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Agricultural sector response


The impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural livelihoods is devastating. A comprehensive, long-term perspective is essential if the agricultural sector is to be successful in addressing the HIV pandemic with prevention and mitigation seen as mutually supportive activities. The agricultural sector is faced with the dual challenge of supporting rural livelihoods and reducing the vulnerability of farm households to the impacts of HIV/AIDS, while satisfying national economic objectives where agriculture often has a key role to play.

Eight agricultural sector responses emerged during the meeting. Each of these responses has been developed into a mitigation strategy and consists of a set of possible programmatic activities to alleviate problems created by the epidemic. Table 4 is an attempt to summarize these strategies, with examples of appropriate district-level activities and the outcomes on food security, representing an integrated agricultural sector response to the epidemic. The design of any agricultural sector response should be based on a number of general principles, which include the need to support diversity, gender equality and human rights and to reduce stigma with interventions that have a long-term perspective and are committed to building partnerships and developing creative synergies with other sectors.

Labour saving technologies

The labour shortage caused by the illness and death of household members is one of the most pervasive and well documented losses to AIDS-affected households. The use of labour-saving technologies therefore, represents an important mitigation strategy. Technologies are needed that would reduce time spent on both agricultural and household tasks and are able to be used efficiently by the youth and the elderly. Recommendations could include: low-input agriculture, lighter ploughs and tools that can be used by older children, women and the elderly, improved seed varieties that require less labour for weeding, intercropping, minimum tillage, as well as access to potable water, water harvesting and fuel efficient stoves that can free women for more economically productive activities.

Labour can be saved indirectly through improved storage facilities, for example, which can assist in the reduction of post harvest losses and increase food security. Home gardens with a variety of nutritious food crops, could contribute towards household food production. Although home gardens are fairly labour intensive, the distribution of labour over the production cycle is regular and does not depend strictly on planting times. Small ruminants can provide high protein foods and can be kept close to the house with relatively low labour input.

The FAO and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) have a wealth of knowledge on labour saving technologies. This experience needs to be re-visited and the lessons to improve access and uptake could be adapted to the specific situation of labour shortages caused by HIV/AIDS.

Low inputs for sustainable agriculture in Tanzania

This programme targets the most vulnerable groups in local farming communities (including AIDS-affected households) and beneficiaries receive agricultural training that enables them to increase farm productivity while lowering economic costs and reducing the intensity of human capital inputs. For example, dependence on chemical inputs is reduced through the promotion of locally available animal manure, ash as fertiliser, use of crop residues for mulching and the use of organic compounds from indigenous herbs and shrubs for killing pests. Labour is saved through the promotion of locally made transport facilities such as wooden wheelbarrows, and cultural weed control methods, such as the planting of crops that suppress weed growth and multi-cropping. All of these interventions reduce the financial and labour costs facing farmers. The programme also has a community-based natural resource management component that links local village committees to district level departments, thereby strengthening networks for common property resource management.

Since participating in the programme, farmers have reported an increase in productivity with lower investment levels. The cost of local farm labour has increased, as would-be labourers are now getting higher yields on their own plots, and their need to seek out paid labour has been reduced. Land in the area is now more valued as farmers begin to realize the productive potential of their plots.

An AIDS Support Fund was set up to promote the legal and inheritance rights of AIDS-affected families and to channel credit to those most in need. Beneficiaries are chosen by community members and local leaders and support is channelled through village-based widow and orphan committees. There is now less stigma facing families who have lost their head of household or relatives to the epidemic and community governance structures are now taking a more active role in supporting families affected by HIV/AIDS.

Source: White, J. (2002)

No-tillage farming in Brazil

No-tillage based farming systems have been adopted and developed by farmers in southern Brazil for the past 30 years. This type of farming system involves minimum tillage or ploughing while maintaining adequate crop rotations. This practice was adopted by Brazilian farmers as ploughing and soil preparation was causing major soil erosion, forcing farmers to adopt different techniques. The idea is that the soil remains permanently covered to protect it from water, wind and sun erosion and seeds are planted with simple machines that directly insert the seed into the soil. These machines have been developed to use by hand or with animal draft power.

The adoption of this system has resulted in a decrease in labour-needs at planting time and a consequent diversification of farm labour often towards off-farm income generating opportunities. This no-tillage practice also increases soil biodiversity and water retention capacity, thus leading to higher and more stable long-term yields. However, for this method to be successfully adopted, skilled extension and advisory services must be available to support farmers and the direct seeder machines need to be available locally at a reasonable cost.

Source: FAO (2001d)

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Long-term

The impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are sustained and long-term. If policies and programmes are to be effective they must have a long-term perspective and be able to integrate all aspects of rural livelihoods and food security.

Building partnerships and developing synergies

The nature of the epidemic and its impact on livelihoods requires that partnerships be fundamental elements of any strategy. Collaborative partnerships will need to be fostered at all levels, from the local to the international levels, and be inter-sectoral. Capacity will need to be strengthened to enable all partners to actively participate in collaborative dialogue. The health, non-governmental and local organizations have a wealth of experience in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The agricultural sector can learn from these experiences and build on lessons already learnt.

Supporting diversity

Rural livelihoods are characterized by diversity. Not only do farmers need to develop innovative methods to maintain agricultural production but they need to do so within the context of the particular agro-ecological zone in which they reside. Farming is an integral part of rural subsistence communities’ lives and is often guided by particular social and cultural practices. These practices provide the organizing principles of societies and a support system in times of hardship and asset depletion. Interventions need to be sensitive to the specificity of local productive and reproductive systems and the rules which govern them. Local diversity in practices presents a great challenge to any agricultural response that will be implemented nationally.

Human rights

Access to adequate food is the most basic of human rights. Food security is dependent upon the access and availability of an adequate and stable food supply. A rights-based approach is people-centred and provides a moral and legal basis for food security policies; it stresses the importance of non-discrimination and underlines the role of the state in the event of sickness, disability or other causes of lack of livelihood. This approach considers the achievement of access to adequate food as a process, as the obligation to fulfil is limited by available resources, but governments should take measures “to maximize available resources” towards this aim. A human rights’ approach not only stresses governments’ obligations, but points to obligations of other relevant actors as well. The approach provides a solid programmatic foundation for people living with AIDS and their carers. The elements of food security and human rights are developed further in figure 4. All proposed policies, plans and activities to combat HIV/AIDS should thus be assessed against the levels of obligations, namely to respect, protect and fulfil human rights.

Reducing stigma

Stigma and ignorance present great obstacles towards mitigating the impact of the HIV epidemic. An enabling environment needs to be created within and outside of organizations to be able to influence people’s attitudes. Effective communication strategies need to actively involve people living with AIDS and support pioneering activities.

Gender

The impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on rural livelihoods fundamentally challenge the nature of gender systems and often change the productive and reproductive relationships between men and women, resulting in an exacerbation of inequalities in access to resources. An analysis of gender relationships is essential in the design and formulation of any agriculture mitigation strategy. Indeed efforts to alleviate the effects of AIDS present an opportunity to address existing inequalities related to gender and age differences.

