Appendix H

Report of Working Groups - Elements A to E1

Element A

To improve comprehension and widespread capillary adoption of the Code in the Mediterranean region

The order of importance at national and regional level of the elements listed below are indicated in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. The recommended activities were as follows:

A1. Prepare a short version of the Code and training materials such as manuals, booklets and pamphlets etc. in national languages

Some of these materials could be prepared at regional level and later adapted to national characteristics.

A2. Organize specialized training and the provision of advice at all levels

Training should not be only technical but could include broader topics like environmental conservation and management, social development, legislative matters, market promotion and control.

A3. Establishment of groups of "Ambassadors of the Code ", core groups in the country in charge of creating awareness

These "Ambassadors" will preferably be constituted by the groups present at the Consultation.

A4. Organize workshops and roundtables

They could be organized on the basis of agreed common regional standards and strategies, and both at ministerial and expert level.

A5. Promote programmes designed to encourage producers associations/ organizations involvement

Producers associations or organizations could be involved to improve the flow of ideas and new technologies, could facilitate education and help improve monitoring impact of the Code.

A6. Organize debates on major questions related with adaptation and adoption of the Code and on monitoring of short and medium-term effects

The establishment of temporary or permanent Ďad hocí committees and interdisciplinary commissions could be planned both at national as well as at bilateral, multilateral or regional level.

A7. Use of electronic information systems and networks such as AQUAFLOW, EC Web Pages, and SIPAM to diffuse information

Such networks as well as similar materials and media will help dissemination of the Code.

A8. International and/or regional organizations such as FAO, GFCM as well as national organizations should search funding sources for the dissemination and application of the Code.

Table 1

Ranking of the activities of Element A in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

Cyprus

1

2

3

6

4

7

8

5

Tunisia

3

8

4

7

5

6

1

2

Spain

2

4

8

1

3

5

7

6

Egypt

2

1

7

8

3

6

5

4

Syria

2

1

7

8

3

6

5

4

Bulgaria

3

4

1

5

6

7

8

2

Libya

4

1

8

2

3

5

7

6

Croatia

1

4

7

5

2

6

8

3

Turkey

3

4

2

5

7

8

6

1

Malta

8

1

6

5

3

4

7

2

Greece

1

2

5

8

3

6

4

7

Lebanon

1

4

5

2

7

6

8

3

Israel

7

6

1

3

5

2

4

8

Romania

3

4

1

8

6

3

4

5

TOTAL

41

46

65

73

60

77

82

58

Ranking

1

2

5

6

4

7

8

3

A1. Prepare a short version of the Code and training material in local languages

A2. Organize specialized training and the provision of advice at all levels

A3. Establishment of groups of "Ambassadors of the Code"

A4. Organize workshops and roundtables

A5. Promote programmes designed to encourage producersí associations/organizations involvement

A6. Organize debates on major questions and subjects related with Code adaptation, adoption and monitoring of short and medium-term effects

A7. Use of electronic information systems and networks

A8. International and/or regional organizations should search for funding sources

Table 2

Ranking of the activities of Element A in order of priority at regional level

Country

Activities

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

Cyprus

7

3

8

5

4

6

1

2

Tunisia

3

4

8

5

6

7

1

2

Spain

5

6

3

4

7

8

2

1

Egypt

1

6

7

5

2

3

4

8

Syria

1

6

2

5

8

3

4

7

Bulgaria

1

2

8

3

4

5

6

7

Libya

6

1

8

3

4

2

5

7

Croatia

1

4

3

5

6

7

8

2

Turkey

2

5

3

6

8

4

7

1

Malta

4

5

1

7

8

6

2

3

Greece

8

4

5

1

3

2

6

7

Lebanon

6

3

2

8

7

5

4

1

Israel

7

6

1

3

5

2

4

8

Romania

1

2

8

3

4

5

6

7

TOTAL

53

57

67

63

76

65

59

63

Ranking

1

2

7

4

8

6

3

4

A1. Prepare a short version of the Code and training material in local languages

A2. Organize specialized training and the provision of advice at all levels

A3. Establishment of groups of "Ambassadors of the Code"

