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7.7 JAPAN


7.7.1 Catches

Japan has historically been one of the most important fishing nations for Elasmobranchii. There were already reports of shark fisheries 200 years ago when Japan began to export shark fins to China. Elasmobranch catches have decreased considerably from 100 700 tonnes in 1950 to nearly 31 000 tonnes in 1997. In 1950 Japan had the largest elasmobranch fishery in the world, taking 37.1% of the world catch. In 1997 this percentage was only 3.9% and Japan ranked seventh in the world. The 1940s and 1950s represent the period of most intensive fishing with an annual average of 92 600 tonnes in the 1950s. This has regularly decreased in the following decades to around 34 900 tonnes per year during the first half of the 1990s. 1996 was the lowest year with 24 200 tonnes.

No data is available on the composition of the catch by species. Only the group “large sharks” is identified in the FAO statistics. Reporting of this group began in 1965 and their catches have fluctuated since then from a low of 60 tonnes in 1975 to peak at 610 tonnes in 1981; 38 tonnes were caught in 1997. The great bulk of the catch consists of “Elasmobranchii not identified”, 27 000 tonnes in 1997. In the period 1951-67[143], picked dogfish was the main species caught followed by blue shark and salmon shark (Lamna ditropis). After 1968 there are no indication of species in official Japanese statistics of landings and all sharks are combined into one category. At present, the most significant species is probably blue shark, followed by silky shark, oceanic whitetip shark and shortfin mako[144]. There are also reports of thresher and hammerhead catches.

Figure 109 Japanese elasmobranch catches by species in 1 000 tonnes (1950-1997)

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Elasmobranchii are captured in many fishing areas but the bulk comes from the Northwest Pacific. Other important areas are the Central Eastern and Southwest Pacific, Western Indian Ocean and Central Western Pacific.

Figure 110 Japanese elasmobranch catches by fishing areas in 1 000 tonnes (1950-1997)

Source: FAO - FIDI.

The majority of the elasmobranch catch is composed of shark. According to Taniuchi[145], the relative importance of sharks declined from 4.3% of the total fish catches in 1949 to 0.3% in 1985. This seems to be due to a decrease in the relative value of elasmobranch together with a reduction in the Japanese elasmobranch stocks. Nowadays, elasmobranch constitute 0.55% of total Japanese catches, one of the lowest percentages among major elasmobranch fishing countries. Taniuchi reported a huge decrease in harvests of picked dogfish from more than 50 000 tonnes in 1952 to less than 10 000 tonnes in 1965. This probably indicates a decline in the size of stocks of this species, as landings of other sharks did not follow the same trend. Another important factor, which could explain the reduction in catches, is the change in consumer preferences associated with increasing purchasing power, which followed Japanese economic growth after the post-war period. So, the decrease in catches is probably because of falling market values for shark products, which prompted fisheries to target higher priced species.

Sharks are mainly captured as a bycatch by longline and trawl fisheries. There are exceptions, as a small-scale shark longline fishery, targeting salmon sharks, exists in northern Japanese coastal waters. According to Taniuchi and Ishihara[146], in the period 1976-85, 83% of Japanese elasmobranch catches were sharks and at least 63% of these sharks were captured as bycatch in tuna longline fisheries. In 1993, 77% of the total shark catch was by tuna longline. There are estimates that 25% of catches on tuna vessels are sharks[147]. A high percentage of the sharks captured as bycatch are discarded at sea, especially sharks that have low economic value. Discards of shark at sea amount to 2.8 times the landed shark bycatch of the longline tuna fishery. Fins are taken from almost all sharks and are typically divided among the vessel members, who then supply them directly to dealers.

7.7.2 Markets and trade

Japan has used shark species for a long time. In ancient times, dried shark meat was offered at Ise shrine, Japan’s oldest shrine[148]. The meat and cartilage of Elasmobranchii are used in traditional dishes, there are industrial and medicinal uses of liver oil compounds and the skins are used for making leather. In 1900 there was a government promotion of shark fisheries and industries based on the production of meat, cartilage, oil and fins[149].

