I. International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
II. Technical Terms of Reference of the International Network for the Cooperation and Coordination of Fisheries-Related Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Activities
III. Scheme to Promote Compliance by Non-Contracting Party Vessels With the Conservation and Enforcement Measures Established by Nafo
IV. Revised ICCAT Port Inspection Scheme
V. CCAMLR Catch Documentation Scheme for Dissostichus spp.
VI. Websites of Selected Rfmos
1. In the context of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and its overall objective of sustainable fisheries, the issue of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in world fisheries is of serious and increasing concern. IUU fishing undermines efforts to conserve and manage fish stocks in all capture fisheries. When confronted with IUU fishing, national and regional fisheries management organizations can fail to achieve management goals. This situation leads to the loss of both short and long-term social and economic opportunities and to negative effects on food security and environmental protection. IUU fishing can lead to the collapse of a fishery or seriously impair efforts to rebuild stocks that have already been depleted. Existing international instruments addressing IUU fishing have not been effective due to a lack of political will, priority, capacity and resources to ratify or accede to and implement them.
2. The Twenty-third Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) in February 1999 addressed the need to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. The Committee was concerned about information presented indicating increases in IUU fishing, including fishing vessels flying "flags of convenience". Shortly afterwards, an FAO Ministerial Meeting on Fisheries in March 1999 declared that, without prejudice to the rights and obligations of States under international law, FAO "will develop a global plan of action to deal effectively with all forms of illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing including fishing vessels flying "flags of convenience" through coordinated efforts by States, FAO, relevant regional fisheries management bodies and other relevant international agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO), as provided in Article IV of the Code of Conduct. The Government of Australia, in cooperation with FAO, organized an Expert Consultation on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing in Sydney, Australia, from 15 to 19 May 2000. Subsequently, an FAO Technical Consultation on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing was held in Rome from 2 to 6 October 2000 and a further Technical Consultation was held in Rome from 22 to 23 February 2001. The draft International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing was adopted by the Consultation on 23 February 2001 with a request that the report be submitted to the Twenty-fourth Session of COFI for consideration and eventual adoption. COFI approved the International Plan of Action, by consensus, on 2 March 2001. In doing so, the Committee urged all Members to take the necessary steps to effectively implement the International Plan of Action.
II. NATURE AND SCOPE OF IUU FISHING AND THE INTERNATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION
3. In this document:
3.1 Illegal fishing refers to activities:
3.1.1 conducted by national or foreign vessels in waters under the jurisdiction of a State, without the permission of that State, or in contravention of its laws and regulations;3.2 Unreported fishing refers to fishing activities:
3.1.2 conducted by vessels flying the flag of States that are parties to a relevant regional fisheries management organization but operate in contravention of the conservation and management measures adopted by that organization and by which the States are bound, or relevant provisions of the applicable international law; or
3.1.3 in violation of national laws or international obligations, including those undertaken by cooperating States to a relevant regional fisheries management organization.
3.2.1 which have not been reported, or have been misreported, to the relevant national authority, in contravention of national laws and regulations; or3.3 Unregulated fishing refers to fishing activities:
3.2.2 undertaken in the area of competence of a relevant regional fisheries management organization which have not been reported or have been misreported, in contravention of the reporting procedures of that organization.
3.3.1 in the area of application of a relevant regional fisheries management organization that are conducted by vessels without nationality, or by those flying the flag of a State not party to that organization, or by a fishing entity, in a manner that is not consistent with or contravenes the conservation and management measures of that organization; or3.4 Notwithstanding paragraph 3.3, certain unregulated fishing may take place in a manner which is not in violation of applicable international law, and may not require the application of measures envisaged under the International Plan of Action (IPOA).
3.3.2 in areas or for fish stocks in relation to which there are no applicable conservation or management measures and where such fishing activities are conducted in a manner inconsistent with State responsibilities for the conservation of living marine resources under international law.
4. The IPOA is voluntary. It has been elaborated within the framework of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries as envisaged by Article 2 (d).
5. The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, in particular Articles 1.1, 1.2, 3.1, and 3.2 applies to the interpretation and application of this IPOA and its relationship with other international instruments. The IPOA is also directed as appropriate towards fishing entities as referred to in the Code of Conduct. The IPOA responds to fisheries specific issues and nothing in it prejudices the positions of States in other fora.
6. In this document:
(a) the reference to States includes regional economic integration organizations in matters within their competence;7. This document is a further commitment by all States to implement the Code of Conduct.
(b) the term "regional" includes sub-regional, as appropriate;
(c) the term "regional fisheries management organization" means an intergovernmental fisheries organization or arrangement, as appropriate, that has the competence to establish fishery conservation and management measures;
(d) the term "conservation and management measures" means measures to conserve one or more species of living marine resources that are adopted and applied consistent with the relevant rules of international law;
(e) the term "1982 UN Convention" refers to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982;
(f) the term "1993 FAO Compliance Agreement" refers to the Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, approved by the FAO Conference on 24 November 1993.
(g) the term "1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement" refers to the Agreement for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; and
(h) the term "Code of Conduct" refers to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
III. OBJECTIVE AND PRINCIPLES
8. The objective of the IPOA is to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing by providing all States with comprehensive, effective and transparent measures by which to act, including through appropriate regional fisheries management organizations established in accordance with international law.
9. The IPOA to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing incorporates the following principles and strategies. Due consideration should be given to the special requirements of developing countries in accordance with Article 5 of the Code of Conduct.
9.1 Participation and coordination: To be fully effective, the IPOA should be implemented by all States either directly, in cooperation with other States, or indirectly through relevant regional fisheries management organizations or through FAO and other appropriate international organizations. An important element in successful implementation will be close and effective coordination and consultation, and the sharing of information to reduce the incidence of IUU fishing, among States and relevant regional and global organizations. The full participation of stakeholders in combating IUU fishing, including industry, fishing communities, and non-governmental organizations, should be encouraged.
9.2 Phased implementation: Measures to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing should be based on the earliest possible phased implementation of national plans of action, and regional and global action in accordance with the IPOA.
9.3 Comprehensive and integrated approach: Measures to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing should address factors affecting all capture fisheries. In taking such an approach, States should embrace measures building on the primary responsibility of the flag State and using all available jurisdiction in accordance with international law, including port State measures, coastal State measures, market-related measures and measures to ensure that nationals do not support or engage in IUU fishing. States are encouraged to use all these measures, where appropriate, and to cooperate in order to ensure that measures are applied in an integrated manner. The action plan should address all economic, social and environmental impacts of IUU fishing.
9.4 Conservation: Measures to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing should be consistent with the conservation and long-term sustainable use of fish stocks and the protection of the environment.
9.5 Transparency: The IPOA should be implemented in a transparent manner in accordance with Article 6.13 of the Code of Conduct.
