1. (Artificial crop, artificial stand ~ man-made forest) - A stand raised artificially, either by planting or by direct sowing (South 1998).
2. (Colombia) Plantación Forestal: Es el bosque originado por la intervención directa del hombre. (Decreto 1791 octubre 4 de 1996. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente). "Gerardo Lozano" firstname.lastname@example.org
3. (EU) Forest crop
established by seeding or planting nursery-raised stock
4. (FAO) A forest
established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or
reforestation. It consists of introduced species or, in some cases, indigenous
5. (UN-FRA 2000) Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. (UN/ECE-FAO 1997 and FAO 1998)
6. (Georgia) Stand of seeded or planted wood species. Source: Forest Code (June, 1999) Kate Metreveli, Head of the WB Forestry, Project Preparation Unit. email@example.com
7. (Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Region (Canada)) Tree-dominated vegetated areas in which human intervention,
through planting or intensive silvicultural treatments, has yielded conditions
in which only a few of the characteristics of the indigenous natural forest
ecosystem remain. [Draft standards for the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Region
8. (Morocco and Yemen) Plantation (Arabic : Ard Mushajjarah, French : Platation, Spanish: Plantacion) - Land planted artificially (by man) with forest trees (regular spacing) Mohammed Ellatifi, firstname.lastname@example.org
9. (Nicaragua) - Draft - Bosque de Plantaciones: Son los que se realizan por medio de la reforestación. www.nicarao.org.ni/ja (see Borrador de la ley, CAPITULO II DEFINICIONES) Harrie email@example.com
10. (South Africa) Single
species (usually either pine or eucalyptus), regular spacing, even-aged stands.
11. (U.S. Pacific Coast region) - Tree-dominated areas substantially lacking in natural forest attributes (e.g., structure, and species composition native to the area) and that usually require human intervention. A "planted forest" is not necessarily a "plantation," since it may attain natural forest attributes. In the Pacific Coast region, any of the following characteristics may indicate that a forest is a plantation (though not necessarily one that is certifiable): Cultivation of exotic species, Use of even-aged silviculture for forest types that do not regenerate naturally through stand-replacing events, Use of even-aged silviculture with rotations of less than 60 years, Use of even-aged regeneration units larger than those specified under criterion 9.2, Systematic use of and reliance on chemical herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, Single-species plantings on sites normally occupied by multiple-species forests, and Regular, periodic stand treatments intended to eliminate natural ingrowth of native trees and associated ground vegetation. [Draft standards for the Pacific Coast Region (US) From: David South firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Wed, 17 Jun 1998 16:45:07 -0500]
12. (UK) Woodland where the
current trees have been planted. Often includes naturally regenerating trees as
well. Includes former semi-natural woodlands restocked by planting [Source: THE
UK FORESTRY STANDARD. The Government's Approach to Sustainable Forestry,
EDINBURGH: FORESTRY COMMISSION, 1998
13. (Ukraine) Forest stands created by planting of seedlings, saplings of trees or shrubs or by sowing of their seeds'', i.e. it here this means only origination of stands, not intensity of management. [Source: State Standard of Ukraine, DSTU 2980-95 ``Forest plantations. Terms and definitions'', being in force since 01.01.96. From: "Maksym Polyakov" email@example.com Date: Sat, 28 Mar 1998 21:09:08 +0200 (UKR)]
14. (USA) Areas dominated by
trees planted on a regular and generally consistent row and plant spacing.
Stands are planted for the purpose of producing a crop of timber, Christmas
trees, or other products. Examples include planted hardwood and softwood timber
15. A forest crop established by artificial, either by sowing or planting. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers.
16. A forest stand established by the planting of trees
either native or exotic species elected for their wood-producing properties and
managed intensively for timber.
17. A forest that has been planted as a crop for
eventual harvest. Most plantation forests are replanted following harvest for
second and subsequent rotations in perpetuity.
18. A forest which has been planted by people with
species occurring naturally (native species plantation) or not (exotic species
plantation) in that country.
19. A group of planted trees grown in the form of an
20. A large area of trees usually planted specifically
21. A plantation forest may be afforested land or a
secondary forest established by planting or direct seeding. A gradient exists
among plantation forests from even-aged, single species monocultures of will
probably also reflect the capability of the plantation forest to maintain
"normal" local biological diversity.