Consumption of shark meat as steaks and fillets is limited. It is mainly used in the manufacture of hanpen, kamaboko and yaki-chukuwa. Shark meat is consumed fresh, frozen, boiled, processed, as sashimi and surimi paste Fresh shark meat is not popular but it is eaten occasionally in restaurants. Starspotted smooth-hound meat is eaten boiled. Boiled shark meat is called yubiki. In Aomori and Nagasaki prefecture meat is eaten as yubiki with sumiso (a traditional Japanese soya-based condiment)[150]. Shortfin mako and thresher sharks are the preferred species for frozen meat. Picked dogfish, shortfin mako shark and starspotted smooth-hound are considered suitable for sashimi as they do not have a strong ammonia taste. In North Japan limited amounts of sharks are consumed in steak form, and the favoured species are those with fibrous meat, such as hammerhead and picked dogfish. According to Kreuzer and Ahmed, hoshi zame (Mustelus manazo) is a popular shark species in Japan. It is chopped up fresh and boiled in water then eaten with a vinegar and bean paste. It is also sometimes salted and dried and then cooked the same way. Nezumizame (Vulpecula marina) is boiled and sometimes roasted. There are also reports that blue sharks are used for sashimi[151] but usually meat of blue shark is manufactured into fish paste, which can only be done if it has been promptly processed within two hours of capture, in order to avoid its strong odour. Shark paste is consumed as hanpen. Kamaboko is also a paste product and one of the oldest traditional fish products in Japan. It uses only a small proportion of fish meat and shark meat forms part of that. Age kamaboko (fried kamaboko) uses the maximum amount of fish meat, around 30% of its total composition[152]. Yaki-chukuwa is used in Oden cooking in the winter season. Shark ovaries are used to prepare atsuyaki, a kind of fish paste[153].

Makos, thresher and Carcharhinidae sharks command higher prices than other species on the Japanese market. Mako is the most highly regarded species. It is marketed frozen, its meat is used for sashimi and the fins are judged of good quality. Salmon shark is usually consumed in northern Honshu and the heart of salmon shark is eaten as sashimi in Kesennuma but only limited amounts of this species are eaten in the rest of the country. It is usually exported, together with porbeagles, to Europe.

The price for whole gutted shark without the fins in landing ports in Japan is about 100 yen/kg (US$ 0.78/kg). Prices are particularly low at the moment as there is a wide variety of other fish available for surimi production. Flesh of mako shark and blue shark is sold in the Tokyo Tsukiji market for about 250 yen/kg (US$ 1.96/kg).

According to FAO statistics, in 1997 Japan ranked third after Pakistan and the USA as an elasmobranch producer with about 8 400 tonnes. Its production was more significant in the 1980s, peaking at 15 600 tonnes in 1983. Since 1981 only production of frozen sharks has been reported but, in previous years, dried, unsalted shark fins (833 tonnes in 1980) and shark liver oil (130 tonnes in 1980) were also manufactured.

