7.A.1 Agrarian systems / structures
Systèmes et structures agraires (F)
An agrarian system, after Mazoyer, is a (predominantly agricultural) way of exploiting an environment that has been established over a period of time and is durable, is adapted to the bio-climatic conditions of the given area and is responsive to the conditions and to the social needs of the time.
The expression agrarian system looks at the interaction between bio-ecological, socio-economic, cultural and political systems, across agricultural practices.
Agriculture (F); Agricultura (E)
A narrow definition of agriculture includes cultivation of crops and animal husbandry as well as forestry, fisheries, and the development of land and water resources.
A broader definition of agriculture includes in addition agro-industries, manufacturing of agricultural inputs and machinery, regional and river development, and rural development.
Agroforesterie (F); Agroforestería (E)
Agroforestry is a collective name for land use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc) are deliberately used on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In agroforestry systems there are both ecological and economic interactions between the different components. CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Agroforestry in practice in Zimbabwe. Food crops can be intercropped with trees.
G. Diana, FAO photo.
There are two basic agroforestry systems: simultaneous and sequential. Simultaneous systems have trees and crops or animals growing together on the same piece of land, while in sequential systems crops and trees take turns in occupying most of the same space, minimising their competition.
Agropastoralisme (F); Agropastoril (E)
Agropastoralism is a mode of production that combines field culture and husbandry with the use of pasture areas.
Allodial rights are absolute rights of ownership in land that do not have any feudal superior. Full private ownership, the absolute right of ownership, is subject only to the states right of eminent domain.
The English law freehold, or fee simple, is not allodial as it technically remains subject to the Crowns feudal superiority. Allodial rights exist in other jurisdictions which have an English Common Law foundation, including the USAand Ghana.
7.A.6 Animal husbandry / Cattle breeding / Ranching
Husbandry is usually defined in the context of farming as livestock or animal husbandry, however, in practice this a little restrictive. Husbandrys definition in a farming context may also include other forms of husbandry including of the field and vine, besides animals.
Husbandry in broad terms includes the general productive process in economic endeavour. In farming, animal husbandry can be looked at in three broad categories which take into account a combination of four different characteristics:
> the way of life
> the characteristics of the natural resources (water, pasture), whether permanent or seasonal, and according to the levels of production
> the relations with other agricultural activities
> the types of movement made
On the basis of these can be distinguished nomadic, transhumant and sedentary husbandry.
Nomadic husbandry is a form of husbandry where the husbandry with the way of life of the groups that practice it are fundamentally intermixed. Nomadic husbandry does not have any complimentarity or association with working on the land. It is the principal activity of a group or tribe, organised in part on the basis of access to water resources. There is also a pure system of nomadic husbandry based on movements after the water holes dry up in the dry season.
Transhumant husbandry is generally a periodic, seasonal movement of livestock to use seasonal pastures. The term derives from the Latin, humus (soil). It applies equally to the system of husbandry based on the intermittent movement of stock which may be necessary because of the seasonal scarcity of resources.
Transhumant husbandry concerns the management and exploitation of livestock during their greater or lesser movements from the base area. Once they have reached these grazings, the livestock can move to specific lands attached. This form of husbandry is characterised by strong specialisation in the village population between the shepherds and herders and the cultivators. In Europe, transhumance is practised between areas of low altitude, where animals are stabled during the winter, and areas of high alpine pastures. Transhumance of cattle has been known for a very long time in the Mediterranean basin. It is still found in areas of Spain, Italy, the Balkans and in Mediterranean France.
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the mobility of animals is an essential characteristic of husbandry and in many regions is a condition of their survival, transhumance remains very strong. Sedentary husbandry is found in areas of abundant natural resources all year round. This form of husbandry includes the management and use of livestock, where the movements take place within the same area of farmland. It is practised in association with or is complimentary to working the land. There can also be a system of agropastoralism surrounding the villages.
CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Aquaculture (F); Acuicultura (E)
According to the definition currently used by FAO for statistical purposes:
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Aquaculture requires access to appropriate areas of land and water. In freshwater resources these are either privately owned or in some cases are nationalised. In marine areas these are commonly held by the state and users require an appropriate lease or other legal interest to allow them to use the required area. Increasingly, the environmental fragility of coastal zones is making it necessary for the proposed use to be considered in detail from land use planning and environmental impact perspectives.