22. A planted forest of either native or exotic species.
Small plantation may be called blocks or woodlots.
23. An area of managed forest where the trees have been
planted, rather than grown naturally through regeneration (NGGIC 1997).
24. An artificially forested area established by planting or direct seeding. It is usually made up of a single species.
25. Crops of trees artificially established, primarily
for specific commercial purposes.
26. Floresta Plantada - Formação florestal composta por
espécies exóticas e/ou nativas, plantadas com objetivos específicos.
27. Forest areas lacking most of the principal
characteristics and key elements of native ecosystems as defined by the Forest
Stewardship Council -approved national and regional standards of forest
stewardship, which result from the human activities of either planting, sowing
or intensive silvicultural treatments (South 1998).
http://www.metla.fi/archive/forest/1994/07/msg00035.html. PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR FOREST STEWARDSHIP. Revised March 1996, edited October 1996 and
28. Forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either: - of introduced species (all planted stands), or - intensively managed stands of indigenous species which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Excludes: stands which were established as plantation but which have been without intensive management for a significant period of time. These should be considered semi-natural (UN-ECE/FAO 1997).
29. Forest stands that have been established artificially to produce a forest product crop. They are either on lands that previously have not supported forests for more than 50 years (afforestation), or on lands that have supported forests within the last 50 years and where the original crop has been replaced with a different one (reforestation) (Brown et al. 1986).
30. Forests established artificially, either by
afforestation on land which has not carried forest within living memory or by
reforestation of land which carried forest before but where the indigenous
species are replaced with a new species or genetic variety.
31. Forests or woods that have been planted.
32. Forests that are planted as a crop.
33. Intensively managed stands of either native or
exotic trees species, created by the regular placement of seedlings or seed.
34. Plantation: a usually large group of plants and especially trees under cultivationhttp://www.m-w.com/dictionary
35. PLANTED FORESTS - These forests have been established by planting or sowing on barren land, grassland, land cleared of secondary forest or scrub, land cleared of primary or modified forest.
36. Planted stand of trees (WESTVACO)
37. Plot of land occupied by fast-growing or `technical'
forest species with the aim of producing timber with short rotation or producing
bark, (willow) withes, seeds, grafts etc. our term <[forest] plantation can
be translated to English as - [forest] plantation, - seed orchard.... [From:
firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Wed, 17 Jun 1998 11:20:37 +0300 (MSD)]
38. This category includes artificial forests created by
sowing or planting trees and forest stands improved by introduction of valuable
tree species. Forest plantations are divided into two categories: plantations
with closed crown canopy (registered as forest), and plantations which did not
yet form closed crown cover. (ref. Forest stock, Forest plantation which did not
yet for closed crown cover). Minimum mapping unit 0.5 ha.
39. (Timber) - The most intensive form of forest management. It is characterized by monocultures of fast-growing tree species (e.g. poplar, Pinus radiata, eucalyptus), short
rotation lengths (< 60 years), stand regeneration by planting, application of
soil fertilization and tillage, pest control and other measures aimed at
increasing timber yields. Plantations are a transitional form between forestry
and agricultural land use. Most afforestation takes the form of this type of
40. Tree Plantations, are simplified tree dominated
ecosystems that have suppressed natural succession patterns. They have a poor
capacity to mature into natural forest systems and lie on lands cleared of
native vegetation. Often, they contain elements of exotic species. Tree
plantations vary from the industrial monocultures to diverse home gardens. Tree
plantations do not have the capacity to mature into natural forest systems.
41. Tree-dominated areas substantially lacking in natural forest attributes (e.g. structure and species composition native to the area) that usually require human intervention in order to be maintained. A "planted forest" is not necessarily a "plantation" since it may be part of a management regime that maintains most natural forest attributes indigenous to the area. The Pacific Coast Working Group of FSC-US
42. Tree-dominated vegetated areas in which human intervention, through planting or intensive silvicultural treatments, has yielded conditions in which only a few of the characteristics of the indigenous natural forest ecosystem remain. (defined by FSC A.C.)
43. Trees usually of a single species planted on cleared
land for the purpose of growing a product such as wood.