Figure 4. The food security and human rights matrix for HIV positive people and those indirectly affected

FOOD SECURITY

LEVELS OF STATE OBLIGATION

Adequate food supply


Stable food supply and access

Nutritionally adequate

Safe

Culturally acceptable

Environmental/ecological sustainable

Economic and social sustainable

RESPECT

Acknowledge increased nutritional needs

Acknowledge the need for food safety

Respect food culture associated with personal identity

Respect traditional food production technologies that have environmental significance

Respect customary rights to land and other means of food production

PROTECT

Protect the diet

Protect against discrimination

Risk assessments

Laws & regulations

Control services

Monitoring

Protect traditional food crops

Surveillance and handling of crops diseases and animals

Protect the economic interests of the HIV/AIDS- affected

FULFIL

Facilitate

Provide

Facilities that help the affected

Provide food rations

Risk handling & communication

Action plan for mitigation

Ensure availability of foods in local culture

Action plan to mitigate disease in plants and animals, and for ecological erosion

Enable the affected to procure food

Provide resources

Source: Oshaug, A., Engh I. (2002)

Knowledge preservation and transmission

In addition to labour-saving technologies, the participants at the meeting recognized that as most AIDS-related deaths occur in the reproductive age group, this generational loss can result in the loss of agricultural knowledge, practices and skills and interrupt their transmission from one generation to the next.

Recommendations on how to preserve knowledge and transmit it across gender and generations were presented during the meeting. Extension education programmes, as well as informal community organizations, need to be reoriented to meet the information needs of households who have lost an adult. Orphan- and female-headed households, as well as widowers need information to be able to maintain agricultural production. The abilities of household members to draw up cropping plans, maintain animal husbandry practices, store grain, market agricultural production, and to be knowledgeable about gender-specific production practices need to be monitored and evaluated if effective strategies to meet the informational needs of these households are to be designed and implemented.

HIV/AIDS and agrobiodiversity

Agrobiodiversity and indigenous knowledge present enormous potential to empower rural people in tackling food insecurity and addressing AIDS-related impacts. They are local, available and affordable resources which could widen the range of options for agriculture, food security, nutrition, healthcare and livelihoods among poor AIDS-affected households. In addition, they assume increasing importance as other resources dwindle, become unaffordable, or disappear. All too often, local biodiversity and indigenous knowledge are the only assets left in poor rural communities. Their adequate recognition, promotion and integration are thus essential.

Source: FAO (2002b)

Kitovu mobile farm schools, Uganda

 

The project aims to provide youth and orphans with viable livelihood options through agricultural training. It also helps to empower young people through promoting their access to land, which is often loaned by guardians or community members.

This project is a partnership between rural communities, project staff, the government agricultural office and the department of education, with all pooling their resources. Local communities offer land as demonstration plots and for young people to farm for themselves, the education sector offers school facilities and plots of land next to the schools to be used for demonstration purposes. While the agricultural training is carried out by qualified agriculturists employed by the project, the local agricultural production office is involved in developing the farm school curriculum and providing technical advice. Two years’ practical training in crop production is provided.

Source: White, J. (2002)

Rural institutions and capacity building

Mitigation strategies to cope with the epidemic need to be directed not only to individuals and households, but also to community organizations and institutions. Rural institutions need to be strengthened given that they too suffer from the loss of staff, implementation capacity and institutional knowledge due to AIDS deaths. Informal institutions are weakened as people have less time to contribute to these activities.

Rural service providers of all types, education, health, agricultural extension, credit and finance, women’s associations, nutrition groups, irrigation committees and terrace maintenance associations, need to be supported. Staff need to be equipped with knowledge of the impact that HIV/AIDS has on rural livelihoods and how to incorporate AIDS-sensitive strategies into their work.

Some communities have been extremely responsive to the epidemic and local institutions have been strengthened or created to be able to deal with a variety of problems including an increase in morbidity and mortality. As most assistance provided to AIDS-affected households comes from family, neighbours and local community institutions, it is important that the lessons from these initiatives be built upon. Informal institutions focusing on traditional labour-sharing arrangements and communal farming, as well as self-help efforts to provide home care for sick and dying members, child care, apprenticeship training for orphans or educational and nutrition assistance to affected households should not be overlooked in the development of an agricultural sector strategy.

In many countries over the past decade, the public services have suffered from cuts in expenditure resulting in a reduction in resources and a no-replacement staff policy for many sectors. Within this context, the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic also operate, further reducing human resources and increasing health-related costs. Long-term vision and investment is required to be able to continue to provide adequate and effective services and to maintain capacity.

Public agricultural extension services will need assistance in re-orienting their activities, not only to develop new methodologies and messages to specifically address the needs and constraints of the most vulnerable groups, but will need to be more creative in how they deliver services, perhaps using radio or farmer self help groups, in order to be able to cope with an ever-decreasing work force.

Advocacy and action are needed to attract innovative investment in the rural sector. However, investment in rural infrastructure such as the construction and maintenance of roads, which involves the influx of migrant labourers must include mechanisms to reduce the spread of HIV during and after the project has been completed.

HIV prevention through Farmer Life Schools in Cambodia

In an effort to mainstream HIV resilience-building in the agricultural sector, UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Project, in collaboration with FAO and the Integrated Pest Management programme, have pioneered an experiment called the Farmer Life Schools. In this programme farmers have learned to acknowledge plant ecology and interaction using beneficial versus harmful pests. This innovative approach translates farmer’s analytical thinking from plant ecosystem-base into analysing an individual’s life as a human ecosystem – with factors that strengthen or weaken his/her resilience to adversities, including HIV vulnerabilities.

The Farmer Life Schools provide farmers with an expanded analytical tool and an enabling environment through training. The central idea is to promote a holistic development strategy, where farmers examine their life context and situation instead of just increasing the yields of their rice fields. Farmers begin to understand they can shape their own and their children’s future.

Source: FAO, UNDP (2002).

Microfinance and community credit are examples of rural institutions that are considered essential in mediating the impacts of HIV/AIDS. Micro-finance is important to rural households unaffected by AIDS, because it permits them to be economically productive and to accumulate savings that may be needed later. Once a household has experienced an HIV illness or AIDS-related death, credit institutions are central to maintaining the economic viability of those household members who are able to work and care for the afflicted household members. Novel credit mechanisms need to be developed, such as providing insurance in case of loan defaulting because of sickness, or identification of a person who would take responsibility for repayment in case the credit-receiver falls ill.

Local NGOs, formal and informal institutions represent the forefront of the response to the epidemic. The opportunity to learn from this experience and to replicate some of the many pioneering responses should not be overlooked. These local institutions need to be supported so they are able to act as a teaching resource, included in planning workshops and assisted in the dissemination of knowledge and best practice guidelines and tools. Activities need to be adequately costed so that governments are able to assess the budgetary implications of national replication. In addition to funding, government capacity also needs to be strengthened to be able to support the scaling-up of these local innovations.

Gender equality

Although gender equality is an issue that is not specific to the agricultural sector, it is so integral to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its social and economic consequences that it should be a part of any agriculturally-oriented mitigation strategy designed to alleviate the impacts of the epidemic. Not only are women physically more vulnerable to HIV infection than men, they are also more vulnerable to negative social and economic outcomes as a result of HIV/AIDS.

Women’s access to and control of resources and livelihood assets are often negatively affected by HIV/AIDS. Inequalities in access to land, credit, employment, education and information all make women more vulnerable to negative outcomes. In some countries legislation has been passed providing women with equal inheritance rights to land when their husband dies. While this is an important legal precedent, the enforcement of this law over local customary practices is equally critical and the capacity of local officials needs to be supported so they are able to negotiate this process.

Many of the gender issues highlighted are structural concerns of societies and require a renegotiation of gender relationships that involves challenging existing power structures, not only at the local level but with policy and legislation at national and regional levels. At the same time, it needs to be recognized that cultural and regional differences exist and that title to land, access to labour and water are not priority issues everywhere.

The agricultural sector needs to actively promote gender equality in the areas of its competence, with an emphasis on access to and control over productive resources, including land, credit, knowledge, agricultural inputs and technology.

