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Senegal


General Information

· Main climates: Tropical Steppe and Semiarid, Tropical Wet and Dry

· Total land area: 19 253 000 ha

· Internal renewable water resources: 26.2 km3

· Incoming water flow: 13 km3

· GNP per capita, 1998: PPP$ 1 297

· Main food consumed: Rice, Millet & sorghum, Oil & fat, Wheat, Sugar & honey

· Rice supply, 1999: 106.7 kg paddy/capita/year

Basic Statistics


1985

1990

1995

2000

RICE





Harvested area (T ha)

78.1

72.9

68.9

95.8

Yield (kg/ha)

1881

2482

2249

2500

Production (T t)

147.0

181.1

155.1

239.7

Imports (T t)

342.3

391.5

441.2

NA

Exports (t)

0

1

1

NA

OTHERS





Population (T)

6375

7327

8330

NA

Agr population (T)

5019

5621

6271

NA

Irrigated agr area (T ha)

90

94

71

NA

Fertilizer cons (T t)

20.5

12.0

16.2

NA

Agr tractors in use (units)

460

490

550

NA

Producing Zones and Cropping Seasons

In the Valley of Senegal River in the north, rice is grown under irrigated conditions. In the south rice is grown under diverse ecologies. The following table shows the harvested areas from different producing zones.

Production zone

Harvested area (% total harvested area)

Casamance

37.03

Kolda

25.44

St. Louis

20.77

Ziguichor

12.17

Tamba

3.61

Fatik

0.49

Sine Sal

0.49

The following table shows the rice cropping seasons.

Cropping season

Planting

Harvesting

Main season

6-7

10-12

Off season

2-3

6-7

Production Practices

The following figure shows the harvested areas from different ecologies during the last five years. The tidal wetland (or mangrove) rice is dominant under the category of other ecologies.

Upland rice is grown as a mono-crop or as in a mixture with other food crops following the slash-and-burn shifting cultivation almost without any application of chemical fertilizer and other ago-chemical. The size of lowland rice farms per farmer is generally small (from few hundred to few thousand square meters). Women are dominant rainfed lowland farmers, while men are dominant irrigated rice farmers. In rainfed lowland areas rice-other food crops system is practised if water supply is assured, while in irrigated rice areas, double rice cropping is dominant.

Land preparation for rainfed lowland rice is done either manually or with animal traction, while in irrigated rice it is done either mechanically or with animal traction. Transplanting is the main method of crop establishment for rainfed lowland rice, while direct seeding is dominant in irrigated rice. Farmers generally apply little fertilizer to rainfed lowland rice, but moderate to high rates of inorganic fertilizers is usually applied to irrigated rice. Weed control is done by a combination of manual weeding and herbicides. Rainfed lowland rice farmers do not have adequate appropriate tools and equipment for harvesting and threshing of rice. In irrigated rice areas in the Valley of the Senegal River combined harvester is sometimes used.

A number of improved rice varieties have been released for cultivation.

Variety Name

Released period

Growth duration (days)

BW 248-1

Irrigated

NA

BW 293-2 (SAHEL201)

Irrigated

120-125

DJ 346 D

Irrigated

115

I KONG PAO

Irrigated

115-120

IR 1529-680-3

Irrigated

130-135

ITA 123

Irrigated

125

JAYA

Irrigated

135-140

SAHEL 202

Irrigated

115-120

SAHEL108

Irrigated

105-110

BR 51-46-5

Irrigated

120-130

ITA 123

Irrigated

120-130

BG 90-2

Irrigated

120-130

IR 442 2 58

Rainfed lowland

135-140

BKN 6986

Rainfed lowland

NA

TOX 728-1

Rainfed lowland

105

BW 248-1

Rainfed lowland

125-130

TOS 103

Rainfed lowland


ROK 5

Rainfed lowland

140-145

WAR 1

Tidal wetland

135

WAR 77-3-2-2

Tidal wetland

140

WAR 81-2-1-3-2

Tidal wetland

140

DJ 12 519

Upland

NA

IRAT 10

Upland

110-115

IRAT 133

Upland

115-125

IRAT 144

Upland

110-120

SE 302 G

Upland

100-115

SE 319 G

Upland

95-100

DJ 8-341

Upland

100

DJ 11-509

Upland

100

63-83

Upland

115-120

The following table shows rice responses to fertilizer application.