9.6 Non-discrimination: The IPOA should be developed and applied without discrimination in form or in fact against any State or its fishing vessels.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES TO PREVENT, DETER AND ELIMINATE IUU FISHING
ALL STATE RESPONSIBILITIES
10. States should give full effect to relevant norms of international law, in particular as reflected in the 1982 UN Convention, in order to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing.
11. States are encouraged, as a matter of priority, to ratify, accept or accede to, as appropriate, the 1982 UN Convention, the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement and the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement. Those States that have not ratified, accepted or acceded to these relevant international instruments should not act in a manner inconsistent with these instruments.
12. States should implement fully and effectively all relevant international fisheries instruments which they have ratified, accepted or acceded to.
13. Nothing in the IPOA affects, or should be interpreted as affecting, the rights and obligations of States under international law. Nothing in the IPOA affects, or should be interpreted as affecting, the rights and obligations contained in the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement and the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement, for States parties to those instruments.
14. States should fully and effectively implement the Code of Conduct and its associated International Plans of Action.
15. States whose nationals fish on the high seas in fisheries not regulated by a relevant regional fisheries management organization should fully implement their obligations under Part VII of the 1982 UN Convention to take measures with respect to their nationals as may be necessary for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas.
16. National legislation should address in an effective manner all aspects of IUU fishing.
17. National legislation should address, inter alia, evidentiary standards and admissibility including, as appropriate, the use of electronic evidence and new technologies.
State Control over Nationals
18. In the light of relevant provisions of the 1982 UN Convention, and without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the flag State on the high seas, each State should, to the greatest extent possible, take measures or cooperate to ensure that nationals subject to their jurisdiction do not support or engage in IUU fishing. All States should cooperate to identify those nationals who are the operators or beneficial owners of vessels involved in IUU fishing.
19. States should discourage their nationals from flagging fishing vessels under the jurisdiction of a State that does not meet its flag State responsibilities.
Vessels without Nationality
20. States should take measures consistent with international law in relation to vessels without nationality on the high seas involved in IUU fishing.
21. States should ensure that sanctions for IUU fishing by vessels and, to the greatest extent possible, nationals under its jurisdiction are of sufficient severity to effectively prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing and to deprive offenders of the benefits accruing from such fishing. This may include the adoption of a civil sanction regime based on an administrative penalty scheme. States should ensure the consistent and transparent application of sanctions.
Non Cooperating States
22. All possible steps should be taken, consistent with international law, to prevent, deter and eliminate the activities of non-cooperating States to a relevant regional fisheries management organization which engage in IUU fishing.
23. States should, to the extent possible in their national law, avoid conferring economic support, including subsidies, to companies, vessels or persons that are involved in IUU fishing.
Monitoring, Control and Surveillance
24. States should undertake comprehensive and effective monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) of fishing from its commencement, through the point of landing, to final destination, including by:
24.1 developing and implementing schemes for access to waters and resources, including authorization schemes for vessels;
24.2 maintaining records of all vessels and their current owners and operators authorized to undertake fishing subject to their jurisdiction;
24.3 implementing, where appropriate, a vessel monitoring system (VMS), in accordance with the relevant national, regional or international standards, including the requirement for vessels under their jurisdiction to carry VMS on board;
24.4 implementing, where appropriate, observer programmes in accordance with relevant national, regional or international standards, including the requirement for vessels under their jurisdiction to carry observers on board;
24.5 providing training and education to all persons involved in MCS operations;
24.6 planning, funding and undertaking MCS operations in a manner that will maximize their ability to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing;
24.7 promoting industry knowledge and understanding of the need for, and their cooperative participation in, MCS activities to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing;
24.8 promoting knowledge and understanding of MCS issues within national judicial systems;
24.9 establishing and maintaining systems for the acquisition, storage and dissemination of MCS data, taking into account applicable confidentiality requirements;
24.10 ensuring effective implementation of national and, where appropriate, internationally agreed boarding and inspection regimes consistent with international law, recognizing the rights and obligations of masters and of inspection officers, and noting that such regimes are provided for in certain international agreements, such as the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, and only apply to the parties to those agreements.
National Plans of Action
25. States should develop and implement, as soon as possible but not later than three years after the adoption of the IPOA, national plans of action to further achieve the objectives of the IPOA and give full effect to its provisions as an integral part of their fisheries management programmes and budgets. These plans should also include, as appropriate, actions to implement initiatives adopted by relevant regional fisheries management organizations to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. In doing so, States should encourage the full participation and engagement of all interested stakeholders, including industry, fishing communities and non-governmental organizations.
26. At least every four years after the adoption of their national plans of action, States should review the implementation of these plans for the purpose of identifying cost-effective strategies to increase their effectiveness and to take into account their reporting obligations to FAO under Part VI of the IPOA.
27. States should ensure that national efforts to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing are internally coordinated.
Cooperation between States
28. States should coordinate their activities and cooperate directly, and as appropriate through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, in preventing, deterring and eliminating IUU fishing. In particular, States should:
28.1 exchange data or information, preferably in standardized format, from records of vessels authorized by them to fish, in a manner consistent with any applicable confidentiality requirements;
28.2 cooperate in effective acquisition, management and verification of all relevant data and information from fishing;
28.3 allow and enable their respective MCS practitioners or enforcement personnel to cooperate in the investigation of IUU fishing, and to this end States should collect and maintain data and information relating to such fishing;
28.4 cooperate in transferring expertise and technology;
28.5 cooperate to make policies and measures compatible;
28.6 develop cooperative mechanisms that allow, inter alia, rapid responses to IUU fishing; and
28.7 cooperate in monitoring, control and surveillance, including through international agreements.
29. In the light of Article VI of the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement, flag States should make available to FAO and, as appropriate, to other States and relevant regional or international organizations, information about vessels deleted from their records or whose authorization to fish has been cancelled and to the extent possible, the reasons therefor.
30. In order to facilitate cooperation and exchange of information, each State and regional or international organization should nominate and publicize initial formal contact points.
31. Flag States should consider entering into agreements or arrangements with other States and otherwise cooperate for the enforcement of applicable laws and conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level.
32. States should publicize widely, including through cooperation with other States, full details of IUU fishing and actions taken to eliminate it, in a manner consistent with any applicable confidentiality requirements.
Technical Capacity and Resources
33. States should endeavour to make available the technical capacity and resources which are needed to implement the IPOA. This should include, where appropriate, the establishment of special funds at the national, regional or global level. In this respect, international cooperation should play an important role.
FLAG STATE RESPONSIBILITIES
Fishing Vessel Registration
34. States should ensure that fishing vessels entitled to fly their flag do not engage in or support IUU fishing.
35. A flag State should ensure, before it registers a fishing vessel, that it can exercise its responsibility to ensure that the vessel does not engage in IUU fishing.
36. Flag States should avoid flagging vessels with a history of non-compliance except where:
36.1 the ownership of the vessel has subsequently changed and the new owner has provided sufficient evidence demonstrating that the previous owner or operator has no further legal, beneficial or financial interest in, or control of, the vessel; or
36.2 having taken into account all relevant facts, the flag State determines that flagging the vessel would not result in IUU fishing.