The African farmers’ organic research and training project (AfFOResT), Zimbabwe

This project was set upon the request of women farmers in the Zambezi valley. Many of the female farmers in the area are widows from AIDS, while others nurse sick husbands and other relatives. The project aims to increase the profitability of smallholder pesticide-free cotton production for women. The project trained Farmer Field Workers as scientists for four weeks during the dry season. Farmers are encouraged to inter-crop their cotton with traditional food crops. These Farmer Field Workers then facilitate weekly, community-based Farmer Field Schools and are supervised by AfFOResT staff every month.

Some farmers groups generated their own research questions and conducted their own on-farm research, which provided alternative approaches for organic production. Although the cotton yields from organic farming are not as high as those using commercial methods, farmers profited from their new enterprise due to the lower input costs and savings on labour. Labour requirements for tasks associated with pesticide use dropped from 15 hours per week to 3 hours (2 attending the school and 1 hour scouting for “Farmers’ Friends”). The labour required for weeding cotton fields was also significantly lower due to the inter-cropping of crops such as cowpea. In addition to these benefits, many of the widows gained emotional strength and support from the groups. The project used training sessions to initiate discussions on HIV/AIDS and developed a 3-day training course on Healthy Living and Living with HIV. That included education on disease and the immune system, healthy eating, home gardening for nutrition, living with HIV and herbal remedies.

Source: White, J. (2002)

Improving nutrition

The relationship between HIV/AIDS and nutrition begins when a productive household member falls sick and the resulting shortage of labour causes food deficiencies in the household. Food insecure households have poor nutritional status, are less healthy and are less productive. Moreover, HIV-infection and malnutrition seem to be a mutually aggravating process. A nutritionally balanced diet is likely to help fend off opportunistic infections that accompany the disease. People living with HIV/AIDS need higher than normal nutritional intake to remain active and productive and to have longer lives.

Mitigation efforts can range from nutritional education programmes aimed at infants, children, adults and the elderly, nutritional support and education for affected individuals, orphan support programmes, building capacity to increase agricultural productivity through improved plant varieties and better crop management techniques. Nutritional gardens can provide needed nutrients and add variety to the staple foods consumed by households.

Social and economic safety nets

Communities have developed a range of strategies to assist their members in surviving the impacts of HIV/AIDS, as well as other threats to their livelihoods. Most of these strategies are traditionally based and coupled with extended family support. They account for the vast majority of assistance provided to AIDS-affected households. Social support groups, savings clubs and credit associations, self-help groups, community based organizations, income-generating projects and voluntary labour are all essential in supporting rural livelihoods. Community support through labour sharing and food sharing from communal plots are fundamental to households affected by HIV/AIDS. External support from donors, NGOs, religious organizations or other groups should be directed towards strengthening these kinds of community-based initiatives rather than replacing them.

Wife inheritance and HIV/AIDS in Kenya

In some districts in Kenya, it is still common for wives to be inherited when their spouse dies. This practice functions as a traditional support mechanism for widows and ensures their access to resources and the extended family. With the advent of AIDS this practice could contribute to the spread of the HIV virus. Wives whose husbands have died from AIDS-related causes are also likely to be HIV-infected, but may not be suffering from signs of sickness. Moreover, a sick woman is unlikely to be inherited. In rural Kenya few people have access to HIV/AIDS testing and awareness of HIV status is very low, so a widow is unlikely to know if she is HIV positive or not. In addition, she may not want to reveal her status as inheritance often represents the only form of security she has. Inheritance means that she could feed her children and protect her property.

Source: Buckley, S. (1997)

Responding to HIV/AIDS through forestry interventions

 

As HIV/AIDS decimates agricultural labour and depletes assets, households increasingly resort to natural and customary woodlands for food, income, animal grazing and building materials. The forestry sector can contribute to addressing the problem of insufficient labour and capital resources in the following ways:

  • Tree-related interventions can be used to increase the resilience of rural households. Trees planted in abandoned fallows can preserve the land for the household, rehabilitate wasted soils and provide products (fuelwood, fodder, fruits) for consumption or sale.

  • Traditional production systems present a number of low-labour forestry alternatives that would maintain the capital of the soil and the production from the land in conditions of reduced labour availability.

  • With less labour available for land clearance, AIDS-affected communities are obliged to use more fi re in clearing land for agriculture. Programmes that combine HIV/AIDS awareness with fi re and woodland management can be an effective response to the epidemic.

  • Certain tree species can help in treating the opportunistic infections of HIV/AIDS. Medicinal trees could represent an important component in forestry programmes on AIDS.

Source: FAO (2003); see also http://www.fao.org/forestry/index.jsp

Monitoring and evaluation of response strategies

Response strategies need to be appropriately monitored and evaluated to assist in the design and implementation of more effective programmes to alleviate the impacts of HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods and food security. In addition, participatory monitoring systems should be developed with people so that they can themselves measure progress.

A number of international tools to measure vulnerability already exist, they include:

These systems need to systematically incorporate HIV/AIDS indicators into regular data collection. To achieve this, new indicators and appropriate methodologies need to be developed.

The development of general indicators should not deter from the importance of local mapping and the production of vulnerability profiles of regions and countries. Differentiated profiles will allow the adaptation of existing interventions to the needs and capacities of HIV/AIDS affected communities and build on existing response strategies. Although general patterns of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural sector are widely known, there is limited regional knowledge or more specific knowledge on the impact on fishing communities, pastoralists, trading communities, farming systems and the commercial sector, for example.

Preliminary analysis of vulnerable groups such as people living with HIV/AIDS and their families and orphans at the outset of any activity is essential. This will enhance understanding not only of the impacts of HIV/AIDS but also the underlying dynamics of poverty and empowerment in the local community, thus enabling projects to be aware of, and responsive to, the problems posed by HIV/AIDS. The risk of not understanding the complex dynamics between HIV/AIDS and poverty is that interventions can exacerbate existing problems further. The situation of widows, orphans and young people are principal areas of concern. As these groups are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of HIV/AIDS, all interventions aimed at poverty alleviation should ensure that resources are invested in addressing their needs.

HIV/AIDS and conflict, post-conflict and emergency situations

The elements of poverty, chronic food insecurity, HIV/AIDS prevalence and emergency situations are mutually aggravating phenomena, generating complex scenarios that require committed, integrated and cross-sectoral responses. An emergency response needs to address prevention, care and mitigation aspects of the HIV epidemic. Food aid can play a role as a short-term response to the epidemic as it increases households’ food security. The provision of school food rations is important in meeting nutritional needs and an incentive to keep children in school. Long-term mitigation strategies should seek to influence livelihood assets. Seed distribution programmes that permit households to re-establish their agricultural base can provide a safety net to afflicted households in their recovery. All efforts need to be monitored and evaluated in order to assess their impact on rural livelihoods and food security.

To date, HIV/AIDS has not been systematically incorporated into the agenda of national and international agricultural research institutions. The Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS, Agriculture and Food Security (GIAAFS) was proposed by West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) and FAO, as a joint venture between CGIAR centres and national and international agricultural research institutions. Its purpose is to use agricultural research to contribute towards mitigation, to reduce negative impacts of HIV/AIDS on agriculture, food security and to understand and link the HIV/AIDS pandemic with rural, peri-urban and urban livelihoods systems, agricultural land use, food and nutrition security and social structures. It is envisioned that GIAAFS will disseminate innovative policies and tools to strengthen institutions in the development of an agricultural sector response to the epidemic.

Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS

Experience across all sectors and from all partners in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic must be built upon in order to develop an effective agricultural strategy. There is work specifically targeted at HIV/AIDS from women’s empowerment programmes, legal literacy initiatives, rural credit and so on, upon which the agricultural sector should build. However, the impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and production is still not fully understood by the key agricultural sector stakeholders and as a consequence political commitment is limited and funds are not adequately allocated to HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation.