Figure 111 Japanese production of frozen shark in tonnes

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Japan is an important trader in fresh and frozen shark meat. In 1997 Japan imported 1 810 tonnes, valued US$17.9 million. Most imports consist of frozen whole carcasses with a limited amount of fresh sharks and some fillets. Imports of fresh fillets have increased in the last few years and nearly reached 100 tonnes in 1996 (FAO statistics), but in 1997 they have declined to 35 tonnes. Data from the Japan Marine Product Importers Association indicate that in 1997 Japan imported 1 730 tonnes of frozen sharks worth US$16.8 million, a decline of 26.2% in volume and 6.6% in value compared with 2 350 tonnes worth US$18.0 million in the previous year. This marks a 42.3% decrease from the peak of 3 000 tonnes in 1991. In 1997 Spain became the main supplier for the first time with 508 tonnes worth US$6.9 million. Canada, Ecuador, the USA, Taiwan Province of China, New Zealand, and China were the other major suppliers but imports from Canada showed a substantial decline from the previous year’s 840 tonnes to only 260 tonnes. However, Canada’s exports of sharks to Japan in 1996 were almost double those of the previous year. Spanish exports to Japan have substantially increased during the last few years, peaking at 540 tonnes in 1996, as have those from China, which grew from 8 tonnes in 1992 to 133 tonnes in 1996, declining to 85 tonnes in 1997. Supplies from Republic of Korea and Taiwan Province of China have gone in the opposite direction. Until a few years ago Taiwan Province of China was the main supplier of frozen sharks to Japan. In 1989 it exported 790 tonnes but by 1997 this had fallen to 150 tonnes. Imports from Republic of Korea declined from 340 tonnes in 1989 to 47 tonnes in 1997.

Figure 112 Japanese imports of sharks by product form in tonnes

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Figure 113 Japanese imports of frozen sharks by country of origin in tonnes

Source: Japan Marine Product Importers Association

Japanese exports of shark meat consist mainly of frozen sharks. In 1997 Japan was the leading exporting country of frozen shark fillets followed by New Zealand and UK, according to FAO statistics. Japanese national statistics show Japan exporting 1 570 tonnes of frozen sharks worth US$3.2 million and 1 660 tonnes of frozen shark fillets worth US$6.4 million in 1997. The main destination countries of frozen sharks were China, Republic of Korea, Peru, Spain and Mauritius, while frozen shark fillets went to Singapore (41.9%), Republic of Korea, Mauritius, Germany and Italy in that year.

Figure 114 Japanese exports of sharks in tonnes

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Figure 115 Japanese exports of sharks in tonnes

Source: Japanese Ministry of Finance.

There are reports of Japanese exports of shark fins to China more than 200 years ago. In the 1940s the trade in shark fins ceased but it restarted after the Second World War. Japan is one of the major producers of shark fins in the world but this production was only reported in FAO statistics until 1980.

Table 91 Japanese production of dried, unsalted shark fins in tonnes

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

894

871

613

749

833

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Fins from Japanese vessels are judged to be better quality than those from Korean vessels as Japanese fishermen cut differently, to include the meat at the base of the tail. The fins are processed by dealers. There are two types of fins. One is called suboshi (dried fins with skin) and the other sumuki (dried fins without skin). There are two types of suboshi: funaboshi are fins dried through direct exposure to the sun for a short period on the distant-water tuna longline vessels and okaboshi are fins dried on land. Funaboshi are considered to be lesser quality than okaboshi and are usually exported to Hong Kong. Sumuki is more expensive than suboshi as it takes 1-2 months to prepare; fins are boiled, skinless, and dried. Usually the tail fin is processed as suboshi and the others as sumuki[154].

The bulk of Japanese shark fin production is exported. Shark fin soup is not traditional in Japanese cuisine as it is in Chinese. There is very limited consumption at home, mainly in Chinese restaurants. The fins of mako, hammerhead and sandbar are preferred, as are big fins compared to small ones. Fins of blue and salmon sharks are considered to be lower quality but are more available and less expensive. From blue sharks, only the lower section of the tail fin of is used to prepare soup.

Figure 116 Japanese exports of dried, unsalted shark fins in tonnes

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Imports of shark fin are not reported in Japanese statistics but, according to the records of Japanese trading partners, Japan imports only limited amounts of shark fin, mainly from Taiwan Province of China, compared with other Asian countries. These imports are often re-exported to countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore. According to Japanese national statistics, Japan exported 370 tonnes of dried shark fins worth US$13.5 million in 1997. Hong Kong took 286 tonnes worth US$11.9 million, followed by China, Indonesia, and Singapore. The volume of Japanese exports of shark fins have declined regularly from 1 070 tonnes in 1981 to 370 tonnes in 1997. According to FAO statistics, Japan was the leading exporter of dried, unsalted shark fins in value in 1997 followed by Indonesia and Maldives.