37. All States involved in a chartering arrangement, including flag States and other States that accept such an arrangement, should, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, take measures to ensure that chartered vessels do not engage in IUU fishing.
38. Flag States should deter vessels from reflagging for the purposes of non-compliance with conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level. To the extent practicable, the actions and standards flag States adopt should be uniform to avoid creating incentives for vessel owners to reflag their vessels to other States.
39. States should take all practicable steps, including denial to a vessel of an authorization to fish and the entitlement to fly that State's flag, to prevent "flag hopping"; that is to say, the practice of repeated and rapid changes of a vessel's flag for the purposes of circumventing conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level or of facilitating non-compliance with such measures or provisions.
40. Although the functions of registration of a vessel and issuing of an authorization to fish are separate, flag States should consider conducting these functions in a manner which ensures each gives appropriate consideration to the other. Flag States should ensure appropriate links between the operation of their vessel registers and the record those States keep of their fishing vessels. Where such functions are not undertaken by one agency, States should ensure sufficient cooperation and information sharing between the agencies responsible for those functions.
41. A Flag State should consider making its decision to register a fishing vessel conditional upon its being prepared to provide to the vessel an authorization to fish in waters under its jurisdiction, or on the high seas, or conditional upon an authorization to fish being issued by a coastal State to the vessel when it is under the control of that flag State.
Record of Fishing Vessels
42. Each flag State should maintain a record of fishing vessels entitled to fly its flag. Each flag State's record of fishing vessels should include, for vessels authorized to fish on the high seas, all the information set out in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article VI of the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement, and may also include, inter alia:
42.1 the previous names, if any and if known;
42.2 name, address and nationality of the natural or legal person in whose name the vessel is registered;
42.3 name, street address, mailing address and nationality of the natural or legal persons responsible for managing the operations of the vessel;
42.4 name, street address, mailing address and nationality of natural or legal persons with beneficial ownership of the vessel;
42.5 name and ownership history of the vessel, and, where this is known, the history of non-compliance by that vessel, in accordance with national laws, with conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level; and
42.6 vessel dimensions, and where appropriate, a photograph, taken at the time of registration or at the conclusion of any more recent structural alterations, showing a side profile view of the vessel.
43. Flag States may also require the inclusion of the information in paragraph 42 in their record of fishing vessels that are not authorized to fish on the high seas.
Authorization to Fish
44. States should adopt measures to ensure that no vessel be allowed to fish unless so authorized, in a manner consistent with international law for the high seas, in particular the rights and duties set out in articles 116 and 117 of the 1982 UN Convention, or in conformity with national legislation within areas of national jurisdiction.
45. A flag State should ensure that each of the vessels entitled to fly its flag fishing in waters outside its sovereignty or jurisdiction holds a valid authorization to fish issued by that flag State. Where a coastal State issues an authorization to fish to a vessel, that coastal State should ensure that no fishing in its waters occurs without an authorization to fish issued by the flag State of the vessel.
46. Vessels should have an authorization to fish and where required carry it on board. Each State's authorization should include, but need not be limited to:
46.1 the name of the vessel, and, where appropriate, the natural or legal person authorized to fish;
46.2 the areas, scope and duration of the authorization to fish; and
46.3 the species, fishing gear authorized, and where appropriate, other applicable management measures.
47. Conditions under which an authorization is issued may also include, where required:
47.1 vessel monitoring systems;
47.2 catch reporting conditions, such as:
47.2.1 time series of catch and effort statistics by vessel;47.3 reporting and other conditions for transshipping, where transshipping is permitted;
47.2.2 total catch in number, nominal weight, or both, by species (both target and non-target) as is appropriate to each fishery period (nominal weight is defined as the live weight equivalent of the catch);
47.2.3 discard statistics, including estimates where necessary, reported as number or nominal weight by species, as is appropriate to each fishery;
47.2.4 effort statistics appropriate to each fishing method; and
47.2.5 fishing location, date and time fished and other statistics on fishing operations.
47.4 observer coverage;
47.5 maintenance of fishing and related log books;
47.6 navigational equipment to ensure compliance with boundaries and in relation to restricted areas;
47.7 compliance with applicable international conventions and national laws and regulations in relation to maritime safety, protection of the marine environment, and conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level;
47.8 marking of its fishing vessels in accordance with internationally recognized standards, such as the FAO Standard Specification and Guidelines for the Marking and Identification of Fishing Vessels. Vessels' fishing gear should similarly be marked in accordance with internationally recognized standards;
47.9 where appropriate, compliance with other aspects of fisheries arrangements applicable to the flag State; and
47.10 the vessel having a unique, internationally recognized identification number, wherever possible, that enables it to be identified regardless of changes in registration or name over time.
48. Flag States should ensure that their fishing, transport and support vessels do not support or engage in IUU fishing. To this end, flag States should ensure that none of their vessels re-supply fishing vessels engaged in such activities or transship fish to or from these vessels. This paragraph is without prejudice to the taking of appropriate action, as necessary, for humanitarian purposes, including the safety of crew members.
49. Flag States should ensure that, to the greatest extent possible, all of their fishing, transport and support vessels involved in transshipment at sea have a prior authorization to transship issued by the flag State, and report to the national fisheries administration or other designated institution:
49.1 the date and location of all of their transshipments of fish at sea;
49.2 the weight by species and catch area of the catch transshipped;
49.3 the name, registration, flag and other information related to the identification of the vessels involved in the transshipment; and
49.4 the port of landing of the transshipped catch.
50. Flag States should make information from catch and transshipment reports available, aggregated according to areas and species, in a full, timely and regular manner and, as appropriate, to relevant national, regional and international organizations, including FAO, taking into account applicable confidentiality requirements.
COASTAL STATE MEASURES
51. In the exercise of the sovereign rights of coastal States for exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the living marine resources under their jurisdiction, in conformity with the 1982 UN Convention and international law, each coastal State should implement measures to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing in the exclusive economic zone. Among the measures which the coastal State should consider, consistent with national legislation and international law, and to the extent practicable and appropriate, are:
51.1 effective monitoring, control and surveillance of fishing activities in the exclusive economic zone;
51.2 cooperation and exchange of information with other States, where appropriate, including neighbouring coastal States and with regional fisheries management organizations;
51.3 to ensure that no vessel undertakes fishing activities within its waters without a valid authorization to fish issued by that coastal State;
51.4 to ensure that an authorization to fish is issued only if the vessel concerned is entered on a record of vessels;
51.5 to ensure that each vessel fishing in its waters maintains a logbook recording its fishing activities where appropriate;
51.6 to ensure that at-sea transshipment and processing of fish and fish products in coastal State waters are authorized by that coastal State, or conducted in conformity with appropriate management regulations;
51.7 regulation of fishing access to its waters in a manner which will help to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing; and
51.8 avoiding licensing a vessel to fish in its waters if that particular vessel has a history of IUU fishing, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 36.