Mainstreaming is not an easy task and requires that the epidemic is addressed at macro and micro levels, from the region to the district. At all structural levels it is essential that all the issues are understood, so that HIV/AIDS becomes a common concern that should be addressed by everyone. Those working to mainstream HIV/AIDS in development can learn a lot from the work of the last 15 years seeking to mainstream gender. A number of lessons are summarized below:

The multilateral organizations can play a great role in advocating for the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS throughout all sectors, increasing political commitment and influencing national policies. Ministerial staff capacity needs to be developed and activities need to be funded while allowing for innovation to develop appropriate country-specific tools to respond to the particular impacts of the epidemic.

FAO/J. Spaull

Moving towards partnership and action

The participants of the meeting felt that an understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods exists but that continuing advocacy is necessary to increase visibility on the international HIV/AIDS agenda, to influence policy and the allocation of much needed resources.

This report provides the basis of an agricultural sector framework, but there is still a need to identify effective approaches to implement these strategies, to integrate HIV-related concerns into current agricultural activities and to build upon practices already tried and tested in other sectors. Table 4 is an attempt to summarize these strategies, with examples of appropriate district-level activities and the outcomes on food security, representing an integrated agricultural sector response to the epidemic.

A number of local, national and international organizations have been involved in implementing mitigation strategies at community, district and central levels. More effort is needed to forge effective partnerships based upon active co-operation to maximize mitigation efforts and to minimize the waste of resources and ultimately, to work towards a common goal of alleviating the impacts of HIV/AIDS.

Specifically partnerships need to be fostered in a number of areas, with:

Inter-agency coordination needs to be strengthened with clear mechanisms for communication and areas of implementation. To this end, it is essential that the FAO, IFAD, WFP and UNAIDS continue to work towards the alleviation of the impacts of HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods and poverty, which capitalizes and builds upon the strengths of each agency.

Table 4. Implementing agricultural sector strategies at district level: possible activities and expected outcomes on food security

Agricultural sector strategy

Possible activities

Expected outcomes

Labour-saving technologies

Introduce appropriate technologies such as small-farm mechanisation and low-input agriculture, according to local needs, cultural practices and the emerging gender roles. Such as:

- lighter ploughs and tools that can be used by older children, women and the elderly;

- improved seed varieties that require less labour for weeding;

- intercropping;

- techniques that involve minimum tillage;

- better access to potable water.

Less labour required to sustain outputs.

Less dependence on purchased inputs.

Resulting in:

Increased agricultural productivity and enhanced food security.

Preservation and transmission of knowledge

Traditional agricultural knowledge that is necessary for successful production could include:

- cropping plans;

- animal husbandry;

- grains and food;

- agrobiodiversity;

-gender-specific knowledge of land preparation techniques;

- storage techniques;

- knowledge of prices and markets;

- cash and food crop production practices.

Knowledge associated with personal and community identity is also important.

Knowledge could be transmitted through community mechanisms such as seed banks and extension education programmes according to the different information and technology needs of the affected households.

Agricultural skills and practices and community knowledge are transmitted from generation to generation in household that have lost adults.

Resulting in:

Enhanced food and livelihood security.

Rural institutions and capacity building

Formal and informal rural institutions and service providers need to be supported so that they are better able to assist communities to cope with the impacts of the epidemic.

Such as:

-traditional labour-sharing arrangements and communal farming;

- community credit and micro-finance associations;

- self-help groups which provide home and child care;

- apprenticeship training for orphans;

- educational and nutrition assistance to households;

- links with the health sector;

- rural radio.

Community and household coping mechanisms are strengthened.

Resulting in:

Maintenance of economic viability, social and community cohesion and sustainable rural livelihoods.

Promoting gender equality

Gender roles need to be re-negotiated towards more equal relationships. Possible activities include:

- identify the gender roles and inequalities which exacerbate the impact of the epidemic;

-conduct appropriate assessments to better understand local laws and traditions;

- promote egalitarian laws concerning access to productive resources at local and national levels;

-work with local officials and organizations to negotiate more equal access to land and other productive resources;

-increase access to productive credit to enable widows and widowers to continue agricultural production;

- mainstream gender considerations in the design and implementation of all mitigation strategies.

Mapping of inequalities and vulnerabilities that exacerbate the impact of HIV/AIDS.

Resulting in:

Better equality in access to productive resources.

A contribution towards the prevention of survival sex. Households are protected from poverty-induced risks of contracting HIV.

Improving nutrition

Support to people living with HIV/AIDS and affected communities’ nutritional needs, through:

- nutrition education and agricultural extension programmes that are gender- and age-sensitive;

- nutritional home gardens which provide essential nutrients and diversified diets;

- introduce improved plant varieties and better crop management techniques;

-encourage the use of small ruminants for consumption, sale and manure;

- advocate to ensure the provision of antiretroviral agents and essential drugs through building creative links with the health services.

More balanced diets that are better suited to the specific needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS.

Resulting in:

Prolonged live soft hose persons living with HIV/AIDS.

Strengthening social and economic safety nets

Enhance traditional community social and economic safety nets, with activities such as:

- identify safety nets that are eroded by the epidemic;

-conduct appropriate assessments to identify the most vulnerable;

- support community-based labour and food sharing activities;

-build on traditions that protect and secure livelihoods;

- support households which foster orphans;

- build the capacity of micro and community credit activities;

-provide food aid in situations of acute food insecurity.

Enhanced sustainable rural livelihoods and food security.

Vulnerable groups are protected.

Resulting in:

Preventing the social as set base from collapse.

Households better equipped to face poverty.

Regional HIV/AIDS statistic

COUNTRY-SPECIFIC HIV/AIDS ESTIMATES AND DATA, END 2001


Estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS, end 2001

Children orphaned by AIDS 2001

AIDS deaths 2001

Population 2001 (thousands)

HIV prevalence rate (%) in young people (15-24)

Region

Adults & children

Adults (15-49)

Adults (15-49) rate (%)

Women (15-49)

Children (0-14)

Orphans (0-14) currently living

Deaths Adults & children

Total

Adults(15-49)

Female

Male

Low estimate

High estimate

Low estimate

High estimate

Global total

40,000,000

37,100,000

1.2

18,500,000

3,000,000

14,000,000

3,000,000

6,119,328

3,198,252

1.00

1.78

0.59

1.05

Sub-Saharan Africa

28,500,000

26,000,000

9.0

15,000,000

2,600,000

11,000,000

2,200,000

633,816

291,310

6.41

11.39

3.13

5.56

East Asia & Pacific

1,000,000

970,000

0.1

230,000

3,000

85,000

35,000

1,497,066

833,058

0.06

0.10

0.12

0.22

Australia and New Zealand

15,000

14,000

0.1

1,000

<200

<1000

<100

23,146

11,845

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.02

South & South-East Asia

5,600,000

5,400,000

0.6

2,000,000

220,000

1,800,000

400,000

1,978,430

1,031,463

0.36

0.64

0.22

0.38

Eastern Europe & Central Asia

1,000,000

1,000,000

0.5

260,000

15,000

<5000

23,000

393,245

209,038

0.19

0.34

0.75

1.33

Western Europe

550,000

540,000

0.3

140,000

5,000

150,000

8,000

407,021

200,286

0.10

0.17

0.15

0.27

North Africa & Middle East

500,000

460,000

0.3

250,000

35,000

65,000

30,000

349,142

180,506

0.23

0.41

0.08

0.15

North America

950,000

940,000

0.6

190,000

10,000

320,000

15,000

316,941

161,413

0.16

0.29

0.33

0.58

Caribbean

420,000

400,000

2.3

210,000

20,000

250,000

40,000

32,489

17,183

1.78

3.17

1.42

2.43

Latin America

1,500,000

1,400,000

0.5

430,000

40,000

330,000

60,000

488,031

262,151

0.26

0.46

0.39

0.69

Source: UNAIDS (2002)

Selected publications on HIV/AIDS and agriculture

AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND MAINSTREAMING HIV/AIDS

Barnett, T. 2001. HIV/AIDS and agriculture. Mitigation strategies in the agricultural sector: a global perspective. From technical meeting on Mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural poverty: a framework for the agricultural sector. FAO.

