Mountains and the Law - Emerging Trends


FAO LEGISLATIVE STUDY 75

A. Villeneuve, A. Castelein, M.A. Mekouar

for the

Development Law Service
FAO Legal Office

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2002

ISSN 1014-6679

Table of Contents


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ISBN 92-5-104830-4

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© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

PART I - GENERAL OVERVIEW

I. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK: MAJOR INSTRUMENTS

1.1. Treaty Law

1.1.1. Absence of a Worldwide Mountain-focused Convention
1.1.2. A Regional Mountain-specific Agreement: The Alpine Convention
1.1.3. Other Draft Regional Agreements

1.2. Soft Law

1.2.1. A Global Mountain Platform: Chapter 13 of Agenda 21
1.2.2. The Draft World Charter for Mountain Populations
1.2.3. Other Non-binding Instruments: Some Examples

II. NATIONAL LEGISLATION: MAIN FEATURES

2.1. Objectives and Scope

2.1.1. Objectives of the Laws
2.1.2. Coverage of the Laws: Mountain Delimitation
2.1.3. Complementarity with Related Laws

2.2. Institutional Arrangements

2.2.1. Specialized Mountain Institutions
2.2.2. Institutions Not Specific to Mountains

2.3. Economic Development

2.3.1. Mountain Funds
2.3.2. Mountain Agriculture
2.3.3. Mountain Tourism
2.3.4. Local Products

2.4. Social Policies

2.4.1. Developing Infrastructure and Communications
2.4.2. Promoting Culture and Education
2.4.3. Raising Living Standards

2.5. Environmental Protection

2.5.1. Protecting Forests
2.5.2. Combating Soil Erosion
2.5.3. Safeguarding Water

CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
ANNEX

PART II - CASE STUDIES

I. BULGARIA

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Mountain Delimitation
1.3. Mountain Institutions

1.3.1. National Board for Mountain Regions
1.3.2. Councils of Mountain Municipalities
1.3.3. Associations of Mountain Municipalities

1.4. Mountain Development

1.4.1. Economic Development
1.4.2. Social Development

1.5. Mountain Protection

1.5.1. Forests
1.5.2. Water
1.5.3. Protected Areas

1.6. Conclusion
References

II. FRANCE

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Mountain Delimitation

2.2.1. Metropolitan France
2.2.2. Overseas Departments
2.2.3. Ranges

2.3. Mountain Institutions

2.3.1. National Mountain Board
2.3.2. Mountain Range Committees

2.4. Mountain Development

2.4.1. Economic Development
2.4.2. Social Development

2.5. Mountain Protection

2.5.1. Forests
2.5.2. Water
2.5.3. Soil

2.6. Conclusion
References

III. GEORGIA

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Mountain Delimitation
3.3. Mountain Institutions
3.4. Mountain Development

3.4.1. Economic Development
3.4.2. Social Development

3.5. Mountain Protection
3.6. Conclusion
References

IV. ITALY

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Mountain Delimitation
4.3. Mountain Institutions

4.3.1. A Decentralized Institutional Framework
4.3.2. Importance of Mountain Communities

4.4. Mountain Development

4.4.1. Economic Development
4.4.2. Social Development

4.5. Mountain Protection

4.5.1. The Environment
4.5.2. Forests

4.6. Conclusion
References

V. RUSSIAN FEDERATION - REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Mountain Delimitation
5.3. Mountain Institutions
5.4. Mountain Development

5.4.1. Natural Resource Use: Users’ Rights and Obligations
5.4.2. Natural Resource Management: Economic and Financial Instruments

5.5. Mountain Protection
5.6. Conclusion
References

VI. SWITZERLAND

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Mountain Delimitation
6.3. Mountain Institutions
6.4. Mountain Development

6.4.1. Economic Development
6.4.2. Social Development

6.5. Mountain Protection
6.6. Conclusion
References

FAO LEGISLATIVE STUDIES

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