A4. Organize workshops and roundtables

A5. Promote programmes designed to encourage producersí associations/organizations involvement

A6. Organize debates on major questions and subjects related with Code adaptation, adoption and monitoring of short and medium-term effects

A7. Use of electronic information systems and networks

A8. International and/or regional organizations should search for funding sources

Element B

To improve planning processes for aquaculture development and resource use

The order of importance at national and regional level of the elements listed below are indicated in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. The recommended activities were as follows:

B1. Gradually promote more responsible attitudes in resources management

This first point could include national and regional activities, linked to element A, oriented towards the adoption of a comprehensive approach in the resource use planning process. Aquaculture administrators, researchers, producers, suppliers and consumers must become aware about the need for sustainable and responsible aquaculture techniques.

B2. Demonstrate the advantages, socio-economic and environmental benefits that could be gained through responsible aquaculture development

The advantages, in terms of socio-economic and environmental benefits, which could be gained through responsible aquaculture development, must be objectively demonstrated (when it gives a competitive return- in the broadest sense for resources use). This calls for an improved integration of planning of various sectors, considering for possible inclusion the opportunities offered by aquaculture development.

B3. Increase the participation of all sectors concerned, in preparation of aquaculture development plans and in the formulation of economic and legal instruments that will be integrated in the national management plans

Representatives of all governmental and non-governmental bodies concerned in resources use should participate (and help) in the formulation of aquaculture development plans. Improve participation through various mechanisms, such as advisory committees (on topics such as water, land and coastal management).

B4. Encourage the governments to elaborate a legislation that will clarify the rights and responsibilities of aquaculture producers.

B5. Standards of production should be defined with regionally collected relevant data and should be used in the process of planning and production.

B6. Development of codes of practice to be linked to legislation should be prepared with assistance of producersí associations/organizations.

Table 3

Ranking of the activities of Element B in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

Cyprus

6

3

2

5

1

4

Tunisia

3

1

4

5

2

6

Spain

4

2

5

3

1

6

Egypt

4

5

2

3

1

6

Syria

4

5

2

3

1

6

Bulgaria

4

5

6

1

3

2

Libya

4

2

1

5

3

6

Croatia

5

2

3

4

1

6

Turkey

6

5

2

3

1

4

Malta

4

3

1

2

5

6

Greece

2

1

5

3

4

6

Lebanon

4

1

2

3

5

6

Israel

6

2

1

4

3

5

Romania

4

5

6

1

3

2

TOTAL

60

42

41

45

31

69

Ranking

5

3

2

4

1

6

B1. Gradually promote more responsible attitudes in resources management

B2. Demonstrate the advantages, socio-economic and environmental benefits of responsible aquaculture development

B3. Increase the participation of all sectors concerned in the preparation of plans and economic and legal instruments

B4. Encourage the governments to elaborate a legislation including rights and responsibilities of producers

B5. Standards of production should be defined with regionally collected relevant data

B6. Development of codes of practice to be linked to legislation with the assistance of producer associations/organizations

Table 4

Ranking of the activities of Element B in order of priority at regional level

Country

Activities

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

Cyprus

3

2

5

6

1

4

Tunisia

2

4

5

6

1

3

Spain

4

5

6

2

3

1

Egypt

3

4

6

2

1

5

Syria

3

4

6

2

1

5

Bulgaria

5

4

6

1

3

2

Libya

2

3

6

1

5

4

Croatia

4

2

3

6

1

5

Turkey

4

2

3

6

1

5

Malta

3

4

5

6

1

2

Greece

5

4

3

6

2

1

Lebanon

2

6

4

5

1

3

Israel

6

2

1

4

3

5

Romania

4

5

6

2

1

5

TOTAL

50

51

69

59

25

50

Ranking

2

4

6

5

1

2

B1. Gradually promote more responsible attitudes in resources management

B2. Demonstrate the advantages, socio-economic and environmental benefits of responsible aquaculture development

