FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 426/1

Management, Co-Management or No Management?

Major Dilemmas in Southern African Freshwater Fisheries

1. Synthesis Report


Table of Contents


by

Eyolf Jul-Larsen
Jeppe Kolding
Ragnhild Overå
Jesper Raakjaer Nielsen
Paul A.M. van Zwieten

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

Cover photograph: Lake Chilwa, Paul van Zwieten, Wagenmgen University, the Netherlands The set-up is by Van A tot Z

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

ISBN 92-5-104919-X
ISSN 0429-9345

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© FAO 2003

Table of Contents

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

1. SUSTAINABLE EXPLOITATION AND SENSIBLE MANAGEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY (SADC) FRESHWATER FISHERIES

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Our point of departure - some uncomfortable feelings
1.3 Research questions and the organization of the report
1.4 Methods and data

2. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS

2.1 Fisheries concepts

2.1.1 Fishing effort, catch and catch rate
2.1.2 Catchability
2.1.3 Selectivity

2.2 Social and economic concepts

2.2.1 Population- and investment-driven changes in fishing effort and demographic change
2.2.2 Social institutions

3. TRENDS IN YIELDS AND FISHING EFFORT OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS

3.1 Trends in yields and effort in the SADC region

3.1.1 Trends in yields
3.1.2 Trends in effort development

3.2 Three lakes: different histories - different effort trajectories

3.2.1 Lake Mweru
3.2.2 Lake Kariba (Zambia)
3.2.3 Lake Malombe and the South East Arm of Lake Malawi

3.3 Trends in effort dynamics: Population-driven rather than investment-driven growth
3.4 Mobility among fishermen prevents fishing from becoming a ‘last resort’
3.5 Effort development in the context of the fisheries management history

4. FACTORS BEHIND CHANGES IN FISHING EFFORT

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Factors influencing population-driven growth in effort

4.2.1 Natural productivity and macroeconomic changes
4.2.2 Local access-regulating mechanisms
4.2.3 Capital investments in the fisheries

4.3 Factors impeding investment-driven growth

4.3.1 Market development
4.3.2 Infrastructure
4.3.3 Production-distribution linkages
4.3.4 Capital
4.3.5 The local institutional landscape

5. THE EFFECTS OF FISHING AND ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATION ON THE REGENERATION OF FISH STOCKS

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Classical approaches
5.3 System variability: water level as environmental driver
5.4 Susceptibility of fish stocks and species to fishing under environmental variation
5.5 Selectivity and scale of operation of fishing patterns: dynamics of fishing effort
5.6 Information on catches, effort and environment in African freshwaters

6. IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

6.1 Summary of findings
6.2 What are the implications for management from a biological perspective?
6.3 Social findings and management implications
6.4 Management, co-management or no management in southern African freshwater fisheries?

7. REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1: THEORETICAL ELABORATION ON ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF FISHING PATTERNS IN MULTISPECIES FISHERIES

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