DFID, FAO. 2000. Inter-Agency Experience and Lessons: from the Forum on Operationalizing Sustainable Livelihood Approaches. (www.fao.org/docrep/x7749e/x7749e00.htm)

FAO. 2001a. Strategic approaches to HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation in rural communities and households in Sub-Saharan Africa. (www.fao.org/sd/2001/KN0402a_en.htm)

FAO. 2000e. Population movement, development and HIV/AIDS: looking towards the future. (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/WPan0049.htm)

FAO. 2000f. AIDS and agriculture in Africa: can agricultural policy make a difference? (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/Wpan0048.htm)

FAO. 1999b. HIV/AIDS and the commercial agricultural sector of Kenya: impact, vulnerability, susceptibility and coping strategies. (www.fao.org/sd/EXdirect/EXre0026.htm)

FAO. 1997c. The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multisectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic in rural areas. (www.fao.org/docrep/x0259e/x0259e00.htm)

FAO, UNDP. 1998. The implications of HIV/AIDS for rural development policy and programming: focus on sub-Saharan Africa. (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/WPre0074.htm)

IFAD. 2001a. Strategy Paper on HIV/AIDS for East and Southern Africa. (www.ifad.org/operations/regional/pf/aids.pdf)

Oshaug, A., Engh, I. 2002. International Project on the Right to Food in Development. Akershus. University College and University of Oslo.

UNAIDS. 2000. HIV/AIDS epidemic is shifting from cities to rural areas – New focus on agricultural policy needed. Press Release. (www.unaids.org/whatsnew/press/eng/pressarc00/rome2206.html)

UNDP. 2001. Population Mobility and HIV Vulnerability in South East Asia: An Assessment and Analysis South. UNDP East Asia HIV and Development Project. (www.hiv-development.org/publications/Strategy.htm)

FARMING SYSTEMS

FAO. 2002a. AIDS is hitting the African farm sector. World Food Summit: 5 years later. (www.fao.org/worldfoodsummit/english/newsroom/focus/focus4.htm)

FAO. 2001d. Zero tillage development in tropical Brazil. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin: 147.

FAO. 2000a. HIV/AIDS in Namibia: the impact on the livestock sector. (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/WPan0046.htm)

FAO. 1998a. Impact of HIV/AIDS on agriculture.

(www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/WPdirect/WPre0075.htm)

FAO. 1997a. Impact du VIH/SIDA sur les systèmes d'exploitations agricoles en Afrique de l'Ouest. (www.fao.org/docrep/W6983F/W6983F00.htm)

FAO. 1996. AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. (www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/wpre0003.htm)

FAO. 1995. The effects of HIV/AIDS on farming systems in eastern Africa. (www.fao.org/docrep/v4710e/v4710e00.htm)

FAO. 1994. Is HIV/AIDS a threat to livestock production? The example of Rakai, Uganda. In World Animal Review. (English, French and Spanish) (www.fao.org/docrep/t4650t/t4650T00.htm)

FAO, Ease International, UNOPS &UNDP. 2002. Agriculture and AIDS. (www.hiv-development.org/publications/Agriculture.asp)

FAO, IFAD. 2002. Labour saving technologies and practices for farming and household activities under conditions of labour stress

FAO, UNAIDS. 1999. Sustainable agriculture/rural development and vulnerability to the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS best practice collection. (www.unaids.org/publications/documents/sectors/agriculture/Jc-fao-e.pdf)

Ncube, NM. 1999. AIDS and African Smallholder Agriculture. SAfAIDS. (www.safaids.org)

FOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SAFETY NETS

Barnett, T., Whiteside, A. 2002. AIDS in the 21st Century: Disease and Globalization. Palgrave-Macmillan, New York

Buckley, S. 1997. Wife Inheritance Spurs AIDS Rise in Kenya. Washington Post Foreign Service.

FAO. 2002d. HIV/AIDS, agriculture and food security in mainland and small island countries of Africa. 22nd regional conference for Africa. Egypt. (www.fao.org/DOCREP/MEETING/004/Y6059E.HTM)

FAO. 2001b. HIV/AIDS, food security and rural livelihoods. Fact sheet. (www.fao.org/worldfoodsummit/english/newsroom/focus/focus4.htm)

FAO. 2001c. The impact of HIV/AIDS on food security. Committee on World Food Security. 27th session. (www.fao.org/DOCREP/MEETING/003/Y0310E.HTM)

UNAIDS. 2001. HIV/AIDS, Food Security and Rural Development. Fact sheet. (www.unaids.org/fact%5Fsheets/ungass/word/fsfood%5Fen.doc)

WFP. (nd) Food is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Press Pack (www.wfp.org/index.asp?section=2)

GENDER EQUALITY

FAO. 2000c. Culture, agriculture and rural development: a view from FAO's population programme service. (www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/wpre0132.htm)

FAO. 2000d. Population and gender in rural societies from the perspective of FAO's population programme. (www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/wpre0128.htm)

FAO. 1998c. Technical support service thematic workshop on male involvement in sexual and reproductive health programmes and services. (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/WPre0123.htm)

IMPROVING NUTRITION

Academy for Educational Development. 2001. HIV/AIDS: A Guide for Nutrition, Care and Support. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Washington DC. (www.fantaproject.org/downloads/pdfs/revguide.pdf)

FAO. 1999a. HIV/AIDS and nutrition: helping families and communities to cope: In Food, nutrition and agriculture (www.fao.org/docrep/x4390t/x4390t04.htm)

James, W.P.T., Schofield, E.C. 1990. Human Energy Requirements: A Manual for Planners and Nutritionists. Oxford University Press. FAO.

Woods, M.N. 1999. Dietary recommendations for the HIV/AIDS patient. In Miller, T., Gorbach, S. Nutritional Aspects of HIV Infection. Oxford University Press. New York.

KNOWLEDGE PRESERVATION AND TRANSMISSION

FAO. 2002b. Agrobiodiversity, food security and HIV/AIDS mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa: strategic issues for agricultural policy and programme responses (www.fao.org/sd/2002/PE0104a_en.htm)

FAO. 2002c. The elderly, HIV/AIDS and sustainable rural development. (www.fao.org/sd/2002/pe0101_en.htm)

FAO. 2000b. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, changing age structures and population distribution and rural development. In Changing Age Structure and Population Distribution in the 21st Century: Implications for Development and Programming. Working Paper no. 2.

FAO. 1998b. Rural Children Living in Farm Systems Affected by HIV/AIDS: some issues for the rights of the child on the basis of FAO studies in Africa. (www.fao.org/sd/WPdirect/WPan0026.htm)

UNAIDS, USAID, UNICEF. 2002. Children on the brink. A joint report on orphan estimates and program strategies. (www.unaids.org/barcelona/presskit/childrenonthebrink.html)

MONITORING AND EVALUATION

UNAIDS. 2002. The report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. (www.unaids.org/barcelona/presskit/report.html)

United States Census Bureau 2000. World Population Profile in Strategy paper on HIV/AIDS for East and Southern Africa. IFAD (www.ifad.org/operations/regional/pf/aids_1.htm)

RURAL INSTITUTIONS AND CAPACITY BUILDING

FAO, UNAIDS. 2001. Addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on Ministries of Agriculture: focus on Eastern and Southern Africa. (www.unaids.org/bestpractice/digest/files/topouzisMoA2011.doc)

FAO, UNDP. 2002. A Development Strategy to Empower Rural Farmers and Prevent HIV. FAO. UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Project.