Figure 117 Japanese exports of dried, unsalted shark fins in tonnes

Source: Japanese Ministry of Finance.

Shark fin prices are high but vary widely depending upon size, species, which fin it is, the condition of the fin and whether it is fresh, frozen or dried and, if dried, how dry. Yokohama Chinese restaurant suppliers report buying shark fins for about 3 000 yen/kg (US$23.5/kg).

Japan also produces artificial shark fins. This product has the appearance and, to some extent, the texture of shark fins. Restaurants usually mix these artificial fins with genuine shark fins in a 30:70 ratio. This cheap product is generally exported.

Japan used to be one of the world’s major producers and exporters of shark liver oil. Between 1926 and 1940 Japan produced more than 3 800 tonnes annually on average. This declined in the following decades to average 220 tonnes per annum between 1973 and 1980. Production statistics have not been available since 1980. During the Second World War shark oil was used as a lubricant in combat aircraft and there was a substantial increase in demand. Statistics on Japanese exports and imports of shark liver oil are also unavailable, as shark oil is included in the general category of fish oil. Oil is an important component of cosmetics and health products. Capsules made from shark liver oil extract sold are sold at prices ranging from US$16.00 to US$27.00 per 450mg bottle. Shark oil is sold at US$17.00 per 50.3ml bottle. Face, hand and body creams prepared with squalene are marketed at US$11.00 per 240ml container. Shark oil is also used in sanitary wipes used for cleaning toilets[155].

Table 92 Japanese production of shark liver oil in tonnes

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

211

422

146

139

130

Source: FAO - FIDI.

Japan, the USA and Australia are the major shark cartilage producing countries. Japan produces shark cartilage powder and capsules. These products are marketed for domestic use but they are also exported to countries such as the USA and Mexico and imported from the USA, New Zealand and Australia. Chondroitin natrium is a component found in shark cartilage and it is used in Japan as a treatment for eye fatigue and rheumatism, with blue shark cartilage particularly appreciated.

Flawed shark skins are processed to make the gelatinous food nikogori. Shark skin is used in limited amounts in the manufacture of handbags, belts and watchbands.

Table 93 Japanese elasmobranch catches by species in tonnes


1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei

80 700

70 700

74 100

77 600

84 500

78 500

74 600

76 200

66 100

70 500

Whip stingray

20 000

15 000

15 000

17 100

18 400

18 700

18 000

17 600

16 800

15 500

Large sharks nei

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

100 700

85 700

89 100

94 700

102 900

97 200

92 600

93 800

82 900

86 000













1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei

69 700

65 300

69 100

63 700

57 500

57 800

60 900

57 500

48 500

51 200

Whip stingray

14 200

13 000

12 400

13 700

12 100

10 300

10 700

10 600

8 000

8 500

Large sharks nei

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

-

-

-

Total

83 900

78 300

81 500

77 400

69 600

68 200

71 700

68 100

56 500

59 700













1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei

51 000

45 100

44 800

41 700

38 969

38 456

44 978

50 245

42 844

43 412

Whip stingray

10 200

7 700

7 000

7 500

6 424

7 684

7 819

9 365

8 263

9 496

Large sharks nei

600

400

400

200

322

58

85

104

74

102

Total

61 800

53 200

52 200

49 400

45 715

46 198

52 882

59 714

51 181

53 010













1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei

42 188

39 032

37 364

35 530

36 422

32 644

37 572

35 846

21 811

28 378

Whip stingray

11 882

9 400

9 990

8 083

9 047

6 577

6 609

6 799

6 637

5 350

Large sharks nei

228

609

226

85

213

214

231

232

168

176

Total

54 298

49 041

47 580

43 698

45 682

39 435

44 412

42 877

28 616

33 904













1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997



Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei

26 471

28 386

33 536

33 739

29 827

26 764

19 939

26 998



Whip stingray

5 492

4 778

4 585

4 247

4 041

3 985

4 029

3 959



Large sharks nei

140

198

345

553

450

397

238

38



Total

32 103

33 362

38 466

38 539

34 318

31 146

24 206

30 995



Source: FAO - FIDI.