Arboriculture (F); Arboricultura (E)
Arboriculture is the intensive culture of trees in isolation, in a small group or in an orchard depending on the intention. FAO, 1978
Arboriculture includes small scale forestry for village wood requirements. It is based on the planting and supervision of fast growing tree species in groups or in rows on the boundaries of parcels.
Model fish farm. Fish fry production: cast-netting in a shallow fish pond. Fish fry are produced for common carp, Chinese carp, tilapia and silver barb. Lack of mechanization and high cost of pond construction results in shallow seasonal ponds being typical of aquaculture in Laos. The project organizes training of farmer groups in improved production techniques that take into account the climatic and economic conditions of their provinces.
K. Pratt, FAO photo.
7.C.1 Common pasture / grazings
Vaine pâture (F)
Common pasture is exercised on specific land after the harvest for the animals of the inhabitants of the same village.
Common pasture is a recognised right either by title or by usage from time immemorial of the inhabitants of a village to send their stock to graze on the land of anothers, except on enclosed properties or on sown grass, between the harvest and the drilling of a new crop.
The system of common pasture is very widespread in the rural African environment
7.C.2 Community forest
Forêt communautaire (F); Forestería comunitaria (E)
A community forest is a tree-dominated ecosystem managed for multiple community values and benefits by the community.
DUINKER, P., 1994
Community forestry is based in the local control over, and enjoyment of the benefits from, the local forest resource. These benefits are not simply monetary, nor are they derived exclusively from timber production, but may vary with the many values associated with forest ecosystems, including cultural, spiritual, social, medicinal, ecological, recreational, aesthetic and economic values. CURRAN, D., and MGONIGLE, M., 1997
Community forestry initiatives:
> support the control, management and use of forest and tree resources by local communities
> respect social, economic and cultural relationships between people and forests
> involve decentralized and participatory approaches to forest management
> and assume that the best stewards of the worlds forests are the populations living in and around them FAO, 1997
7.C.3 Crop rotation
Crop rotation in wetlands in Zimbabwe. Maize, rice and groundnuts are alternated and grown side by side with maize and groundnuts on raised ground. The water level is controlled by a sluice gate so the land is irrigated all year round. This has resulted in 8 tons per hectare yield instead of an average 2 tons per hectare before the project.
G. Diana, FAO photo.
7.C.3 Crop rotation
Assolement / Rotation des cultures (F);
Rotación de cultivos (E)
A crop rotation is a repetitive cultivation of an ordered succession of crops (or crops and fallow) on the same land. One cycle often takes several years to complete.
CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
7.E.1 Extensive / intensive
Extensif / intensif (F); Extensivo / intensivo (E)
Extensive and intensive refer to the relative levels of use of the factors of land, labour and capital in production.
The terms extensive and intensive (or extensification or intensification when referring to the process) are relative concepts that have many meanings. In classical economics, they express the nature of the relationship between the factors of production: land, labour and capital. More specifically, they describe the relative importance of the factors of labour and capital in comparison with land.
Intensive production is production where the other factors of production, labour and capital, are used relatively abundantly compared with land. In this sense intensification is an increase of labour and or of capital used relative per unit of surface area. Production techniques are referred to as labour intensive or capital intensive. This approach puts the accent on the quantities of inputs per unit of surface area.
A fajenda is a great estate in Brazil and is most frequently used for extensive grazing. It is held as an investment and as an object of prestige, rather than purely for its productive capacity.
CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
7.F.2 Fallow land
Jachère / Mettre en jachère (F); Barbecho (E)
Fallow land is land set aside from farming to allow soil fertility to regenerate.
Fallow usually refers to land set aside for at least one season, and sometimes for periods of up to ten years or more. It may also refer to the period between the harvest of one crop and the planting of the next crop.
The practice tends to disappear with intensification of agricultural production.
7.F.3 Farm tenancy
Fermage (F); Arrenar fincas, garnjas o estancias (E)
A farm tenancy is a contractual agreement whereby the tenant farmer, the lessee, agrees a tenancy with the landowner, the lessor. The tenancy will identify the piece of land leased, together with the other terms and conditions, including rent.