(www.hiv-development.org/publications/HESA.asp)

IFAD. 2001b. UWESO Development Programme: Progress Report. Rome. (www.ifad.org/operations/regional/pf/aids.pdf)

White, J. 2002. Facing the Challenge: NGO Responses to the Impacts of HIV/AIDS. Natural Resources Institute, UK.

World Bank. 2001. The multi-country HIV/AIDS program for Africa. (www.worldbank.org/afr/aids/map.htm)

Agenda of the meeting

DAY 1

08.00 – 08.45

Registration

09.00 – 10.00

Opening ceremony


Sissel Ekaas, Director, Women and Population Division, FAO


Jacques Paul Eckebil, Assistant Director General, Sustainable Development Department, FAO


Henri Carsalade, Assistant Director-General, Technical Cooperation Department, FAO


Gary Howe, Director of the East and Southern Africa Division, IFAD


Allan Jury, Officer in Charge Strategy and Policy Division, WFP


James Sherry,. Director, Program Development & Coordination Group, UNAIDS

Secretariat


10.00 – 10.30

Impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural poverty: an overview


Objectives of the meeting and expected outcomes


Marcela Villarreal, Focal point on HIV/AIDS, FAO

10.30 – 11.00

Coffee

11.00 – 12.30

Implications of HIV/AIDS for the development of strategies and programmes


Chairperson: Allan Jury


Presentations


Agriculture and HIV/AIDS: a long term perspective


Jacques du Guerny, Resource person


The impact of HIV/AIDS on households and communities


Gabriel Rugalema, UNAIDS/UNDP


HIV vulnerability reduction and resilience building: a strategy for the agricultural sector


LeeNah Hsu, UNDP SEAHIV (South East Asia HIV & Development Programme)


Discussion

12.30 – 13.15

Lunchtime seminar


The human rights approach to HIV/AIDS and food security


Arne Oshaug, Akershus University College, Bekkestua

14.30 – 15.30

Country experiences and perspectives


Chairperson: James Sherry


Government and NGO representatives presented their countries’ experiences and objectives regarding the mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural sector, identified obstacles toward the attainment of those objectives and discussed ways to overcome them.

15.30 – 16.00

Coffee

16.00 – 16.30

Facing the Challenge: NGO responses to the impacts of HIV/AIDS


Joanna White, Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich

16.30 – 17.30

Country experiences and perspectives continued


Discussion

18.00

Reception

DAY 2


09.00 – 09.45

Mitigation strategies from the agricultural sector: a global perspective


Tony Barnett, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia

09.45 – 10.00

What should be done in the agricultural sector? Key issues, gaps and the way forward


Chairperson: Tony Barnett


Introduction to the working groups


Carol Djeddah, Consultant, FAO

10.00 – 10.30

Coffee

10.30 – 12.30

Working groups


Working group 1: Ultra-poor and vulnerable groups


Working group 2: Food and livelihood security through skills and capital


Working group 3: Food and livelihood security through agriculture


Working group 4: Nutrition


Working group 5: Conflict and post-conflict programmes


Working group 6: Capacity-building and decentralisation

12.30 – 14.00

Lunch

14.00 – 15.00

Working groups continued

15.00 – 15.30

Plenary presentations of working groups

15.30 – 16.00

Coffee

16.00 – 17.30

Plenary presentations of working groups continued


Discussion

17.30 – 18.00

The World Bank's multi-country programme: mobilizing resources


Bachir Souhlal, World Bank

DAY 3


09.00 – 10.30

Towards a strategic framework for the agricultural sector


Chairperson: Gary Howe


J. Collins, Institute for Food and Development Policy/Food First


J. du Guerny, Resource person


G. Rugalema, UNAIDS/UNDP


Janet Seeley, School of Development Studies


D. Topouzis, Resource person

10.30 – 11.00

Coffee

11.00 – 12.30

Towards a strategic framework for the agricultural sector continued


Discussion

12.30 – 14.00

Lunch

14.00 – 15.00

In support of the strategic framework


Chairperson: Jeremy Stickings, Rural Livelihoods Dept, Department for International


Development (DFID)


Interagency collaboration


Daphne Topouzis


Agricultural research initiatives


Stein Bie, International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)


The role of information networks


Tim France, HDnet


Discussion

15.00 – 16.00

Conclusions and closure

List of participants

MINISTRIES OF AGRICULTURE/GOVERNMENT

Dejene ABESHA
Division Head under Agricultural Extension
Department
P.O. Box 62347
Addis Ababa
ETHIOPIA
Tel: + 251-1-153445
Fax: + 251-1-510891
SG2000@telecom.net.et

Coletane CAREY
National AIDS Coordinator
Department of Land Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Affairs
184 Jacob Marè Street
Pretoria
SOUTH AFRICA
Tel: + 27-12-312 9705
Fax: + 27-12-312 8066
CMCAREY@sghq.pwv.gov.za

Patrick ISINGOMA
Chief Administrative Officer for Hoima District
DDSP Liaison Office
Ministry of Local Government
P.O. Box 7037
Kampala
UGANDA
Tel: + 256-77-513 712
Fax: + 256-41-235 075

Dinah KASANGAKI
PAO/CP/Coordinator
Min. Agric., Animal Ind. and Fisheries
P.O. Box 102
Entebbe
UGANDA
Tel: + 256-41-32 09 83
Fax: + 256-41-321047
entebbe@ulamp.co.ug

Helen MYEZWA
Regional Coordinator GTZ-HSR
Health Systems Research in the
Southern African Regions
P.O. Box 2046
Harare
ZIMBABWE
Tel: + 263-4-733696
Fax: + 263-4-7336895
gtzhsr@ecoweb.co.zw

Martha OUDIA
District Agriculture and Home Economics Officer
AIDS Control Unit
Ministry of Agriculture
P.O Box 3
Siaya
KENYA
Tel: + 254-334-21284

Tia PHALLA
Secretary General
National AIDS Authority (NAA)
P.O. Box 1649
Phnom Penh
CAMBODIA
Tel: + 855-23214873
Fax: + 855-23214873
unaidscmb.bora@bigpond.com.kh

Charles TULAHI
Senior Agricultural Economist
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security
Department of Policy and Planning
P.O. Box 9192
Dar-es-Salaam
TANZANIA
Tel: + 255-22-286 2074
Fax: + 255-22-286 2070
dpp@kilimo.to.tz
tulahi@ttic.co.tz

SPEAKERS, RESOURCE PERSONS

Jinbiao WANG
Deputy Division Director
Ministry of Agriculture
11 Nong Zhan Guan Nan Li
Beijing 100026
CHINA
Tel: + 86-10-6419 2425
Fax: + 86-10-6500 4635
wangjinbiao@agri.gov.cn

Tony BARNETT
School of Development Studies
University of East Anglia
Norwich NR4 7TJ
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44-0-1603 592807
a.barnett@uea.ac.uk

Stein BIE
ISNAR – International Service for
National Agricultural Research
PO Box 93375 2509 AJ
The Hague
THE NETHERLANDS
Tel: + 31-070-3496100
Fax: + 31-070-3819677
sbie@cgiar.org
www.cgiar.org