Table 94 Japanese elasmobranch catches by fishing areas in tonnes


1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

Pacific, Northwest

100 700

85 700

89 100

94 700

102 900

97 200

92 600

93 800

82 900

86 000

Pacific, Eastern Central

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pacific, Southwest

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Indian Ocean, Western

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pacific, Western Central

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Indian Ocean, Eastern

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Eastern Central

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Southeast

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pacific, Southeast

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Northeast

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Southwest

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Northwest

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atlantic, Western Central

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mediterranean and Black Sea

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pacific, Northeast

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

100 700

85 700

89 100

94 700

102 900

97 200

92 600

93 800

82 900

86 000













1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Pacific, Northwest

83 900

78 300

81 500

77 400

39 400

36 800

41 100

39 700

38 400

42 400

Pacific, Eastern Central

-

-

-

-

9 700

10 400

7 300

8 900

3 900

3 900

Pacific, Southwest

-

-

-

-

6 500

7 400

8 900

6 800

1 400

700

Indian Ocean, Western

-

-

-

-

2 300

1 300

1 900

2 400

1 900

2 200

Pacific, Western Central

-

-

-

-

5 600

5 400

6 200

6 000

7 800

6 900

Indian Ocean, Eastern

-

-

-

-

1 800

1 200

800

1 900

1 100

1 200

Atlantic, Eastern Central

-

-

-

-

500

1 000

400

300

400

300

Atlantic, Southeast

-

-

-

-

800

1 300

1 800

500

300

400

Pacific, Southeast

-

-

-

-

900

600

1 200

700

600

800

Atlantic, Northeast

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

-

-

0

Atlantic, Southwest

-

-

-

-

600

600

600

200

100

200

Atlantic, Northwest

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

-

-

-

Atlantic, Western Central

-

-

-

-

800

800

700

200

100

200

Mediterranean and Black Sea

-

-

-

-

700

1 200

600

500

500

500

Pacific, Northeast

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

83 900

78 300

81 500

77 400

69 600

68 200

71 700

68 100

56 500

59 700













1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Pacific, Northwest

49 100

42 300

41 200

40 200

37 842

39 088

45 452

51 776

44 085

44 631

Pacific, Eastern Central

4 500

3 600

4 200

3 800

2 504

1 983

3 099

3 386

3 154

3 575

Pacific, Southwest

700

1 700

1 300

1 800

887

1 514

1 756

1 893

804

1 319

Indian Ocean, Western

1 000

1 000

1 200

400

754

497

153

103

251

132

Pacific, Western Central

3 200

2 200

2 000

1 400

1 645

1 187

1 067

827

839

1 479

Indian Ocean, Eastern

700

800

400

300

434

538

227

218

210

546

Atlantic, Eastern Central

400

200

300

100

458

575

151

224

322

108

Atlantic, Southeast

300

500

500

500

352

272

359

387

370

329

Pacific, Southeast

600

200

400

500

422

321

441

752

944

728

Table 94 Japanese elasmobranch catches by fishing areas in tonnes (continued)