B3. Increase the participation of all sectors concerned in the preparation of plans and economic and legal instruments

B4. Encourage the governments to elaborate a legislation including rights and responsibilities of producers

B5. Standards of production should be defined with regionally collected relevant data

B6. Development of codes of practice to be linked to legislation with the assistance of producer associations/organizations

Element C

To enhance harmonization between aquaculture development and environmental conservation

The order of importance at national and regional level of the elements listed below are indicated in Table 5. The recommended activities were as follows:

C1. Develop Guidelines for responsible production methodologies;

These should be specific according to per production systems and nature of environment. These guidelines would be used for feasibility studies and adaptation of new techniques for different possible sites (offshore cage farms, extensive lagoon management, etc.).,

C2. Harmonize the Environmental Impact Assessment Studies

EIA studies should be standardized/defined and harmonized between countries of the region per production system and per type of site. Methods for of EIA studies should be simplifieds and reduce their cost reduced , as much as possible, while maintaining their significance, to enable the farmers, aton all levels, to execute implement them. Collection and exchange of information about farming operations and their impact on the environment, through out the region, is highly recommended.

C3. Improvement of management of existing production systems

This activity should concern ing improved genetic performance of farmed species, better disease prevention and control, better feeding practices and feed quality (details are included see in bullets 2,3 and 5 ion page 10 and 11 of the Elements of an Action Plan as provided by the Secretariat). More specifically it is recommended that attention be also given to the following points:

a. Monitoring of transfer of live fish.

b. Development of efficient vaccines (including and promotionon of vaccination of campaigns vaccination)

c. Development of alternative strategies for the enhancement of farmed animal health

d. Development of promotion/support services to help in diagnosis and dissemination of information to the farmers (following the OIE recommendationsof the OIE).

C4. Assessment of environmental risks posed by iIntroduction of non-indigenous species

requires an assessment of environmental risks. In addition to the assessment of environmental risks linked to the introduction of new exotic species, it is recommended that an impact study be done for existing introductions in the entire Mediterranean basin. International rules prepared by the ICES/EIFAC, OIE or the CITES must be followed. Exchange of information between countries on this subject is highly encouraged.

C5. Promotion of education and training of all people involved in aquaculture production

(This point, recommended in the second last bullet on page 11 of the document Elements of the Action Plan provided by the Secretariat, concerns the whole industry personnel) and it is highly recommended. see In addition the importance of a financial assistance for training and improved education to will be provided to the farmers at all levels of production in these domains, has been noted.

C6. Increase information exchange and dialogue

This activity should concerning aquaculture activities and achievements, and dissemination diffusion and flow to authorities, public sector and NGOís. This is an important point to be considered. Initiate Cconferences should be organized, and re-enforced existing networksing should be reinforced, in order to promote the image of responsible aquaculture.

C7. Increase regional collaboration in the Mediterranean to protect the environment (with special attention to transboundary ecosystems or topics that may have transboundary impacts).

The sharing of experiences and the promotion of a close cooperation between countries should result in a better management of shared ecosystems (joint management of lakes of certain coastal lagoon ecosystems,)

C8. Enhance and fund research regarding all aspects related to of interactions between aquaculture and the environment.

It has been noted that it would be important to maintain and develop research in the area of interactions between aquaculture and environment in order to arrive at assessments of the real carrying capacity of sites for aquaculture development.

The national priorities for activities in action regarding these eight activities:stand are found in Table 5. They have been classified in 4 groups:

The participants in this consultation are in agreement on the fact that these eight activities are not mutually exclusive and that they are all important for the development and sustainability of aquaculture in the Mediterranean. The priority levels are however different in the various countries depending on the level of development of the sector and of the production technologies (extensive farming in Egypt, for example, intensive marine farming in France, Greece.....)