In many countries farm tenancies have in the past been unwritten agreements. Partly as a result it has been common for the state to enact laws protecting some forms of tenancies and allowing certain assumptions as to the terms and conditions that can be statutorily assumed. FAO, 2001
Agriculteur / Agricultrice (F); Agricultuor / Agricultora (E)
A farmer is The principal decision-maker involved in the management of a farm who is usually but not always the head of the household. Sometimes the choice of principal decision-maker will be somewhat arbitrary since decision-making may sometimes be segregated for different farm activities. FAO, 1985
7.F.5 Farmholding / enterprise
Exploitation agricole (F)
A farm holding describes both an area of land, typically a working farm, and the possession of an area of farm land. The term does not include any implication of the legal rights by which the land is held, and it includes therefore both tenants and owners of land.
Forêt (F); Bosque / Bosque comercial (E)
A forest is defined as: Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10% and area of more than 0.5ha. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5m at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground or of open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10%. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10% or tree height of 5m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest. CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
7.F.7 Forest area closed to grazing animals
Défense ou mise en défens (F)
Closed forest areas are put in place to protect young trees from grazing animals.
7.F.8 Forest class
Forêt classée (F)
Forest class is a specific class identified under a classification system. A forest classification system may deal with several different perspectives. Some relate to productivity and production with age class identifying the age of a stand of trees usually on a ten or twenty year band, and forest land class dealing with production potential. Protection related systems identify specific areas for varying degrees of protection. These latter may include specific measures of management and protection for the defined areas thus identifying their production potential.
7.F.9 Forest law
Droit forestier (F)
Forest law comprises the package of laws and regulations governing production and protection of forests, as well as those that regulate the powers of the administration in forests subject to the forest law.
7.F.10 Forest policy
Politique forestière (F); Política forestal (E)
Forest policy, whether conceived at international, national or local levels, defines the overall strategies for production, management and protection of forests. These policies are generally written into a planning document that is revised periodically. Ten years would be an appropriate time frame for this, given the long term characteristics of forestry.
These plans might include:
> development of the forestry resource
> need for forest products
> requirements for training and employment of forestry workers
> measures for protection, production, management and processing that will be necessary
7.G.1 Grazing contract / licence
Contrat de pâturage (F); Contrato de pastoreo (E)
A grazing contract or licence is a legal contract for an agreement, for example between a farmer and a grazier, specifying the terms under which the latter can use the identified land of the former for grazing purposes.
Instituting grazing contracts can take place in situations where there is a growing shortage of land and/or competition between agricultural and pastoral activities. These situations put an end to or throw into question the traditional equilibrium provided by customary use rights and monetarisation of exchange replaces customary mutual assistance.
7.H.1 Home grazing territory
Terroir dattache (F)
The concept of home grazing territory (terroir dattache) refers to a legally identified area in which pastoralists and agro-pastoralists reside for a large part of the year and to which they return following the period of transhumance.
The term terroir dattache (home grazing territory) was developed under the Rural Code in Niger to deal with pastoral land holding systems.
These territories are organised to provide access to key resources including watering places and areas where certain types of crops or pastures are found. They may include areas where wild produce can be found.
Several groups have non-exclusive rights to these territories and may need to negotiate with each other access to these resources. LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
7.I.1 Intensification and land ownership
Intensification of production is related to land ownership in several ways.
Intensive agriculture or livestock husbandry use labour, capital and/or knowledge more intensively per unit of land area and achieve higher rates of production per hectare.
Intensification of agricultural production is related to pressure on the land or to lucrative field of activity. Scarcity of land leads to shortening of rotation periods, in other words the frequency of cultivation increases per unit of time or space.
Where production is limited to a relatively small area, it is compensated, if possible, by raised production per unit of surface area. This results from the introduction of:
> more productive varieties which respond better to inputs
> species of higher calorific value such as tubers in place of cereals
> higher value added cultivation; fruiticulture or market gardening
Latifundium (F); Latifundio (E)
A latifundium is a very large property characterised by:
> large size, running fromseveral hundred hectares to tens of thousands of hectares
> very low productivity of the land which is often devoted to extensive grazing
> supplemented by subsistence crops provided by the people living on the land tied to the landlord on whom they are both personally and financially dependent.
These large estates are most numerous in Latin America where they are called haciendas, estancias or fajendas. Agrarian reforms resulted in their disappearance in Eastern Europe. They have been reduced and modernised in Southern Europe but are still found in the Middle East. BRUNET, R., et al, 1993
7.M.1 Manure contract
Contrat de confiage / Contrat de fumure (F)
A manure contract is an agreement where the herders supply the animalsmanure to the farmersland.
