5.1 International, national and non-governmental organizations can play important roles in promoting equitable gender inclusion in land administration. Development organizations have been targeting groups, such as women or the landless poor, for special assistance in land programmes to address equity concerns and to increase the effectiveness of some aid activities. Similar trends can be seen in the credit industries in developed countries where female-headed businesses are increasingly recognized as an important sector of the economy.
5.2 Gender inclusiveness in land projects is essential if the outcomes are to truly enhance security and effective access to land resources and the benefits from those resources. In order to ensure that project outcomes reflect the initial goals and do not have unintended negative impacts on men or women, the donor community and international organizations, should take on the following responsibilities at minimum.
5.3 Advocate gender inclusiveness:
Encourage nations to sign international declarations that promote equitable gender status under the law and equitable access to productive resources.
Urge constitutional recognition of equal access to property. Such provisions provide a strong basis for subsequent legislative initiatives or court interpretations.
Promote national policies for legal and policy reforms related to land and property that will improve gender equity.
5.4 Analyse gender issues:
Identify areas in national and local land and housing laws and procedures that are constraints to gender inclusiveness.
Identify areas in customary law and procedures that also serve as constraints.
Collect gender disaggregated data and making them available to researchers, practitioners, and the public.
5.5 Document and publicise gender issues such as:
The benefits of gender inclusion in land holding and management.
Violations of rights to land where appropriate.
Information campaigns should be directed upstream to policy makers and other leaders, and downstream to involved communities, implementers and other stakeholders.
5.6 Lead by example by providing demonstrations of gender inclusiveness in their own organizations and activities. Göler von Ravensburg and Jacobsen (1999)17, for example, suggest that: Development cooperation can make it a precondition for any intensification of policy dialogue that international principles and law regarding womens land rights be included into national policy and law, make relevant suggestions in this regard and monitor whether the respective laws are implemented such that men and women indeed obtain equal status in all land matters.
5.7 Promote gender integration at all levels of projects and programmes:
Ensure the full integration of gender perspectives in all future activities as it is required by, for example, FAOs Gender Plan of Action18 and the UNCHS19.
Ensure gender inclusiveness in project and programme planning and in policy- and decision-making, aiming towards a balanced representation of men and women in these bodies.
Ensure the participation of both men and women at the local level in land projects and programmes.
Develop indicators to measure the effectiveness of projects and programmes with respect to gender inclusiveness, including development of long-term monitoring and evaluation schemes.
5.8 Promote gender integration through education and sensitisation:
Ensure that effective and culturally appropriate mechanisms are in place for input, discussions, conflict resolution, and negotiations regarding gender issues.
Provide opportunities to discuss and explore gender issues related to land in as neutral a forum as possible.
Provide education and sensitization on gender issues to local leaders in order to build support for the involvement of women and men.
Provide equal opportunities for men and women in education, training, study trips, etc. associated with any land-related programme to enhance future gender balanced capacity.
Support the selection of qualified women candidates in key leadership and decision-making roles concerning land related matters.
5.9 Promote gender integration through legislation and policy by assisting governments in the development of property laws and land policies that recognize the diversity of household arrangements, and acknowledge both modern and traditionally dominant household patterns.
5.10 Promote gender integration by example such as providing role models and gender sensitivity training among project participants where possible.