On the At regional level the Working Group has we have identified four activities of similar priority requiring regional coordination:

Activity C2 - Development and harmonization of protocols for Environmental Impact Aassessment of aquaculture. should/must be developed

Activity C4 - Evaluation of risks posed by the tTransfer of aquatic organisms between countries in and out of the region (exotic, exchange of species etc.).

Activity C7 - Development of regional cooperation in the Mediterranean in the field of study of ecosystems, in particular in the coastal transboundary zones.

Activity C3 - Improvement of the diseasesí prevention and their control in the region.

There was also a call for increasing mproving the exchange of information by strengthening and improving the activities of the GFCM network ing on of aquaculture and environment in the region (EAM).

Finally the group insisted that funding should be raised in order to achieve the above 3 mentioned regional activities. Existing international organizations and the existing networks should be approached for funding (EU, FAO, and MEDA).

It is proposed that GFCM or a similar institution should coordinate these initiatives in order to facilitate the implementation of the activities identified.

Table 5

Ranking of the activities of Element C in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

Israel

1

3

2

4

8

5

6

7

France

4

1

3

2

6

5

6

3

Malta

3

1

2

5

2

4

4

2

Greece

5

1

2

8

3

4

7

6

Turkey

2

1

1

3

5

5

5

4

Albania

2

1

7

5

4

8

3

6

Tunisia

2

1

4

6

5

7

8

3

Algeria

2

1

6

4

2

7

5

3

Morocco

2

1

3

4

5

5

5

5

Syria

2

5

8

3

1

7

6

4

Bulgaria

4

1

3

7

2

6

5

6

Cyprus

5

1

3

2

4

7

6

8

Lebanon

4

2

3

8

1

7

5

6

Egypt

3

5

8

2

4

6

7

1

Italy

1

2

3

4

5

8

7

6

Romania

5

1

3

7

2

6

7

4

TOTAL

48

28

61

76

59

97

93

74

Ranking

2

1

4

6

3

8

7

5

C1. Develop guidelines for responsible production methodologies

C2. Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies on aquaculture

C3. Improvement of management of existing production systems

C4. Evaluation of risks linked to the introduction of non-indigenous species

C5. Promotion of education and training of all people involved in aquaculture

C6. Increase dialogue with authorities, public production sector, NGOs and diffusion of information

C7. Increase regional cooperation among Mediterranean countries to protect environment (transboundary ecosystems)

C8. Promote and fund research concerned with the interaction between aquaculture and environment

Element D

To utilize the Code as a means of upgrading the economic value of aquaculture

Objective D1

Better understanding of the criteria and techniques for sustainable aquaculture. Optimise the production processes in a way that natural resources utilization would improve its economics. Integrate aquaculture with traditional agriculture or fisheries activities

National priorities are ranked in Table 6. The recommended activities were:

D1a. Identify and develop criteria leading to the design of indicators of the sustainability of production systems (including economic and social impact). This could accelerate the process to reach regional standards (regional collaboration among countries) for the various production system.

D1b. Promote research efforts to optimize existing production systems and/or test new species (species that are not reared commercially in the country concerned) and systems that could be inserted in new niches (either of market or sites)

D1c. Assure that results are communicated in a wide a manner possible to reinforce the impact and understanding of the Code.

D1d. Encourage the transfer and communication of appropriate technology and experience at a regional level.

Objective D2

Promote and reinforce the role of associations of aquaculture producers as a mechanism to ensure the application of the Code

Association activities could include the diffusion of Code-related concepts, and the provision of services (such as the facilitation of credit, in particular for small-scale farmers). Associations could provide a critical mass for the discussion of the adequacy of the norms and monitoring their application.

National priorities are ranked in Table 7. The recommended activities were:

D2a. Promote the establishment of national aquaculture associations for adequate professional representation of the sector.

D2b. Initiate coordination at a regional level to facilitate harmonization.

D2c. Use associations to favour integration of small-scale fishing communities with aquaculture and establish the optimal socio-economical impact and use of sustainable resources.

D2d. Favour the development of aquaculture in support ofwith the local communities through the encouragement of appropriate measures (promotion, legal).

D2e. Assure the development of training and other support measures required by the associations and their staff.

Small-scale producer associations could have also an important role in product price control through collective negotiation. This would strengthen the frequently weak position of small-scale producers. It is recognized in the Synthesis that there is a very little involvement of the local communities in the legislative process.

Objective D3

Establish administrative and financial measures leading to the promotion of sustainable and responsible aquaculture production

National priorities are ranked in Table 8. The recommended activities were:

D3a. Assess, through the use of agreed sustainability indicators, the various forms of production to aid decisions on those that should be encouraged or should be avoided. The result should be reflected in appropriate regulations, leading to the determination of specific incentives and deterrents. The choice should be derived from the analysis of the systems and from decisions about which lines of work should be supported by the administration.

D3b. Create specific credit lines that favour the development and application of responsible aquaculture.

D3c. Encourage insurance companies to integrate the concept of responsible aquaculture within the insurance policies at a favourable premium.

Objective D4

Improve the public image of aquaculture in order to get appropriate recognition of its products in both the private and public sectors

National priorities are ranked in Table 9. The recommended activities were:

D4a. Increase transparency in the management of the sector, both by public administration and by private sector associations.

D4b. Improve dialogue among sectoral representatives, notably concerning production, sustainability and quality assurance.

D4c. Use the quality of the aquaculture products to promote the activities of the aquaculture sector.

Regional Objectives

The group also ranked the objectives according to regional priorities (Table 10).

Table 6

Ranking of the activities of Element D1 in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

D1a

D1b

D1c

D1d

Cyprus

1

2

3

4

Egypt

2

3

4

1

Lebanon

3

1

4

2

Turkey

4

2

1

3

Morocco

4

1

2

3

Bulgaria

4

2

1

3

Syria

1

2

3

4

Greece

4

1

3

2

TOTAL

23

14

21

22

Ranking

4

1

2

3

D1a. Identify and develop criteria leading to the design of indicators of the sustainability of production systems

D1b. Promote research efforts to optimize existing production systems and/or test new species

D1c. Assure that results are communicated in a wide a manner possible to reinforce the impact and understanding of the Code.

D1d. Encourage the transfer and communication of appropriate technology and experience at a regional level.

Table 7

Ranking of the activities of Element D2 in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

D2a

D2b

D2c

D2d

D2e

Cyprus

2

5

4

1

3

Egypt

5

2

3

4

1

Lebanon

3

1

2

4

5

Turkey

2

4

3

1

1

Morocco

1

4

3

2

5

Bulgaria

2

1

4

3

5

Syria

3

4

2

1

5

Greece

1

3

4

2

5

TOTAL

19

24

25

18

30

Ranking

2

3

4

1

5

 

D2a. Promote the establishment of national aquaculture associations

D2b. Initiate coordination at a regional level

D2c. Use associations to favour integration of small-scale fishing communities with aquaculture and establish the optimal socio-economical impact and use of sustainable resources

D2d. Favour the development of aquaculture in support with the local communities

D2e. Assure the development of training and other support measures needed by the associations

Table 8

Ranking of the activities of Element D3 in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

D3a

D3b

D3c

Cyprus

1

3

2

Egypt

2

1

3

Lebanon

1

3

2

Turkey

2

1

3

Morocco

1

3

2

Bulgaria

3

1

2

Syria

3

1

2

Greece

3

1

2

TOTAL

16

14

18

Ranking

2

1

3

D3a. Assess the various forms of production to aid decisions on those that should be encouraged or should be avoided

D3b. Create specific credit lines that favour the development and application of responsible aquaculture

D3c. Encourage insurance companies to integrate the concept of responsible aquaculture within the insurance policies at a favourable premium

Table 9

Ranking of the activities of Element D4 in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