1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Atlantic, Northeast

-

-

-

-

17

8

6

12

11

3

Atlantic, Southwest

500

100

200

100

3

1

0

0

106

47

Atlantic, Northwest

600

400

400

200

322

58

85

104

74

102

Atlantic, Western Central

200

200

100

100

74

147

76

32

4

11

Mediterranean and Black Sea

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Pacific, Northeast

0

0

0

0

1

9

10

0

7

0

Total

61 800

53 200

52 200

49 400

45 715

46 198

52 882

59 714

51 181

53 010













1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

Pacific, Northwest

43 571

36 926

35 674

33 935

33 848

29 219

33 642

30 771

16 783

23 177

Pacific, Eastern Central

4 279

4 680

4 702

4 531

4 502

3 361

3 910

5 023

5 281

4 869

Pacific, Southwest

2 018

2 362

2 502

1 588

2 250

1 792

2 276

2 185

2 319

1 691

Indian Ocean, Western

200

183

161

270

344

350

300

528

296

212

Pacific, Western Central

1 875

1 544

1 330

953

1 085

871

644

514

638

563

Indian Ocean, Eastern

410

750

369

477

472

903

769

297

347

446

Atlantic, Eastern Central

411

378

527

315

465

626

305

517

334

662

Atlantic, Southeast

548

378

717

225

582

652

710

589

641

868

Pacific, Southeast

713

846

771

1 178

1 327

521

663

1 754

1 297

818

Atlantic, Northeast

18

24

28

68

33

29

8

22

19

26

Atlantic, Southwest

24

146

221

2

405

694

838

339

356

141

Atlantic, Northwest

228

609

226

85

213

214

231

232

168

176

Atlantic, Western Central

3

134

155

36

57

71

25

44

27

139

Mediterranean and Black Sea

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

Pacific, Northeast

0

81

197

35

97

132

91

62

110

116

Total

54 298

49 041

47 580

43 698

45 682

39 435

44 412

42 877

28 616

33 904













1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997



Pacific, Northwest

22 515

23 785

27 328

27 577

22 905

20 618

16 585

24 144



Pacific, Eastern Central

3 984

4 176

5 322

3 591

3 645

5 215

2 982

2 703



Pacific, Southwest

1 587

1 369

1 625

1 675

1 022

862

901

846



Indian Ocean, Western

166

135

321

196

502

282

620

635



Pacific, Western Central

346

536

811

780

1 124

480

246

515



Indian Ocean, Eastern

201

550

164

244

185

554

437

485



Atlantic, Eastern Central

652

434

521

1 412

977

925

729

482



Atlantic, Southeast

691

717

658

1 140

1 295

676

398

473



Pacific, Southeast

1 409

857

1 032

996

1 415

671

857

372



Atlantic, Northeast

62

91

107

174

168

376

132

211



Atlantic, Southwest

205

375

185

185

581

65

69

62



Atlantic, Northwest

140

198

345

553

450

397

238

38



Atlantic, Western Central

103

66

7

13

30

17

9

27



Mediterranean and Black Sea

0

0

1

3

5

8

3

2



Pacific, Northeast

42

73

39

0

14

0

0

0



Total

32 103

33 362

38 466

38 539

34 318

31 146

24 206

30 995



Source: FAO - FIDI.


[143] TANIUCHI T., “The role of Elasmobranchii in Japanese fisheries”, NOAA technical report, NMFS 90:415-426, 1990.
[144] BONFIL R., idem.
[145] TANIUCHI T., idem.
[146 ]ISHIHARA H., “The skates and rays of the western North Pacific: an overview of their fisheries, utilization, and classification”, NOAA technical report, NMFS 90:485-498, 1990.
[147] TANIUCHI T., “Should sharks be conserved?” Umi no seisanryoku to sakana. Koseisha Koseikaku, 1995.
[148] YANO K., “Gulper shark” Basic data of Japanese rare aquatic wildlife II. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Fisheries Agency: pp. 179-184, 1986, 1995.
[149 ]KIYONO H., idem.
[150] KIYONO H., idem.
[151 ]PAUST B., SMITH R., “Salmon shark manual” AK-SG-86-01. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1986.
[152] KREUZER R., AHMED R., idem.
[153] GORDIEVSKAYA V.S. "Shark flesh in the food industry", US Department of Commerce, National technical information service, Springfield, 1973.
[154 ]KIYONO H., idem.
[155 ]KIYONO H., idem.

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