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DEGRADED

1. (Degraded and secondary forests) - Include all those forests and forest lands that have been altered beyond the normal effects of natural processes through unsustainable use. ITTO 2002 (adopted UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA). FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

2. (Forest) - A secondary forest that has lost, through human activities, the structure, function, species composition or productivity normally associated with a natural forest type expected on that site. Hence, a degraded forest delivers a reduced supply of goods and services from the given site and maintains only limited biological diversity. Biological diversity of degraded forests includes many non-tree components, which may dominate in the under canopy vegetation. http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/areas/forest/definitions.asp  and UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA 2001. FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

3. (Forest) - Natural forest disturbed by man. Includes (i) logged over forests associated with various intensity of logging (ii) various forms of secondary forests, resulting from logging or abandoned cultivation. FRA, 2000. FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

4. (Forest) (Africa only) - Degraded forests are areas in Africa where human activity is visible. Due to the land use patterns, including selective logging, differentiation between deforestation/revegetation/agriculture is not currently possible. Generally discernible from natural forest, the true extent may only be determined through ground verification.
http://www.geog.umd.edu/tropical/per80v141README

5. (Forest) (Slovenia) - Forest in which the growth rate, or the fertility of forest land, is reduced, or other possibilities for it to perform its function as a forest are reduced by negative outside influences. Slovenian LAW ON FORESTS - Milan SINKO milan.sinko@UNI-LJ.SI via "Maksym Polyakov"
mpoliak@pcomp.usau.kiev.ua

6. (Forest Land) -Former forest land severely damaged by excessive timber and NWFP harvesting, poor management, repeated fire, grazing or other disturbances and land uses that damaged soil and vegetation to a degree which inhibited or severely delayed forest regrowth after abandonment ITTO 2002. FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

7. (Forest Stand) - A forest stand that has suffered damage to natural composition, structures, and functions to such an extent that population levels and diversity of organisms have been changed in an unnatural manner, or where structures required for ecological processes and populations in later temporal phases have been removed and/or will not be regenerated due to human disturbance.
http://www.web.net/~fscca/standard.htm#anchor88641

8. (Primary forest) - The initial forest cover of a primary, old-growth or managed forest has been affected by unsustainable, excessive timber and wood exploitation or by such intensity of extraction of non-wood forest products, that its structure, processes, functions and dynamics are altered beyond the elastic capacity of the forest ecosystems. ITTO, 2002. FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

9. (Wetland) - A wetland which has been altered by man through impairment of some physical property and in which the alteration has resulted in a reduction of biological complexity in terms of species diversity of wetland-associated species which previously existed in the wetland areas.
http://www.wsu.edu/pmc_nrcs/glossary/ddd.htm#D

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