Traditionally in West Africa, farmers left the keeping of their stock to herders under a manure contract. The fields may benefit from the animalsdung in several ways:
> the farmer invites the herder to put the animals on his fields in the dry season, providing the possibility of watering the cattle and of manuring the fields
> the herder sells the manure to the farmer
> the stock are driven through the fields during the dry season -but in this case the quantities of fertilisers restored to the field are reduced
With the tensions that have tended to develop between farmers and herders, the practice of manure contracts has tended to disappear.
Mariculture is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants specifically in marine areas. As with aquaculture, farming in this context implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Mariculture requires access to appropriate areas of coastal and marine land and water. In marine areas the marine areas are commonly held by the state and users require an appropriate lease or other legal interest to allow then to use the required area. Increasingly, the environmental fragility of coastal zones is making it necessary for the proposed use to be considered in detail from land use planning and environmental impact perspectives.
Verger (F); Huerta / Vergel (E)
An orchard is an area planted with fruit trees. Orchards are often not defined in isolation from gardens.
Mariculture students in India cultivate mullet and prawns in the Institute of "wet lab" where physiology and nutrition experiments are conducted.
I. de Borhegyi, FAO photo.
Orchard of Golden apples in Afghanistan.
M. Griffin, FAO photo.
7.P.1 Park / enclosure
Parc (F); Parque (E)
The park or enclosure is a typical part of sub-Saharan agrarian systems. The park or enclosure emerges during land/forest clearances as a regular and systematic population of trees that are retained, looked after, and improved because of their utility. GUKONU, E., 1991
7.P.2 Pastoral land
Espace pastoral (F)
Pastoral land is land used by pastoralists and shepherds for grazing livestock.
The term pastoral land refers to the use and management of resources which allow animal husbandry. It includes areas of natural vegetation such as savannah and forest as well as agricultural lands where the animals are put to the common grazing after the harvest. Equally important to this use are all of the necessary developments including the seasonal pastures (transhumance), the rights of way, the wells, the fixed and itinerant camping sites and others.
The Touareg Kel Dinnik in the Tahoua region of Niger occupy an area that does not belong to them, but over which they have more of a prior right of use.
Whoever digs a well has the water at their disposal and, although they have priority, they cannot prevent a stranger from drinking there. The stranger would not, without compensation, water his animals before him ...
Although the stranger cannot be prevented from coming as well, the limit to this right is the danger for the first occupier caused by intrusion into his patoral land, and the damage caused to his stock... CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
7.P.3 Pastoral land rights
Droits fonciers pastoraux (F)
Pastoral land rights are principally exercised over the resources of the home grazing territories based on the rules on the use of watering places. The pastoral communities exercise their effective but not exclusive management powers over land and water resources. They grant prior rights of access and reserve access rights for non-indigenous groups on the basis of consensus. The right to control watering places allows the communities to manage the use of the pastures as a function of the availability of water.
Pasteur (F); Pastor / Vaquero (E)
A pastoralist looks after grazing livestock, as a shepherd, goatherd, swineherd, or cowherd in a way of life which is essentially livestock husbandry. Anomad is a pastoralist.
The term does not describe an activity, it is a way of life, and a form of society.
Pâturage (F); Pastizal / Hacer pastar / Apacentar / Pastoreo (E)
Pasture is natural or artificial grassland where animals graze.
7.P.6 Pasture / grazing land rights
Pacage / pacager (F)
In the past, during the 16th Century, pasture rights (pacage) designated a right, a time and a place for grazing.
Natural grasslands with typically low productivity would not generally support pasture rights without care and maintenance and resolution of the difficulties such as those of access or of rocky outcrops.
7.P.6 Pasture / grazing land rights
Farmer with buffaloes grazing by a river at the edge of a rice field in Cambodia.
G. Bizarri, FAO photo
By extension, pasture rights also include the grazing of animals. The right of pasture on communal land near a village can involve the differentiation of herds and production in a mixed population of sedentary cultivators and herders.
In the central delta of the Niger, the hariima is a communal grazing land of the village near to the village settlement and under the care of the village chief (or grazing chief) who keeps order and manages access. These pastures are exclusively reserved for one category of animals, milk cows. The right of pasture is forbidden not only to non-indigenous livestock herders, but also to the garci (transumant herds) of the village. These pasture lands and the droving rights of way cannot be cultivated.
CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
Paysan / Paysanne (F); Campesino / Campesina (E)
A peasant is a countryman, typically one who works on the land as a small farmer or labourer.
7.P.8 Peri-urban agriculture
Agriculture péri-urbaine (F); Agricultura periurbana (E)
Peri-urban agriculture refers to farm units close to town which operate intensive semi- or fully commercial farms to grow vegetables and other horticulture, raise chickens and other livestock, and produce milk and eggs. FAO, 2000
The FAO position paper Urban and peri-urban agriculture distinguishes peri-urban agriculture from urban agriculture which refers to small urban areas used for growing crops and raising small livestock or milk cows for own-consumption or sale in neighbourhood markets. These areas may include vacant plots, gardens, verges, balconies and containers.
Pluriactivity is a term commonly used across Europe that refers to the multiple sources of incomes, both agricultural and non-agricultural, increasingly generated by farmers and members of their households.
A proportion of farmers and members of farm households have always had occupations or income sources other than farming - pluriactivity - but discussion of this is complicated by the different definitions used. These include:
> diversification of the business into areas other than traditional farming
> the range of jobs or activities that farmers and their families they do
> non-farming income of farmers and their families, includes unearned income sources, such as pensions and investments, as well as those associated with activities
7.P.10 Private forest
Forêt privée (F)
Private forest where the detailed operations are controlled by the common rules for all forest land, including felling permits.
A quota is a specific quantity allocated as a part of a policy mechanism to restrict free markets, for example in production (agriculture), in exploitation (fisheries), in harvesting or felling (timber) and in importing. Quotas are very commonly used to try to direct and protect the agricultural, fisheries and forestry industries.
Parcours (rangeland) has no specific English equivalent, but is where there is a reciprocal customary right of common grazings between two or more communities. It also applies to seasonal pastures that have been long used by itinerant herdsmen.
In the Maghreb, the customary or legal right of pasture in the forest and in mountains is the benefice of specific tribes.
7.R.2 Right of way / Droving rights
Couloir de passage / Couloir de parcours (F);
Corredores de paso / Caminos / Trochas / Pistas de transhumancia (E)
Rights of way or droving rights are routes for driving livestock that avoid damaging the crops through which they pass.
The rights of way are generally between 50 and 200 metres wide, and may be dozens of kilometres in length. These rights of way are also known as stock routes or transhumance corridors and are very important in enabling livestock to be moved without significant conflict to the transhumant areas. Increased pressure on land is causing farmers to plough up these rights of way, leading to increased damage and conflict between sedentary cultivators and pastoralists.
LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
Scrubland is colonised by characteristic forms of scrub vegetation typically after the cessation of cultivation.
Scrubland is not confined as the French term, friche, is to scrub vegetation or to areas abandoned after having been cultivated, without any expectation of returning to productive use. This latter characteristic distinguishes it from fallow land. Scrubland is characterised by poor land often scattered with woody and pasture plants.
7.S.2 Set aside
Set aside is a feature of agriculture policies in some countries where production is controlled by setting land aside from agricultural production.
Under the European Unions set aside scheme in 2000, for example, farmers had to set aside 10% of their land as a condition for receiving crop subsidies.
7.S.3 Share cropping (Share tenancy)
Métayage (F); Aparcería / Mediería (E)
Share cropping is a system of agricultural production where a landowner allows a share cropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land.
Share cropping covers a wide range of different situations and types of agreement. In the United States it is an important system of production and the individual states have specific legal frameworks.
Share cropping has reduced considerably from historical levels in Europe, although it remains of significance, for example, in England and Wales and is increasing elsewhere as a rational solution to the very heavy capital costs of large scale modern farming. In Europe the most common approach is now for direct farming by the owner or tenant farming through a tenancy. Share cropping is found extensively in other countries, particularly, for example, in Latin America.
In Africa, there are different views as to the causes of the increase in sharecropping arrangements in recent years. Some attribute it to customary arrangements being degraded by contact with the market economy, others to increasing numbers of population displacements, and others to the increasing shortage of land.
CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999; LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
Two main types of share cropping agreement exist in Ghana. An abusa tenant clears and cultivates at his own expense a tract of virgin land allocated to him by a land holder. The tenant pays a third of the annual produce in return for his use of the land. The abunu share cropper either receives a farm to cultivate or the funds to establish a farm, in return for half the annual produce. The farm is operated by the tenant, but ultimately belongs to the original landholder/donor. A third example is the dibi-ma-dibi (I eat, you eat) arrangement found in the cocoa and coffee growing region between Togo and Ghana. This originally allowed an immigrant to acquire a quasi-permanent right of occupation and possession in exchange for clearing and planting the plot with cocoa. The parcel could be passed on to his heirs as long as the plantation was farmed. LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
Sylviculture (F); Silvicultura (E)
Silviculture is the application of forest ecology to the production of renewable goods and services for human society. It is not forest management but consists of actions taken at the level of individual stands to renew and enhance the forest crop to meet stand management objectives for timber, wildlife, recreation, landscape design, preservation, and water yield.
7.S.5 State forest
Forêt dominiale (F); Bosque nacional (E)
State forest is forest in public ownership managed by the state forestry service.
In Cameroon, for example, the permanent forest areas are divided into the state forests, both protected areas and production forests, and the community forests.
7.S.6 State forest administration
Forêt soumise (F)
Foret soumise (state forest administration) has no specific English equivalent, but is where the forest of the decentralised communities is put under the state forestry administration for management.
7.T.1 Tenant farmer / Lessee
Tenancier (F); Tenedor (E)
A tenant farmer is someone who holds a farm as a farmer or a share cropper, and especially a small tenanted farm held from a large estate.
7.T.2 Transhumance / Seasonal grazing lands
Transhumance / Parcours saisonnier (F); Libre pastoreo (E)
Transhumance is the movement of livestock to use seasonal grazings and water supplies. Transhumance often involves long distance movements of livestock, in some cases over as much as hundreds of kilometres. Increasing strains are put on relations between transhumant and sedentary farmers with severe droughts, increased herd sizes resulting from improved animal health and increased agricultural areas. CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
7.T.3 Tree rights
Arbre (foncier de l) (F)
Tree rights are specific rights held in relation to trees and their products. Trees have many uses and rights associated with them. In Africa the long term nature of trees and their production has resulted in specific tenure of tree assets. There are four categories of rights:
> right to plant
> right to use
> right to disposal
> right to own or to inherit
CHOUDHURY, K., AND JANSEN, L. J. M., 1999
These rights may develop into rights over the land on which the tree is planted. As a result landholders in Africa are very reluctant to allow people with subsidiary interests, such as tenants, borrowers, share croppers and others, to plant trees for fear that they will acquire long term rights over the land. LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
The general approach to tree rights is that naturally generated trees are community property whereas planted trees are owned by the planter, although there are exceptions where ownership is determined by the underlying land ownership even though the trees are naturally generated. Gender restrictions on land ownership may also carry through to tree ownership, with societies where women are resricted from owning land often restricting or prohibiting tree planting and ownership by women. LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., 2000
7.U.1 Urban forest
Forêt urbaine (F)
Urban and peri-urban forestry are specific to urban and peri-urban areas. They are multi-functional with critical environmental functions, in addition to some food and non-food production functions. FAO, 2000
7.W.1 Wood clearing
Essart / Essartage (F)
A wood clearing is land which is made cultivable after the clearance of the timber.
REFERENCES CHAPTER 7
CHOUDHURY, K., and JANSEN, L. J. M., Eds.,Terminology for Integrated Resources Management and Planning, FAO/UNEP, Rome, 1999
CURRAN, D., and MGONIGLE, M., First Nations Forests: Community Management as Opportunity and Imperative, Discussion Paper D97-7, University of Victoria, Canada, 1997
DUINKER, P., Community Forests in Canada, The Forestry Chronicle, Vol. 70, No.6, November/December. 1994
FAO, Le rôle des forêts dans le développement des collectivités locales, FAO, Rome, 1978
FAO, Farm Management Glossary, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 63, FAO Rome, 1985
FAO, People and Forests - Community Forestry at FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1997
FAO, Urban and peri-urban agriculture, position paper accessed at http://www.fao.org/unfao/bodies/COAG/COAG15/X0076e.htm, FAO, Rome, 2000
FAO, Good Practice Guidelines for Agricultural Leasing Arrangements.
FAO Land Tenure Studies No. 2. Rome. 2001
GUKONU, E., Larboriculture, in LE BRIS, E., LE ROY, E, and MATHIEU, Lappropriation de la terre en Afrique noire, Karthala, Paris, 1991
LEONARD, R., and LONGBOTTOM, J., Land Tenure Lexicon: A glossary of terms from English and French speaking West Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, 2000