Other information

Test range (kg/ha)

Control rate (kg/ha)

Control yield (t/ha)

Rate at Maximum yield (kg/ha)

Maximum yield (t/ha)

Nitrogen (N)

Reported in 63, Senegal river valley, Irrigated

0-22.5

0

2.56

22.5

3.3

Reported in 79, Senegal river valley, with 60 P + 60 K kg/ha, Irrigated

0-150

0

2.47

120

7.27

Reported in 79, Senegal river valley, with 60 P + 60 K kg/ha + compost 10tons/ha, Irrigated

0-150

0

3.97

120

7.6

Reported in 63, Casamance, Rainfed lowland

0-22.5

0

1.43

22.5

1.93

Reported in 63, Casamance with 22.5 P + 22.5 K kg/ha, Rainfed lowland

0-22.5

0

1.9

22.5

2.16

Phosphorus (P2O5)

Reported in 63, Senegal river valley, Irrigated

0-22.5

0

2.56

22.5

2.98

Reported in 63, Senegal river valley, with 22.5 N + 22.5 K kg/ha, Irrigated

0-22.5

0

2.75

0

2.75

Reported in 63, Casamance, Rainfed lowland

0-22.5

0

1.43

22.5

1.81

Reported in 63, Casamance, with 22.5 N kg/ha, Rainfed lowland

0-22.5

0

1.98

22.5

2.16

Constraints and Issues of Sustainable Production

There are several constraints to sustainable rice production in Senegal. Following are the majors:

The following table show the rice production costs.

Other information

Yield (t/ha)

Cost ($/ha)

Cost ($/t)

1988, Upland, Moyenne Casamance

1.5

252

168

1988, Irrigated, Delta

4.5

613

136

1988, Irrigated, Moyenne Vallee

4.75

748

157

1990, Rainfed lowland, Casamance, Intensification=High

2

342

171

1990, Rainfed lowland, Casamance, Intensification=Low

1

67.5

67.5

1990, Upland, Casamance, Intensification=High

1.5

390

260

1990, Upland, Casamance, Intensification=Low

0.6

81.5

136

Sen. River, Big Scheme

5.01

962

192

Sen.River, Small Scheme

5

1157

231

1994, Rainfed lowland, Casamance, Intensification=High

2

262

132

1994, Rainfed lowland, Casamance, Intensification=Low

1

47

47

1994, Upland, Casamance, Intensification=High

1.5

312

208

1994, Upland, Casamance, Intensification=Low

0.6

55

92

1994, Irrigated, Sen.River, Big Scheme

5.02

723

144

1994, Irrigated, Sen.River, Small Scheme

5

866

173

Sustainable rice production would greatly depend on the establishment of appropriate policy to provide support to farmers especially in-terms of input supply and output marketing. The development of lowland rice production with improved water supply and control in the south would be essential.

Research and Development Institutes

· Institut senegalais de recherche agronomique Centre de recherche agronomique, Sinthiou Maleme

· Station de recherches agricoles du Fleuve, B.P. 29 Richard-Toll Region du Fleuve

· SAED, Route de Khor, 74 Saint-Louis, Senegal; Tel 611380; Fax 611463.

· Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), B.P. 246 Saint-Louis, Senegal.

· Centre de Recherches Rizicoles de Djibélor (ISRA), B.P. 34 Ziguinchor, Senegal.

· Centre de recherches agronomiques, Zuiginchor, Djibelor

· Institut senegalais de recherche agronomique Centre national de recherche agricole B.P. 3120 Route du Front de Terre Dakar-Hann Phone: 215303 Telex: 3117 ISRA SG

· Societe d'amenagement et d'exploitation du Delta, B.P. 74 Saint Louis

· WARDA Sahel Irrigated Rice Research Program, B.P. 96 St. Louis Phone: 626493 Telex: 69138 ADRAO CI,BOUAKE Fax: (221) 611491 Email: WARDA-Sahel@cgnet.com

· Direction de la production et du controle des semences B.P. 3386 Dakar Phone: 216878

· ISRA, BP. 34. Ziguinchor, Senegal, Tel. (221) 91 12 05, Fax: (221) 91 12 93


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