Jacques DU GUERNY
Resource person
La Fongeline (Faucon)
84110 Vaison-la-Romaine
FRANCE
Tel: + 33-490-464 036
duguernyj@club-internet.fr

Ida-Eline ENGH
International Project on the Right to Food in
Development
Norwegian Institute of Human Rights
University of Oslo
P.O. Box 6832 St Olavs plass
0130 Oslo
NORWAY
Tel: + 47-228-42007
Fax: + 47-228-42002
i.e.engh@nihr.uio.nc

Arne OSHAUG
Professor Diet and Nutrition
Akershus University College
Ringstabekkveien 105
N-1356 Bekkestua
NORWAY
Tel: + 47-67-11-71-90
Fax: + 47-67-11-70-08
arne.oshaug@hiak.no

Philippa ROBERTSON
Consultant
Rome
ITALY
Mobile: + 39-333 3099007
p_robertson11@hotmail.com

Janet SEELEY
ODG/UEA
School of Development Studies
University of East Anglia
Norwich NR4 7TJ
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44-1603-593370
j.seeley@uea.ac.uk

Jeremy STICKINGS
Senior Adviser (Multilateral Agencies)
Rural Livelihoods Department
DFID
94 Victoria Street
London SW1E 5JL
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44-20-79170548
Fax: + 44-22-79170624
J-Stickings@dfi d.gov.uk

Joanna WHITE
Social Development Advisor
Social and Economic Develop. Depart.
Natural Resource Institute
University of Greenwich
Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime
Kent ME 4 4TB
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44-1634-883324
Fax: + 44-1634-883377
j.l.white@gre.ac.uk

ORGANIZATIONS

ILO

Pia NYMAN
ILO/AIDS
4 Routes des Morillions
CH 1211 Geneva
SWITZERLAND
Tel: + 41-22-7996486
Fax:+ 41-22-7996349
nyman@ilo.org

IOM

Via Nomentana 62
001161 Rome
ITALY

Natale LOSI
Tel: + 39-06-44231428
Fax: + 39-06-4402533
Nlosi@iom.int

Michela MARTINI
Tel: + 39-06-44231428
Fax: + 39-06-4402533
mmartini@iom.int

UNAIDS

20, avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
SWITZERLAND

James SHERRY
Director - Programme Development and
Coordination Group
Tel: + 41-22-791 4505
Fax: + 41-22-791 4768
E-mail: sherryj@unaids.org

Gillian HOLMES
Senior Adviser - Strategy and Programme
Development
Programme Development and Coordination Group
UNAIDS Secretariat
Tel: + 41-22-791 4644
Fax: + 41-22-791 4768
E-mail: holmesg@unaids.org

UNDP

LeeNah HSU
UNDP/SEAHIV South East Asia HIV and
Development Programme
5th Floor, B Block, United Nations Building
Bangkok 10200
THAILAND
Tel: + 662-288-2205
Fax: + 622-280-1852
leenah.hsu@undp.org
http://www.hiv-development.org

Gabriel RUGALEMA
UNAIDS/UNDP
Metropark Building
351 Schoeman Street
P.O. Box 6541
Pretoria 0001
South Africa
Tel: + 27-12-338 5062/5065
Mobile: + 27-82-4529 614
gabriel.rugalema@undp.org

UNFPA

Erik PALSTRA
Senior External Relations Officer
UNFPA
Palais des Nations
1211 Geneva 10
SWITZERLAND
Tel: + 41-22-9178574
Fax: + 41-22-9178016
palstra@unfpa.org

WORLD BANK

Bachir SOUHLAL
AIDS Campaign Team for Africa
World Bank
Washington
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: + 1-202-4732535
Bsouhlal@worldbank.org

WFP

Via Cesare Giulio Viola 68/70
Parco dei Medici
00148 Rome
ITALY

Beatrice BONNEVAUX
Programme Advisor
Tel: + 39-06-6513-2743
Beatrice.Bonnevaux@wfp.org

Jaspal GILL
Programme Officer
Tel: + 39-06-6513-1
Jaspal.Gill@wfp.org

Robin JACKSON
Policy Analist
Tel: + 39-06-65132562
Robin.Jackson@wfp.org

Allan JURY
Officer in Charge
Strategy and Policy Division
Tel: + 39-06-65132601
Allan.Jury@wfp.org

Robin LANDIS
HIV/AIDS Policy Specialist
Tel: + 39-06-6513 2722
Robin.Landis@wfp.org

Tom LECATO
Senior Liaison Officer
Tel: + 39-06-6513-2370
Tom.Lecato@wfp.org

Peggy NELSON
Chief
Office of Development Activities (ODA)
Operations Department
Tel: + 39-06-6513-2336
Fax: + 39-066513-2809
Peggy.nelson@wfp.org

Julie THOULOUZAN
Programme Officer
Humanitarian Affairs
Tel: + 39-06-6513-2604
Julie.Thoulouzan@wfp.org

IFAD

Via del Serafico 107
00142 Rome
ITALY

Gary HOWE
Director
East and Southern Africa Division
Tel: + 39-06-54592262
Fax: + 39-06-504-3463
g.howe@ifad.org

Paola IDELSON
Intern
Tel: + 39-06-5459-1
Fax: + 39-06-504-3463
p.idelson@ifad.org

Sean KENNEDY
Associate Programme Officer/Nutritionist
Technical Advisory Division
Tel: + 39-06-5459-1
Fax: + 39-06-504-3463
s.kennedy@ifad.org

Annina LUBBOCK
Technical Advisor
Gender Technical Advisory Division
Tel: + 39-06-5459-1
Fax: + 39-06-504-3463
a.lubbock@ifad.org

Miriam OKONGO
Tel: + 39-06-54592191
Fax: + 39-06-504-3463
m.okongo@ifad.org

Daphne TOPOUZIS
IFAD Consultant
HemrichGue@aol.com

PERMANENT REPRESENTATIONS TO FAO

BELGIUM

Bernard DE SCHREVEL
Premier Secrétaire pour la Coopération
Internationale
Représentation permanente de la Belgique auprès
des Nations Unies à Rome
Via Omero, 8
00197 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-320 8743
Fax: + 39-06-320 3992
romefao@diplobel.org

Federal Republic of GERMANY

Birgit FEHLING
Second Secretary
Via San Martino della Battaglia, 4
00185 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-4921 3280/1
mail@germanrepresentationfao.org

THE NETHERLANDS

Jacco BOS
Alternate Permanent Representative
Permanent Representation of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands to FAO
Via delle Terme Deciane, 6
00153 Rome ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-574 0306
Fax: + 39-06-574 4927
rof@minbuza.nl

NORWAY

Ziv BOEDTKER
Second Secretary
Royal Norwegian Embassy
Via delle Terme Deciane, 7
00153 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-4921 3280/1
emb.rome@mfa.no

SPAIN

Javier PIERNAVIEJA
Representante Adjunto de España ante la FAO
Largo dei Lombardi, 21
00186 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06 686 9539
repfaoes.agri@iol.it

SWEDEN

Margaretha ARNESSON
Programme Officer
Embassy of Sweden
Piazza Rio de Janeiro, 3
00161 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-441 941
Fax: + 39-06-4419 4762

SWITZERLAND

Hubert POFFET
Représentant adjoint de la Suisse auprès de la FAO
Viale Aventino, 89
00153 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06 575 6253
Fax: + 39-06 575 6321
hubert.poffet@roa.rep.admin.ch

UNITED STATES

David P. LAMBERT
Alternate Permanent Representative
Counsellor for Agricultural Affairs
United States Mission to the United Nations
Agencies for Food and Agriculture
Via Sardegna, 49
00187 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-4674 3507
Fax: + 39-06-4788 7047
LambertD@fas.usda.fas