PORT STATE MEASURES
52. States should use measures, in accordance with international law, for port State control of fishing vessels in order to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. Such measures should be implemented in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner.
53. When used in paragraphs 52 to 64, port access means admission for foreign fishing vessels to ports or offshore terminals for the purpose of, inter alia, refuelling, re-supplying, transshipping and landing, without prejudice to the sovereignty of a coastal State in accordance with its national law and article 25.2 of the 1982 UN Convention and other relevant international law.
54. Notwithstanding paragraphs 52, 53 and 55; a vessel should be provided port access, in accordance with international law, for reasons of force majeure or distress or for rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.
55. Prior to allowing a vessel port access, States should require fishing vessels and vessels involved in fishing related activities seeking permission to enter their ports to provide reasonable advance notice of their entry into port, a copy of their authorization to fish, details of their fishing trip and quantities of fish on board, with due regard to confidentiality requirements, in order to ascertain whether the vessel may have engaged in, or supported, IUU fishing.
56. Where a port State has clear evidence that a vessel having been granted access to its ports has engaged in IUU fishing activity, the port State should not allow the vessel to land or transship fish in its ports, and should report the matter to the flag State of the vessel.
57. States should publicize ports to which foreign flagged vessels may be permitted admission and should ensure that these ports have the capacity to conduct inspections.
58. In the exercise of their right to inspect fishing vessels, port States should collect the following information and remit it to the flag State and, where appropriate, the relevant regional fisheries management organization:
58.1 the flag State of the vessel and identification details;
58.2 name, nationality, and qualifications of the master and the fishing master;
58.3 fishing gear;
58.4 catch on board, including origin, species, form, and quantity;
58.5 where appropriate, other information required by relevant regional fisheries management organizations or other international agreements; and
58.6 total landed and transshipped catch.
59. If, in the course of an inspection, it is found that there are reasonable grounds to suspect that the vessel has engaged in or supported IUU fishing in areas beyond the jurisdiction of the port State, the port State should, in addition to any other actions it may take consistent with international law, immediately report the matter to the flag State of the vessel and, where appropriate, the relevant coastal States and regional fisheries management organization. The port State may take other action with the consent of, or upon the request of, the flag State.
60. In applying paragraphs 58 and 59, States should safeguard the confidentiality of information collected, in accordance with their national laws.
61. States should establish and publicize a national strategy and procedures for port State control of vessels involved in fishing and related activities, including training, technical support, qualification requirements and general operating guidelines for port State control officers. States should also consider capacity-building needs in the development and implementation of this strategy.
62. States should cooperate, as appropriate, bilaterally, multilaterally and within relevant regional fisheries management organizations, to develop compatible measures for port State control of fishing vessels. Such measures should deal with the information to be collected by port States, procedures for information collection, and measures for dealing with suspected infringements by the vessel of measures adopted under these national, regional or international systems.
63. States should consider developing within relevant regional fisheries management organizations port State measures building on the presumption that fishing vessels entitled to fly the flag of States not parties to a regional fisheries management organization and which have not agreed to cooperate with that regional fisheries management organization, which are identified as being engaged in fishing activities in the area of that particular organization, may be engaging in IUU fishing. Such port State measures may prohibit landings and transshipment of catch unless the identified vessel can establish that the catch was taken in a manner consistent with those conservation and management measures. The identification of the vessels by the regional fisheries management organization should be made through agreed procedures in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner.
64. States should enhance cooperation, including by the flow of relevant information, among and between relevant regional fisheries management organizations and States on port State controls.
INTERNATIONALLY AGREED MARKET-RELATED MEASURES
65. The measures in paragraphs 66 to 76 are to be implemented in a manner which recognizes the right of States to trade in fish and fishery products harvested in a sustainable manner and should be interpreted and applied in accordance with the principles, rights and obligations established in the World Trade Organisation, and implemented in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner.
66. States should take all steps necessary, consistent with international law, to prevent fish caught by vessels identified by the relevant regional fisheries management organization to have been engaged in IUU fishing being traded or imported into their territories. The identification of the vessels by the regional fisheries management organization should be made through agreed procedures in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner. Trade-related measures should be adopted and implemented in accordance with international law, including principles, rights and obligations established in WTO Agreements, and implemented in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner. Trade-related measures should only be used in exceptional circumstances, where other measures have proven unsuccessful to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing, and only after prior consultation with interested States. Unilateral trade-related measures should be avoided.
67. States should ensure that measures on international trade in fish and fishery products are transparent, based on scientific evidence, where applicable, and are in accordance with internationally agreed rules.
68. States should cooperate, including through relevant global and regional fisheries management organizations, to adopt appropriate multilaterally agreed trade-related measures, consistent with the WTO, that may be necessary to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing for specific fish stocks or species. Multilateral trade-related measures envisaged in regional fisheries management organizations may be used to support cooperative efforts to ensure that trade in specific fish and fish products does not in any way encourage IUU fishing or otherwise undermine the effectiveness of conservation and management measures which are consistent with the 1982 UN Convention.
69. Trade-related measures to reduce or eliminate trade in fish and fish products derived from IUU fishing could include the adoption of multilateral catch documentation and certification requirements, as well as other appropriate multilaterally-agreed measures such as import and export controls or prohibitions. Such measures should be adopted in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner. When such measures are adopted, States should support their consistent and effective implementation.
70. Stock or species-specific trade-related measures may be necessary to reduce or eliminate the economic incentive for vessels to engage in IUU fishing.
71 States should take steps to improve the transparency of their markets to allow the traceability of fish or fish products.
72. States, when requested by an interested State, should assist any State in deterring trade in fish and fish products illegally harvested in its jurisdiction. Assistance should be given in accordance with terms agreed by both States and fully respecting the jurisdiction of the State requesting assistance.
73. States should take measures to ensure that their importers, transshippers, buyers, consumers, equipment suppliers, bankers, insurers, other services suppliers and the public are aware of the detrimental effects of doing business with vessels identified as engaged in IUU fishing, whether by the State under whose jurisdiction the vessel is operating or by the relevant regional fisheries management organizations in accordance with its agreed procedures, and should consider measures to deter such business. Such measures could include, to the extent possible under national law, legislation that makes it a violation to conduct such business or to trade in fish or fish products derived from IUU fishing. All identifications of vessels engaged in IUU fishing should be made in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner.
74. States should take measures to ensure that their fishers are aware of the detrimental effects of doing business with importers, transshippers, buyers, consumers, equipment suppliers, bankers, insurers and other services suppliers identified as doing business with vessels identified as engaged in IUU fishing, whether by the State under whose jurisdiction the vessel is operating or by the relevant regional fisheries management organization in accordance with its agreed procedures, and should consider measures to deter such business. Such measures could include, to the extent possible under national law, legislation that makes it a violation to conduct such business or to trade in fish or fish products derived from IUU fishing. All identifications of vessels engaged in IUU fishing should be made in a fair, transparent and non-discriminatory manner.
