or plan and the distances in reality. A numerical scale is the mathematical relation between a distance on the plan or map and in reality, for example 1mm on the map represents 100m in reality at a scale of 1:100,000. Scales are classified into three categories. Large scales are those up to 1:25,000; medium scales are between 1:25,000 and 1: 100,000; small scales are those in excess of 1:100,000. The more detailed a map, the larger its scale.
3.S.2 Secure tenure
Sécurisation foncière (F);
Legalización y reconocimiento de la posesión de tierras (E)
Secure tenure is related to the degree of recognition and guarantee of real estate rights.
Improving security of tenure is seen as necessary:
> to encourage investments to improve the productivity of agriculture;
> for conservation and the sound use of natural resources;
> to encourage the use of temporary rights for the use of land including leasing
> to reduce the number and the intensity of conflicts relating to the use and transaction of real estate.
Conversely, insecurity of tenure is characterised when the users and holders of land, whether rural or urban, consider that their rights on the land are at risk to other actors and uncertain in their duration.
3.S.3 Structure plan
Structure plans are plans developed by planning authorities to provide a strategic policy framework for local planning and development control.
3.S.4 Subdivision / Mutation
Subdivision is the process of demarcation of parcels when an area of land is divided.
The process is closely regulated in many jurisdictions. Examples of subdivision procedures include:
3.S.5 Surveyor / Land surveyor / Cadasral surveyor
Géomètre (F); Geómetra (E)
A surveyor is defined as follows by the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG):
A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practise the science of measurement; to assemble and assess land and geographic related information; to use that information for the purpose of planning and implementing the efficient administration of the land, the sea and structures thereon; and to instigate the advancement and development of such practices.
Practice of the surveyors profession may involve one or more of the following activities which occur either on, above or below the surface of the land or sea and may be carried out in association with other professionals.
1 The determination of the size and shape of the earth and the measurement of all data needed to define the size, position, shape and contour of any part of the earths surface.
2 The positioning of objects in space and the positioning and monitoring of physical features, structures and engineering works on, above or below the surface of the earth.
3 The determination of the position of the boundaries of public or private land, including national and international boundaries, and the registration of those lands with the appropriate authorities.
4 The design, establishment and administration of land and geographic information systems and the collection, storage and analysis of data within those systems.
5 The study of the natural and social environment, the measurement of land and marine resources and the use of data in the planning of development in urban, rural and regional areas.
6 The planning, development and redevelopment of property, whether urban or rural and whether land or buildings.
7 The assessment of value and the management of property, whether urban or rural and whether land or buildings.
8 The planning, measurement and management of construction works, including the estimation costs.
9 The production of plans, maps, files, charts and reports.
In the application of the foregoing activities surveyors take into account the relevant legal, economic, environmental and social aspects affecting each project. FIG, 1991
Topographie (F); Topografía (E)
Topography is the set of methods used to enable the nature of the land to be identified, measured and shown.
The topographic map represents the detailed physical attributes of the area using conventional signs and methods. Height, for example is commonly shown using contours or spot heights, and more rarely, for example, using shading. Atopographic map usually uses colours which allows a diversity of topographical features to be shown.
3.T.2 Town and country planning
Urbanisme (F); Urbanismo (E)
Town and country planning is the planning framework within which decisions are made about how land is to be used.
The concept of town and country planning varies between cultures and differs significantly between jurisdictions. There are two significantly different broad approaches. A more flexible system developed in the United Kingdom and has been applied in many of the countries influenced by British legal and administrative systems. This approach seeks to reconcile conflicts in land use and allows both discretion and flexibility in the implementation of planning to try to achieve development that is in the public interest.
This contrasts with the relative inflexibility of the zoning and related systems of planning typically found in United States and continental European jurisdictions which focus principally on the establishment and protection of property rights.
The statutory planning of land use, whether urban or rural, is based on the principle of rationality, the balancing of conflicting claims on the use of resources taking a comprehensive view of the matters to be taken into account.
3.U.1 Urban parcel map / Cadastral map
Parcellaire urbain (F); Parcelario urbano / Carta o mapa catastral / Plano catastral (E)
An urban parcel map is a map identifying the ownership parcels in an urban area.
Urban parcel maps may form the basis of a number of functions including particularly, for example, in relation to real estate taxation and planning.
REFERENCES CHAPTER 3
BURROUGH P.A, McDONNELL R.A, Principals of Geographical Information Systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
CULLINGWORTH, J. B., and NADIN, V., Town and Country Planning in the UK, Routledge, London, 1997
DALE, P. F., and MCLAUGHLIN, J., Land Information Management: An Introduction with Special Reference to Cadastral Problems in Third World Countries, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990
FIG (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SURVEYORS), The Surveyors Contribution to Land Management, FIG, 1991
FIG (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SURVEYORS), Definition of a Surveyor, FIG, 1991
GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit), Land Tenure in Development Cooperation, GTZ, Eschborn, Germany, 1998
LORVELLEC, L., Agrarian Law in France, in GROSSMAN, M. R., and BRUSSARD, W., Agrarian Land Law in the Western World, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992
NIX, J., HILL, P., WILLIAMS, N., and BAUGH, J., Land and Estate Management, Packard Publishing, Chichester, UK, 1998
UNECE, Land Administration Guidelines, Meeting of Officials in Land Administration, UNECE, Geneva, 1996
WILLIAMSON, I., P., LEAHY, F., J., and HUNTER, G., J., Education for Surveyors in Australia: a Vision for the 21st Century, XX Congress, International Federation of Surveyors, Melbourne, 1994