Jane STANLEY
Programme Specialist
United States Mission to the United Nations
Agencies for Food and Agriculture
Via Sardegna, 49
00187 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06-4674 3510
Fax: + 39-06-4788 7047

EUROPEAN UNION
Frances-Anne HUNTER
Alternate Permanent Representative
European Commission Delegation in Rome
Via IV Novembre, 149
00187 Rome
ITALY
Tel: + 39-06 678 2672
Fax: + 39-06 679 7830
mc1922@mclink.it

NGOs

Carmela BASILI
ACWW
Via Flaminia,
203 00196 Rome
ITALY
Tel: +39-06-3221322

Peter BERG
Management Adviser
Health and Development Networks
Unsoeldstrasse 5
D-80538 Munich
GERMANY
Tel/Fax: +49-89-2166 8594 peter@hdnet.org

Joe COLLINS
Institute for Food and Development Policy/
Food First
398 60th Street, Oakland, CA 94618
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: +1-510-654 4400
Fax: + 1-510-654 4551
foodfirst@foodfirst.org

Tim FRANCE
HDNet – Health and Development Networks
P.O. Box 173
Chiang Mai University Post Office
Huay Kaew Road
Muang Chiang Mai 50200
THAILAND
Tel: + 66-53-894 727
Fax: + 66-53-894 728
tfran@hdnet.org

Amelia JACOB
SHDEPHA – Service Health and Development
for People living with HIV/AIDS
P.O. Box 8295, Dar es Salaam
TANZANIA
Tel: + 255-222-181-849
SHDEPHA@yahoo.co.uk

Kristin KALLA
Director HIV/AIDS
CARE
151 Ellis Street, NE,
Atlanta, GA 30303-2400
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: +1-404-979-9303
Fax: + 1-404-589-2607
kkalla@care.org

Neil MARSLAND
Regional Food Security Advisor
Save the Children UK/SADC - FANR
Merchant House,
43, Robson Manyika Avenue
P.O. Box 4046
Harare
ZIMBABWE
Tel: +263-4-796847/8
Cell: +263-11-806397
neil_marsland@hotmail.com
nmarsland@fanr-sadc.co.zw

Yvonne MELCHIORRI
ICW – International Council of Women
Viale Aventino, 89
00153 Roma
ITALY
Tel: +39-06-5923993
Fax: +39-06-57136190
Melchiorri@tin.it

Claude NANKAM
Agriculture and Food Security Officer
Technical Resources Team
World Vison Inc.
220 “I” Street NE, Suite 270
Washington DC, 20002
USA
Tel: + 1-202-547-3743
Fax: + 1-202-547-4834 cnamkam@worldvision.org

Nellie NYANG’WA
OXFAM
Lilongwe
MALAWI
Tel: + 265-622558
Fax: + 265-624526
nnyang’wa@oxfam.org.uk

Robert OCHAI
TASO – The AIDS Support Organization
Gayaza Road, After Mperewe
P.O. Box 10433 Kampala
UGANDA
Tel: +256-77767637
Cell: + 256-77595062
Fax: +256-41 566 704
tasodata@imul.com

Pamella OPIYO
Diocesan Coordinator for HIV/AIDS
Campaign and Food Security
Diocese of Maseno West
P.O Box 10, Siaya
KENYA
Tel: +254-35-51163/64
Fax: +254-35-51592
afresmaseno@africaonline.co.ke

Paola ORTENSI
International Federation of Agricultural Producers
IFAP/CIA
Via Flaminia 56
00196 Rome
ITALY
Tel: +39-06-32687230/3203564
Fax: +30-06-32003566
p.ortensi@cia.it

Francesca RONCHI-PROIA
Ad Hoc Group of INGO Representatives
Residing in Rome
Via G. Dandini, 8/M
00154 Rome
ITALY
Tel: +39-06-5779068
Fax: +39-06-5779068
ronchi12@interfree.it

Simunji SAYOWA
Zambia Sugar
P.o Box 670240
Nakambala Sugar Estates
Mazabuka
ZAMBIA
Tel: office: + 260 01 300013
Tel: home: + 260 01 300013 ext 2703
SSayowa@zamsugar.zm

Wellington THWALLA
National Land Committee
P.O. Box 30994
Braamfontein 2017
Johannesburg
SOUTH AFRICA
Tel: +27-11-403 3803
Fax: +27-11-339 6315
wellington@nlc.co.za

Eric Luke WENDT
Institute for Food and Development
Policy/Food First
398 60th Street, Oakland, CA 94618
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: + 1-510-654 4400
Fax: + 1-510-654 4551
foodfirst@foodfirst.org

FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100
Rome
ITALY
Tel: +39 06 5707 1

Henri CARSALADE
Assistant Director-General
Technical Cooperation Department
Henri.Carsalade@fao.org

Hartwig DE HAEN
Assistant Director-General
Economical and Social Department
Hartwig.DeHaen@fao.org

Louise FRESCO
Assistant Director-General
Agriculture Department
Louise.Fresco@fao.org

Jacques Paul ECKEBIL
Assistant Director-General
Sustainable Development Department
JacquesPaul.Eckebil@fao.org

Sissel EKAAS
Director
Women and Population Division
Sissel.Ekaas@fao.org

Emmanuel CHENGU
Extension, Education and Communication Service
Emmanuel.Chengu@fao.org

Florence EGAL
Nutrition Officer
Nutrition Programmes Service
Florence.Egal@fao.org

Kevin GALLAGHER
Senior Officer
Global Integrated Pest Management Facility
Kevin.Gallagher@fao.org

Jean-François GASCON
Operations Officer
Special Relief Operations Service
JeanFrancois.Gascon@fao.org

Wanjiku GICHIGI
APO
Regional/Sub-Regional and National Development
Banks Cooperative Service
Wanjiku.Gichigi@fao.org

Yacob GOUGSA
Chief
Technical Cooperation Programme Service
Yacob.Gougsa@fao.org

Indira JOSHI
Operations Officer
Special Relief Operations Service
Indira.Joshi@fao.org

Josef KIENZLE
Agricultural Engineering Branch
Josef.Kienzle@fao.org

Yianna LAMBROU
Senior Officer
Gender and Development Service
Yianna.Lambrou@fao.org

Sabine MICHIELS
FAO Consultant
Rome
ITALY
pikinini2001@yahoo.com

Kalim QAMAR
Senior Officer
Extension, Education and Communication Service
Kalim.Qamar@fao.org

Marie RANDRIAMAMONJY
Chief
Gender and Development Service
Marie.Randriamamonjy@fao.org

Laurent THOMAS
Senior Operations Officer
Special Relief Operations Service
Laurent.Thomas@fao.org

Esther ZULBERTI
Chief
Extension, Education and Communication Service
Esther.Zulberti@fao.org

FAO Secretariat

Marcela VILLARREAL
HIV/AIDS focal point
Chief
Population and Development Service
Tel: + 39-06-570 52346
Fax: + 39-06-570 52004
Marcela.Villarreal@fao.org

Carol DJEDDAH
Consultant
Population and Development Service
Tel: + 39-06-570 56376
Fax: + 39-06-570 52004
Carol.Djeddah@fao.org

Maren LIEBERUM
Consultant
Population and Development Service
Tel: + 39-06-570 56089
Fax: + 39-06-570 52004
Maren.Lieberum@fao.org

Libor STLOUKAL
Population Policy Officer
Population and Development Service
Tel: + 39-06-570 53958
Fax: + 39-06-570 52004
Libor.Stloukal@fao.org


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