75. States should work towards using the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System for fish and fisheries products in order to help promote the implementation of the IPOA.
76. Certification and documentation requirements should be standardized to the extent feasible, and electronic schemes developed where possible, to ensure their effectiveness, reduce opportunities for fraud, and avoid unnecessary burdens on trade.
77. States should encourage scientific research on methods of identifying fish species from samples of processed products. FAO should facilitate the establishment of a network of databases of genetic and other markers used to identify fish species from processed product, including the ability to identify the stock of origin where possible.
REGIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS
78. States should ensure compliance with and enforcement of policies and measures having a bearing on IUU fishing which are adopted by any relevant regional fisheries management organization and by which they are bound. States should cooperate in the establishment of such organizations in regions where none currently exist.
79. As the cooperation of all relevant States is important for the success of measures taken by relevant regional fisheries management organizations to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing, States which are not members of a relevant regional fisheries management organization are not discharged from their obligation to cooperate, in accordance with their international obligations, with that regional fisheries management organization. To that end, States should give effect to their duty to cooperate by agreeing to apply the conservation and management measures established by that regional fisheries management organization, or by adopting measures consistent with those conservation and management measures, and should ensure that vessels entitled to fly their flag do not undermine such measures.
80. States, acting through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, should take action to strengthen and develop innovative ways, in conformity with international law, to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. Consideration should be given to including the following measures:
80.1 institutional strengthening, as appropriate, of relevant regional fisheries management organizations with a view to enhancing their capacity to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing;
80.2 development of compliance measures in conformity with international law;
80.3 development and implementation of comprehensive arrangements for mandatory reporting;
80.4 establishment of and cooperation in the exchange of information on vessels engaged in or supporting IUU fishing;
80.5 development and maintenance of records of vessels fishing in the area of competence of a relevant regional fisheries management organization, including both those authorized to fish and those engaged in or supporting IUU fishing;
80.6 development of methods of compiling and using trade information to monitor IUU fishing;
80.7 development of MCS, including promoting for implementation by its members in their respective jurisdictions, unless otherwise provided for in an international agreement, real time catch and vessel monitoring systems, other new technologies, monitoring of landings, port control, and inspections and regulation of transshipment, as appropriate;
80.8 development within a regional fisheries management organization, where appropriate, of boarding and inspection regimes consistent with international law, recognizing the rights and obligations of masters and inspection officers;
80.9 development of observer programmes;
80.10 where appropriate, market-related measures in accordance with the IPOA;
80.11 definition of circumstances in which vessels will be presumed to have engaged in or to have supported IUU fishing;
80.12 development of education and public awareness programmes;
80.13 development of action plans; and
80.14 where agreed by their members, examination of chartering arrangements, if there is concern that these may result in IUU fishing.
81. States, acting through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, should compile and make available on a timely basis, and at least on an annual basis, to other regional fisheries management organizations and to FAO, information relevant to the prevention, deterrence and elimination of IUU fishing, including:
81.1 estimates of the extent, magnitude and character of IUU activities in the area of competence of the regional fisheries management organization;
81.2 details of measures taken to deter, prevent and eliminate IUU fishing;
81.3 records of vessels authorized to fish, as appropriate; and
81.4 records of vessels engaged in IUU fishing.
82. Objectives of institutional and policy strengthening in relevant regional fisheries management organizations in relation to IUU fishing should include enabling regional fisheries management organizations to:
82.1 determine policy objectives regarding IUU fishing, both for internal purposes and co-ordination with other regional fisheries management organizations;
82.2 strengthen institutional mechanisms as appropriate, including mandate, functions, finance, decision making, reporting or information requirements and enforcement schemes, for the optimum implementation of policies in relation to IUU fishing;
82.3 regularize coordination with institutional mechanisms of other regional fisheries management organizations as far as possible in relation to IUU fishing, in particular information, enforcement and trade aspects; and
82.4 ensure timely and effective implementation of policies and measures internally, and in cooperation with other regional fisheries management organizations and relevant regional and international organizations.
83. States, acting through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, should encourage non-contracting parties with a real interest in the fishery concerned to join those organizations and to participate fully in their work. Where this is not possible, the regional fisheries management organizations should encourage and facilitate the participation and cooperation of non-contracting parties, in accordance with applicable international agreements and international law, in the conservation and management of the relevant fisheries resources and in the implementation of measures adopted by the relevant organizations. Regional fisheries management organizations should address the issue of access to the resource in order to foster cooperation and enhance sustainability in the fishery, in accordance with international law. States, acting through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, should also assist, as necessary, non-contracting parties in the implementation of paragraphs 78 and 79 of the IPOA.
84. When a State fails to ensure that fishing vessels entitled to fly its flag, or, to the greatest extent possible, its nationals, do not engage in IUU fishing activities that affect the fish stocks covered by a relevant regional fisheries management organization, the member States, acting through the organization, should draw the problem to the attention of that State. If the problem is not rectified, members of the organization may agree to adopt appropriate measures, through agreed procedures, in accordance with international law.
V. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
85. States, with the support of FAO and relevant international financial institutions and mechanisms, where appropriate, should cooperate to support training and capacity building and consider providing financial, technical and other assistance to developing countries, including in particular the least developed among them and small island developing States, so that they can more fully meet their commitments under the IPOA and obligations under international law, including their duties as flag States and port States. Such assistance should be directed in particular to help such States in the development and implementation of national plans of action in accordance with paragraph 25.
86. States, with the support of FAO and relevant international financial institutions and mechanisms, where appropriate, should cooperate to enable:
86.1 review and revision of national legislation and regional regulatory frameworks;
86.2 the improvement and harmonization of fisheries and related data collection;
86.3 the strengthening of regional institutions; and
86.4 the strengthening and enhancement of integrated MCS systems, including satellite monitoring systems.
87. States and regional fisheries management organizations should report to FAO on progress with the elaboration and implementation of their plans to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing as part of their biennial reporting to FAO on the Code of Conduct. These reports should be published by FAO in a timely manner.
VII. ROLE OF FAO
88. FAO will, as and to the extent directed by its Conference, collect all relevant information and data that might serve as a basis for further analysis aimed at identifying factors and causes contributing to IUU fishing such as, inter alia, a lack of input and output management controls, unsustainable fishery management methods and subsidies that contribute to IUU fishing.
89. FAO will, as and to the extent directed by its Conference, support development and implementation of national and regional plans to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing through specific, in-country technical assistance projects with Regular Programme funds and through the use of extra-budgetary funds made available to the Organization for this purpose.
90. FAO should, in collaboration with other relevant international organizations, in particular IMO, further investigate the issue of IUU fishing.