D4a

D4b

D4c

Cyprus

1

2

3

Egypt

2

3

1

Lebanon

3

2

1

Turkey

2

1

3

Morocco

2

3

1

Bulgaria

3

2

1

Syria

3

1

2

Greece

3

2

1

TOTAL

19

16

13

Ranking

3

2

1

D4a. Increase transparency in the management of the sector

D4b. Improve dialogue among sectoral representatives

D4c. Use the quality of the aquaculture products to promote the activities of the aquaculture sector

Table 10

Ranking of the objectives of Element D in order of priority at regional level

 

Objective

D1

D2

D3

D4

TOTAL

29

12

15

24

Ranking

4

1

2

3

D1. Better understanding of the criteria and techniques for sustainable aquaculture

D2. Promote and reinforce the role of associations of aquaculture producers

D3. Establish supporting administrative and financial measures

D4. Improve the public image of aquaculture

Element E

To use the principles of the CCRF to improve and stabIlise trade in

aquaculture products in the Mediterranean region

The national priorities mentioned below are ranked in Table 11, in which the nine activities discussed by the participants in this Working Group mentioned were regrouped as follows:

1 = E1 + E8
2 = E2
3 = E3, E4, E5 and E9
4 = E6 and E7

The recommended activities were:

E1. Upgrade the standards of production, processing and transport and promote their application

Upgrade and unify the standards through training and the transfer of expertise. Common regional standards are necessary in order to avoid the creation of trade barriers.

E2. Strengthen national and regional producers associations and promote regional links among them

The role of producer associations in trade is important. Associations could help to identify market opportunities, assist in controlling the uniform application of quality standards, organise consumption campaigns, and actively assist public administration. Regional links between national associations could be beneficial for experience exchange and cooperation promotion.

E3. Encourage consumption of aquaculture products domestically, and assess national market capacity

E4. Educate consumers in the benefits of fish consumption, especially with regard to responsibly produced aquaculture products

Media could help in highlighting responsible aquaculture production and may improve consumer attitude towards aquaculture products. Norms for quality control (such as HACCP) are not well known in several GFCM countries and their diffusion is still needed.

E5. Promote aquaculture products and the profession within the tourism industry

This represents an opportunity to reduce conflicts with the tourism industry and enhance the consumption of aquaculture products. The adoption of standards and labelling of the rearing process will enhance the positive image of Mediterranean aquaculture product quality. Tours to aquaculture farms may assist.

E6. Involve an appropriate regional body in aquaculture trade issues

This regional activity could be endorsed by one of the existing regional commission or committee. Various mechanisms could be identified. Encourage the development of a regional organization for the identification of aquaculture trade issues, based on active involvement of national and regional producer associations.

E7. Regional cooperation to harmonize the legislation and knowledge concerning trade in aquaculture products.

E8. Harmonization of the legal conditions of the transfer and transport of the fry and juveniles within the Mediterranean region.

E9. Promote the consumption of farmed marine fish.

Table 11

Ranking of the activities of Element E in order of priority at national level

Country

Activities

E1 + E8

E2

E3 + E4 + E5 + E9

E6 + E7

Cyprus

3

2

4

1

Bulgaria

3

2

1

4

Egypt

1

4

2

3

Lebanon

2

4

1

3

Syria

1

2

3

4

Morocco

1

2

4

3

Greece

4

3

1

2

Turkey

1

3

2

4

TOTAL

16

22

17

24

Ranking

1

3

2

4

E1. Upgrade the standards of production, processing and transport and promote their application

E2. Strengthen national and regional producers associations and promote regional links among them

E3. Encourage consumption of aquaculture products domestically, and assess national market capacity

E4. Educate consumers in the benefits of fish consumption

E5. Promote aquaculture products and the profession within the tourism industry

E6. Involve an appropriate regional body in aquaculture trade issues

E7. Regional cooperation to harmonize the legislation and knowledge concerning trade in aquaculture products

E8. Harmonization of the legal conditions of the transfer and transport of fry and juveniles

E9. Promote the consumption of farmed marine fish


1

Although countries are mentioned in the tables, the rankings represent the views of the participants and not necessarily those of the national authorities.