91. FAO should convene an Expert Consultation on the implementation of paragraph 76 of the IPOA.
92. FAO should investigate the benefits of establishing and maintaining regional and global databases, including but not limited to, information as provided for in Article VI of the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement.
93. The FAO Committee on Fisheries will, based on a detailed analysis by the Secretariat, biennially evaluate the progress towards the implementation of the IPOA.
The responsibilities of States to manage fisheries in which their nationals are engaged and/or benefit;
The interest of States in providing for the long term development of sustainable marine resources;
The range and extent of fishing activities within and across coastal waters and the high seas;
The impacts of fishing on non-target species and the wider marine environment;
The costs of ensuring compliance by foreign and domestic vessels with fisheries management and conservation measures;
The benefits of coordination and cooperation in fisheries-related monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS);
The advantages of collecting and sharing MCS information, and
The requirements of States to implement fisheries-related MCS measures pursuant to national, regional and international law, including:
Article 8.1.4 and other provisions related to MCS from the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,
Item 12J of the Declaration of Rome on the Application of Code of Conduct adopted during the FAO ministerial meeting on fisheries held 10 and 11 March 1999,
Articles V, VI, and VII of the Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, Annex I, Standard Requirements for the Collection and Sharing of Data of the Agreement for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and
Article 24 of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal Unregulated and Unreported Fishing.
The country participants in the International Conference on Monitoring, Control and Fishing Surveillance (Santiago, Chile, 25 and 26 January 2000) indicate their intention to create an international network for the coordination of fisheries-related enforcement.
The International MCS Network is an arrangement of national organizations/institutions in charge of fisheries-related MCS activities, which have been authorized by their countries, to coordinate and cooperate in order to prevent, deter and eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing.
2. OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS
2.1 The objectives of the International MCS Network are to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of fisheries-related MCS activities through enhanced cooperation, coordination, information collection and exchange among national organizations/institutions responsible for fisheries-related MCS.
2.2 States shall achieve these objectives through the following functions:
a) identifying their national organizations/institutions responsible for fisheries-related MCS, and the primary contact person who shall act as the main national coordinator for the purposes of this network;3. ORGANIZATION
b) collecting and providing timely and accurate MCS information to other parties to the arrangement;
c) considering requests and, where appropriate and possible, cooperating in joint fisheries-related MCS activities;
d) promoting technical assistance, training, experience exchange, and institutional development, to increase MCS knowledge and capability amongst participating parties;
e) considering the particular needs and obstacles faced by developing countries; and
f) identifying and designating an International MCS Network Administrator.
3.1 Participation in the International MCS Network will be voluntary. Organizations/Institutions responsible for MCS will be able to participate by notifying the International MCS Network Administrator through the use of a written format that will be available on the International MCS Network Website.
3.2 The organizations/institutions responsible for MCS may participate and contribute within the limits of their current resources, and are encouraged to participate further as resources are available.
3.3 In order to access the websites of each participating organization/institution responsible for MCS, the International MCS Network Website Administrator will maintain a hyperlink on the International MCS Network Website that allows access to the points of contact and to the web-available information identified in "INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS". The Network Administrator will assign passwords and manage access to the website.
4. PROTOCOL FOR INFORMATION EXCHANGE
4.1 Organizations/institutions should cooperate in the collection, exchange and transmission of information within the constraints of laws and conventions of each State relating to the confidentiality and protection of private, restricted and privileged information.
4.2 To the greatest extent practicable, the information identified in "INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS" should be made available through access to the International MCS Network.
4.3 For information that cannot be accessed through the International MCS Network Website, requests should be made of the contact person(s) or designated person(s) identified on the International MCS Network Website. The contact person or designees should ensure that inquiries are responded to promptly.
4.4 Subject to the operation of freedom of information and privacy laws applicable to each participant, information which can be supplied in response to requests shall be treated as being supplied in confidence and held in a secure manner unless otherwise permitted by the participant providing the information.
5. INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Consistent with their national legislation, the following information should be collected and maintained by each organization/institution in order to facilitate MCS coordination and cooperation. This should include at a minimum, that information required under the FAO Compliance Agreement and, to the extent possible, as proposed under the International Plan of Action to combat IUU fishing.
5.2 The exchange of information shall be carried out according to the protocol described in "PROTOCOL FOR INFORMATION EXCHANGE
5(a) Organizational/Institutional Contact Information
5(b) Vessel Related Information
5(c) Fishing Permits/Authorizations
5(d) Catch/Landing Information
5(e) MCS Information
5(f) Fisheries Laws
6. INTERNATIONAL MCS NETWORK COSTS
6.1 Participants providing information, cooperation or assistance, or participating in joint exercises, shall bear the costs of providing that service unless there is a prior written agreement otherwise.
6.2 The costs related to administration/operation of the International MCS Network will be borne by whomever administers the network.
In implementing this Scheme, the Contracting Parties acknowledge the rights, duties and obligations of States whose vessels fish on the high seas as expressed in the Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, the FAO Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas and general principles of international law, particularly the duty to have due regard to established fisheries.
1. The purpose of the Scheme is to ensure the effectiveness of the Conservation and Enforcement Measures established by the organization.
2. The term "fishing activities" means fishing, fish processing operations, the transshipment of fish or fish products, and any other activity in preparation for or related to fishing in the NAFO Regulatory Area. The term "NAFO inspector" means an inspector of the fishery control services of the Contracting Parties assigned to the NAFO Scheme of Joint International Inspection and Surveillance.
3. Upon adoption of the Scheme, the NAFO Secretariat will give due publicity to the Scheme and to the NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures.
4. The measures contained in the Scheme are directed at Non-Contracting Party vessels engaged in fishing activities in the NAFO Regulatory Area.
5. A Non-Contracting Party vessel which has been sighted engaging in fishing activities in the NAFO Regulatory Area is presumed to be undermining the effectiveness of NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures. In the case of any transshipment activities involving a sighted Non-Contracting Party vessel, inside or outside the NAFO Regulatory Area, the presumption of undermining NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures applies to any other Non-Contracting Party vessel which has engaged in such activities with that vessel.
6. Information regarding such sightings shall be transmitted to the NAFO Secretariat. The NAFO Secretariat will then transmit this information to all NAFO Contracting Parties within one business day of receiving this information, and to the flag-State of the sighted vessel as soon as possible.
7. The NAFO Contracting Party which sighted the Non-Contracting Party vessel will attempt to inform such a vessel that it has been sighted engaging in fishing activities and is accordingly presumed to be undermining the NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures, and that this information will be distributed to all NAFO Contracting Parties and to the flag-State of the vessel.
8. In the event that any Non-Contracting Party vessel, which has been sighted and reported as engaged in fishing activities in the NAFO Regulatory Area, consents to be boarded by NAFO inspectors, the findings of the NAFO inspectors shall be transmitted to the NAFO Secretariat. The NAFO Secretariat will transmit this information to all NAFO Contracting Parties within one business day of receiving this information, and to the flag-State of the boarded vessel as soon as possible. The Non-Contracting Party vessel which is boarded shall be provided with a copy of the findings of the NAFO inspectors.
9. When a Non-Contracting Party vessel referred to in paragraph 5 enters a port of any NAFO Contracting Party, it shall be inspected by authorized Contracting Party officials knowledgeable in the NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures and this Scheme, and shall not land or transship any fish until this inspection has taken place. Such inspections shall include the vessel's documents, log books, fishing gear, catch on board and any other matter relating to the vessel's activities in the NAFO Regulatory Area.
10. Landings and transshipments of all fish from a Non-Contracting Party vessel, which has been inspected pursuant to paragraph 9, shall be prohibited in all Contracting Party ports, if such inspection reveals that the vessel has onboard:
(i) species listed in Annex A, unless the vessel establishes that the fish were caught outside the NAFO Regulatory Area; or11. Contracting Parties shall ensure that their vessels do not receive transshipments of fish from a Non-Contracting Party vessel which has been sighted and reported as having engaged in fishing activities in the NAFO Regulatory Area.
(ii) other species listed in Annex B, unless the vessel establishes that it has applied the NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures.
12. Information on the results of all inspections of Non-Contracting Party vessels conducted in the ports of Contracting Parties, and any subsequent action, shall be transmitted immediately through the NAFO Secretariat to all Contracting Parties and as soon as possible to the relevant flag-State(s).
13. Each Contracting Party shall report to the Executive Secretary by 1 March each year for the previous calendar year:
(i) the number of inspections of Non-Contracting Party vessels it conducted under the Scheme in its ports, the names of the vessels inspected and their respective flag-State, the dates and ports where the inspection was conducted, and the results of such inspections; and14. The Executive Secretary shall prepare a report by 1 April each year, for the previous calendar year, based on the periodic reports made by Contracting Parties as called for in this Scheme.
(ii) where fish are landed or transshipped following an inspection pursuant to the Scheme, the report shall also include the evidence presented pursuant to paragraph 10 (i) and (ii).
15. Nothing in this Scheme affects the exercise by NAFO Contracting Parties of their sovereignty over the ports in their territory in accordance with international law.
16. The Standing Committee on Fishing Activities of Non-Contracting Parties in the NAFO Regulatory Area (STACFAC) shall review annually the information compiled, actions taken under this scheme and the operation of the Scheme, and where necessary, recommend to the General Council new measures to enhance the observance of NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures by Non-Contracting Parties and new procedures to enhance the implementation of the Scheme by Contracting Parties.
Common English Name Scientific Name
1. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
2. Atlantic redfish (Sebastes sp.)
3. American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides)
4. Yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea)
5. Witch flounder (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus)
6. Capelin (Mallotus villosus)
7. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides)
8. Short-finned squid (Illex) (Illex illecebrosus)
9. Shrimps (Pandalus sp.)
Common English Name Scientific Name
1. Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)
2. Silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis)
3. Red hake (Urophycis chuss)
4. Pollock (Pollachius virens)
5. Roundnose grenadier (Macrourus rupestris)
6. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)
7. Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)
8. Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus)
9. River herring (alewife) (Alosa pseudoharengus)
10. Atlantic argentine (Argentina silus)
11. Long-finned squid (Loligo) (Loligo pealei)
12. Wolffishes (NS) (Anarhichas sp.)
13. Skates (NS) (Raja sp.)
Recommendation by ICCAT for a Revised ICCAT Port Inspection Scheme
RECOGNIZING that many parties currently have port inspection schemes in place;
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE CONSERVATION F ATLANTIC TUNAS (ICCAT) RECOMMENDS THAT:
1. Inspection shall be carried out by the appropriate authorities of the Contracting Parties, who will monitor compliance with the Commission's conservation measures for all ICCAT species, at their own ports, without discrimination. Inspectors shall produce identification as provided by the national government.
2. In the case of an apparent violation by a foreign fishing vessel, the inspector shall draw up a report of the inspection on a form standardized by the Commission, or on a form produced by the national government which collects the same quality of information. The inspector must sign the report in the presence of the master of the vessel, who shall be entitled to add or have added to the report any observations, and to add his own signature. The inspector should note in the vessel's logbook that an inspection was made. Copies of the form must be sent to the flag state of the vessel and to the ICCAT Secretariat within 10 days. In the case of a violation by a domestic vessel, domestic procedures will be followed for documentation, which must also provide the same quality of information as the standard ICCAT form.
3. An inspector may examine the fish, fishing gear, fish samples, and all relevant documents, including fishing logbooks and cargo manifest (in the case of a mother ship or carrier vessel), to verify compliance with ICCAT measures. The master of the vessel is required to cooperate with the inspector. Inspections shall be carried out so that the vessel suffers the minimum interference and inconvenience and that degradation of the quality of the fish is avoided.
4. Parties shall consider and act on reports of apparent violations by foreign inspectors on a similar basis as the reports of national inspectors in accordance with their national legislation. Contracting Parties shall collaborate, in accordance with their legislation, in order to facilitate judicial or other proceedings arising from reports of inspectors acting under these arrangements.
5. For cases in which an apparent violation has occurred, the vessel's flag state shall notify ICCAT of actions taken to address the violation.
6. All parties shall inform their vessel masters who are fishing on ICCAT species of the regulations. The masters shall also be instructed to cooperate with the inspectors in national as well as foreign ports.
7. Parties whose vessels enter, land, or tranship their catches in ports other than their own, can send their own inspectors to inspect their own vessels with respect to the observance of the Commission's regulations, having previously obtained an invitation from the port state in which the inspection shall be executed.
In addition, parties are encouraged to enter into bilateral agreements/ arrangements that allow for an inspector exchange program designed to promote cooperation, share information, and educate each party's inspectors on strategies and operations that promote compliance with ICCAT's management measures. The countries' national report should include a description of such programs.
NB: The Commission agreed that most ICCAT recommendations could only be enforced during off-loading, and therefore this is the most fundamental and effective tool for monitoring and inspection. This recommendation would modify the existing ICCAT port inspection scheme to require national port inspection schemes and to provide minimum standards in conducting port inspection of foreign and domestic vessels during off-loading and transhipment operations of all ICCAT species. The purpose of the port inspection scheme is to ensure individual vessel compliance as well as to facilitate overall monitoring of each party's fisheries for ICCAT species. ICCAT hopes that the parties will actually exceed these minimum standards in order to effect timely and accurate monitoring of landings and transshipments, check compliance with ICCAT management measures, ensure quotas are not exceeded, and collect data and other information on landings and transshipments.
Concerned that illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing for Dissostichus spp. in the Convention Area threatens serious depletion of populations of Dissostichus spp.,
Aware that IUU fishing involves significant by-catch of some Antarctic species, including endangered albatross,
Noting that IUU fishing is inconsistent with the objective of the Convention and undermines the effectiveness of CCAMLR conservation measures,
Underlining the responsibilities of Flag States to ensure that their vessels conduct their fishing activities in a responsible manner,
Mindful of the rights and obligations of Port States to promote the effectiveness of regional fishery conservation measures,
Aware that IUU fishing reflects the high value of, and resulting expansion in markets for and international trade in, Dissostichus spp.,
Recalling that Contracting Parties have agreed to introduce classification codes for Dissostichus spp. at a national level,
Recognising that the implementation of a Catch Documentation Scheme for Dissostichus spp. will provide the Commission with essential information necessary to provide the precautionary management objectives of the Convention,
Committed to take steps, consistent with international law, to identify the origins of Dissostichus spp. entering the markets of Contracting Parties and to determine whether Dissostichus spp. harvested in the Convention Area that is imported into their territories was caught in a manner consistent with CCAMLR conservation measures,
Wishing to reinforce the conservation measures already adopted by the Commission with respect to Dissostichus spp.,
Inviting non-Contracting Parties whose vessels fish for Dissostichus spp. to participate in the Catch Documentation Scheme for Dissostichus spp.,
hereby adopts the following conservation measure in accordance with Article IX of the Convention:
1. Each Contracting Party shall take steps to identify the origin of Dissostichus spp. imported into or exported from its territories and to determine whether Dissostichus spp. harvested in the Convention Area that is imported into or exported from its territories was caught in a manner consistent with CCAMLR conservation measures.
2. Each Contracting Party shall require that each master or authorised representative of its flag vessels authorised to engage in harvesting of Dissostichus eleginoides and/or Dissostichus mawsoni complete a Dissostichus catch document for the catch landed or transhipped on each occasion that it la nds or tranships Dissostichus spp.
3. Each Contracting Party shall require that each landing of Dissostichus spp. at its ports and each transshipment of Dissostichus spp. to its vessels be accompanied by a completed Dissostichus catch document.
4. Each Contracting Party shall, in accordance with their laws and regulations, require that their flag vessels which intend to harvest Dissostichus spp., including on the high seas outside the Convention Area, are provided with specific authorisation to do so. Each Contracting Party shall provide Dissostichus catch document forms to each of its flag vessels authorised to harvest Dissostichus spp. and only to those vessels.
5. A non-Contracting Party seeking to cooperate with CCAMLR by participating in this scheme may issue Dissostichus catch document forms, in accordance with the procedures specified in paragraphs 6 and 7, to any of its flag vessels that intend to harvest Dissostichus spp.
6. The Dissostichus catch document shall include the following information:(i) the name, address, telephone and fax numbers of the issuing authority;7. Procedures for completing Dissostichus catch documents in respect of vessels are set forth in paragraphs A1 to A10 of Annex 170/A to this measure. The standard catch document is attached to the annex.
(ii) the name, home port, national registry number, and call sign of the vessel and, if issued, its IMO/Lloyd's registration number;
(iii) the reference number of the licence or permit, whichever is applicable, that is issued to the vessel;
(iv) the weight of each Dissostichus species landed or transhipped by product type, and(a) by CCAMLR statistical subarea or division if caught in the Convention Area; and/or(v) the dates within which the catch was taken;
(b) by FAO statistical area, subarea or division if caught outside the Convention Area;
(vi) the date and the port at which the catch was landed or the date and the vessel, its flag and national registry number, to which the catch was transhipped; and
(vii) the name, address, telephone and fax numbers of the recipient(s) of the catch and the amount of each species and product type received.
8. Each Contracting Party shall require that each shipment of Dissostichus spp. imported into or exported from its territory be accompanied by the export-validated Dissostichus catch document(s) and, where appropriate, validated re-export document(s) that account for all the Dissostichus spp. contained in the shipment.
9. An export-validated Dissostichus catch document issued in respect of a vessel is one that:(i) includes all relevant information and signatures provided in accordance with paragraphs A1 to A11 of Annex 170/A to this measure; and(ii) includes a signed and stamped certification by a responsible official of the exporting State of the accuracy of the information contained in the document.10. Each Contracting Party shall ensure that its customs authorities or other appropriate officials request and examine the documentation of each shipment of Dissostichus spp. imported into or exported from its territory to verify that it includes the export-validated Dissostichus catch document(s) and, where appropriate, validated re-export document(s) that account for all the Dissostichus spp. contained in the shipment. These officials may also examine the content of any shipment to verify the information contained in the catch document or documents.
11. If, as a result of an examination referred to in paragraph 10 above, a question arises regarding the information contained in a Dissostichus catch document or a re-export document the exporting State whose national authority validated the document(s) and, as appropriate, the Flag State whose vessel completed the document are called on to cooperate with the importing State with a view to resolving such question.
12. Each Contracting Party shall promptly provide by the most rapid electronic means copies to the CCAMLR Secretariat of all export-validated Dissostichus catch documents and, where relevant, validated re-export documents that it issued from and received into its territory and shall report annually to the Secretariat data, drawn from such documents, on the origin and amount of Dissostichus spp. exported from and imported into its territory.
13. Each Contracting Party, and any non-Contracting Party that issues Dissostichus catch documents in respect of its flag vessels in accordance with paragraph 5, shall inform the CCAMLR Secretariat of the national authority or authorities (including names, addresses, phone and fax numbers and email addresses) responsible for issuing and validating Dissostichus catch documents.
14. Notwithstanding the above, any Contracting Party, or any non-Contracting Party participating in the Catch Documentation Scheme, may require additional verification of catch document s by Flag States by using, inter alia, VMS, in respect of catches1 taken on the high seas outside the Convention Area, when landed at, imported into or exported from its territory.
15. If a Contracting Party participating in the CDS has cause to sell or dispose of seized or confiscated Dissostichus spp., it may issue a Specially Validated Dissostichus Catch Document (SVDCD) specifying the reasons for that validation. The SVDCD shall include a statement describing the circumstances under which confiscated fish are moving in trade. To the extent practicable, Parties shall ensure that no financial benefit arising from the sale of seized or confiscated catch accrue to the perpetrators of IUU fishing. If a Contracting Party issues a SVDCD, it shall immediately report all such validations to the Secretariat for conveying to all Parties and, as appropriate, recording in trade statistics.
16. A Contracting Party may transfer all or part of the proceeds from the sale of seized or confiscated Dissostichus spp. into the CDS Fund created by the Commission or into a national fund which promotes achievement of the objectives of the Convention. A Contracting Party may, consistent with its domestic legislation, decline to provide a market for toothfish offered for sale with a SVDCD by another State. Provisions concerning the uses of the CDS Fund are found in Annex B.1 Excluding by-catches of Dissostichus spp. by trawlers fishing on the high seas outside the Convention Area. A by-catch shall be defined as no more than 5% of total catch of all species and no more than 50 tonnes for an entire fishing trip by a vessel.
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna
General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM):
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC):
International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC):
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC):
Northeast Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC):
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO):
North Atlantic Salmon Organization (NASCO):
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC):