STATUS, ASPECTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF EUCALYPT PLANTINGS IN BANGLADESH
Institute of Forestry
In the present paper the status of present eucalypt plantations in Bangladesh is reviewed and possibilities for future expansion are explored together with an account of social aspects and environmental considerations.
Planting of eucalypts on a large scale is a recent development in Bangladesh. From 1985 to 1992, a total of 6 521 ha of eucalypt plantations were established in hilly areas to supply fuelwood for domestic consumption. An additional 9 825 ha of plantations, of which more than 60% is estimated to be under eucalypts, have been established in 61 non-forested districts under a woodlot and agroforestry programme. Recent studies concluded that eucalypt planting can be vastly expanded in Bangladesh. Based on land capability classes, some 456 000 ha of land has been assessed as suitable for growing eucalypts. An additional area equivalent to 988 000 ha along highways and feeder roads can be used for establishing energy plantations and thereby produce roughly 20 times more energy than the oil energy presently imported by Bangladesh. Local people have no objections to raising eucalypts in their agroforestry plots. A negative attitude towards eucalypts has however developed within the Government, probably resulting from controversies in other countries, notably India. Problems of allelopathy, nutrient depletion and water use are considered by the author together with remedial management techniques such as early thinnings for firewood, greater spacing of trees, selection of appropriate species and provenances, hybrids and clones. Future research needs identified include: Interaction between eucalypts and other species, soil water and nutrient cycles, matching of species and sites, impacts on wildlife, genetic improvements leading to efficient water use management, and stand management strategy to be adopted for maximizing benefits.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION IN CHINA
Bai Jiayu and Gan Siming
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Chinese Academy of Forestry
P.R. of China
The history and present status of eucalypt plantings in China is reviewed and ecological, economic and social aspects discussed. Government policies and programmes on Eucalyptus plantations are outlined.
Eucalyptus species were first introduced in China in 1890 as ornamental and roadside plantings and are now being planted on a large scale. To date, some 460 000 ha of eucalypt plantations have been established with an additional 1.5 billion individual trees planted around villages and houses and along roadsides and canals. This makes the country second only to Brazil with regard to the area of eucalypt plantations in the world. Relatively few species are planted, mainly E. exserta, E. citriodora, E. maidenii, E. globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. ABL No.12 and hybrids E. exserta x saligna and E. urophylla x grandis. A list of species planted in different regions and under different climatic conditions is provided. Tree breeding and management measures are considered to be important points in solving the problem of low yield that universally exists in China. A series of effective management measures for different end uses is summarized along with more general measures. Ecological aspects of eucalypt plantings are reviewed, notably those concerning soil degradation, the water cycle and biodiversity. It is concluded that the establishment of eucalypt plantations under reasonable and responsible management has a positive effect on the environment and that the introduction of Eucalyptus has contributed much to China's economic and social progress. Current programmes for eucalypt plantation development and research activities are listed.
THE RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENT OF DONGMEN EUCALYPT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
Guangxi State Forest Farm Company
Forest Department of Guangxi
P.R. of China
The paper reviews the history and achievements of the China-Australia Eucalypt Afforestation Technical Cooperation Programme (1982-1989) and subsequent research carried out at Dongmen State Forest Farm in Guangxi province.
The objective of the China-Australia Eucalypt Afforestation Technical Cooperation Programme was to increase productivity of eucalypt plantations in South China through the introduction of new seed strains and modern agricultural techniques. The main activities included selection of species and provenances, a tree improvement programme, vegetative propagation, wood property research, nutrition and biomass studies and development of appropriate silvicultural techniques. During the life of the project, 1 400 ha of demonstration plantations were established and 60 trials set up. Since 1990, an additional 150 ha of demonstration plantations and 26 trials have been established. Results from species and provenance trials including 38 species and 83 provenances showed that several species, notably E. urophylla, E. cloeziana, E. grandis, E. grandis x urophylla, E. acmenoides and E. propinqua, had a markedly larger volume production than the traditionally used and widely planted E. exserta. As a result, E. urophylla is now largely replacing E. exserta as the main species adopted for planting in South East China. An arboreta including 131 eucalypt species and provenances was established by the project together with the largest eucalypt gene pool (174 species and provenances) in South East China. Seed orchards and clonal seed orchards of selected species were established and a hybrid programme initiated, which has yielded promising results. A tissue culture centre has also been set up with a capacity to produce a minimum of one million plants per year. Research on the basic density of selected species suggested that large potential gains can be achieved through tree improvement programmes. Studies on biomass production and nutrient pools in eucalypt plantations concluded that the biomass production can be greatly enhanced by introducing high yield species and advanced silvicultural techniques. Nutrient depletion through the removal of litter from the forest floor must be avoided if the long term productivity is to be maintained at Dongmen. Recommendations for site preparation (mechanical), planting spacing (1 000 - 2 000 plants/ha according to end use), and the use of fertilizer (N 100, P 50, K 50 kg/ha) are presented. As of 1992, some 12 000 ha of eucalypt plantations have been established in South East China with the techniques, seeds and clone material provided by the project.
EUCALYPTUS IN INDIA
Conservator of Forest
In this country statement from India, the history and present status of Eucalyptus plantings is summarized and the views of farmers and NGOs described. Economic and social aspects of Eucalyptus plantations and their ecological effects are discussed and a list of uses of Eucalyptus presented.
Eucalyptus was first planted in India around 1790 as an ornamental tree. From 1856 onwards, plantations of E. globulus were established in Tamil Nadu State for production of firewood. Presently, more than one million ha of state land is reported to have been planted with eucalypts with an additional 6 000 million individual seedlings being planted on private lands. The main species used is "Eucalyptus hybrid" - a form of E. tereticornis, also called the Mysore Gum. Most of the state plantations were raised in the 20 year period 1960-1980, with the market in the pulp industry playing a major factor. The new National Forest Policy (1988) revised earlier trends and requires the industry to obtain its wood supply from farm forest areas rather than from state plantations. This new policy has led to an increase in eucalypt planting by farmers. However, a critical study by Shiva and Bandophadhyaya (1981) on the social, economic and ecological impacts of large scale planting of eucalypts in Kolar district triggered off a controversy on Eucalyptus resulting in several policy decisions by Central and State Governments to limit the use of eucalypts. Economic, social and ecological aspects of eucalypt plantings are considered in the present paper and it is concluded that the choice of site, species and end use mainly determine the economic viability. With regard to the social aspects, a study by Venugopal (1988) showed that planting of Eucalyptus in part of Kolar district created substantial employment opportunities and improved the standard of living of the people in the area. Studies into the ecological effects of eucalypt plantings remain largely inconclusive. A list of the main uses of eucalypts include pulp, firewood and charcoal for domestic use as well as for small-scale industries, poles, timber, honey and oil.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS IN INDIA
S.R.Hiremath and P.G.Dandavatimath
Samaj Parivartana Samudaya
This paper focusses on plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing species in India and their social and economic impacts. It relates how Indian grass-root movements, based on studies of these impacts and the subsequent launching of awareness campaigns, succeeded in inducing changes to the Karnataka Social Forestry Programme and, at a larger scale, in influencing the new National Forest Policy.
The authors note that, in 1985, a serious concern was expressed among members organisations of the Federation of Voluntary Organisations for Rural Development in Karnataka (FEVORD-K) about the predominance of Eucalyptus spp. (over 80%) in the Karnataka Social Forestry Programme (India), as the eucalypts were replacing food crops such as ragi (pearl millet) and jawar (sorghum). Studies undertaken on behalf of FEVOR-K led to a series of specific suggestions to improve the Social Forestry Programme, some of which were incorporated during a Mid Term Review of the project. The studies, followed by an awareness campaign, also led to criticism of the Government practice of leasing common lands to forest industries to grow eucalypts and other fast growing species for pulp and paper without considering the traditional rights of local people, who previously obtained fuel, fodder and fruits from these lands. The authors review the historical influence of forest industries on the national forest policy and the controversy raised by the recent Draft National Forest Policy, which was opposed very effectively by groups working with the tribals and rural poor. As a result of sustained pressure, an improved version of this policy was eventually adopted, which recognizes the rights of local people to forest produce and the need for active involvement of local communities and voluntary agencies in the protection of forests and in the development of degraded lands. The authors also discuss the adverse effects of eucalypts on biodiversity and in conclusion cite the summary conclusions of Poore and Fries as still relevant.
RESEARCH EXPERIENCE ON EUCALYPTUS IN INDONESIA
Irfan Budi Pramono and Ag. Pudjiharta
Forest Research and Development Center
Ministry of Forestry
The historical background of Eucalyptus in Indonesia is reviewed and an account of the present situation of Eucalyptus plantations is given followed by a summary of recent research findings on species and growth trials and on various economic, social and ecological aspects of Eucalyptus. Government policies and programmes on Eucalyptus plantations are summarized.
While some indigenous species of Eucalyptus are found in the Eastern parts of Indonesia (E. deglupta on Celebes Island (Sulawesi); E. urophylla and E. alba on East Nusa Tenggara; and E. pellita on West Papua), the first species introduced on Java in 1800 was E. globulus from Australia. The area planted with Eucalyptus spp. in Indonesia is still limited and mainly undertaken by the pulp and rayon industries. However, planting of eucalypts is seen as a means to creating job opportunities on site as well as off site and thus improve rural income status. Community response to eucalypts is varied, in part influenced by media reports. The main objections center on reduced stream discharge, stream water pollution by pulp industries, reduced soil fertility and increase in soil toxicity. In contrast, recent research undertaken on the ecological effects of eucalypts show that: the nutrient contents of soil under Eucalyptus deglupta and E. microcorys was no lower than under agricultural crops with the exception of Ca and Mg content; soil erosion is minimal; rainfall percolation increases from Pinus merkusii to E. urophylla to Schima wallachii - eucalypts thus used less water than P. merkusii. A comparison of the number of different wildlife species found in a natural forest and a plantation of Eucalyptus and Acacia showed that, of the total number of species encountered, 10 out of 18 species of mammals were found in the plantation, 14 out of 35 birds and 4 out of 5 reptiles. The authors conclude that research results on Eucalyptus such as the above should receive a wide media coverage. The present Government policy on Eucalyptus is to rapidly increase the area of eucalypt for industrial wood use - in particular pulp and paper - on account of its rapid growth, indigenous origin and multipurpose use. Eucalyptus species are among the species chosen to be planted on timber estate lands, on marginal and critical lands and under agroforestry systems.
EUCALYPTUS IN LAOS
Forest Plantation Division
Department of Forestry
The present paper gives a brief description of the background for the adoption of the current forest policy and the development programme for forest rehabilitation in Laos. The history of Eucalyptus plantings in Laos and the present situation is summarized followed by a discussion on ecological aspects of Eucalyptus and the role it has to play in achieving forest policy goals.
Although Laos is well endowed with natural forests, there is increasing pressure, both from inside the country and from outside of it, to tap these resources. The forest cover has already been depleted from 70% in 1940 to an estimated 47% in 1989. Presently, the greatest threat is posed by some 270 000 families (about 1.6 million people out of a total population of 4.2 million) practicing shifting cultivation. The Government aims to reduce deforestation and to increase the forest cover to 70% by protecting and conserving the existing forests; rehabilitate degraded and barren forest lands; and allocate and establish fixed location and permanent occupation for the 270 000 families presently practicing shifting cultivation through the adoption of agroforestry systems and improvement of permanent agriculture techniques. It is estimated that the country has more than 10 million ha of barren land in need of reforestation. Establishment of plantations in Laos has not yet been undertaken on a large scale. The total plantation area in the country is 6 250 ha as of 1990, but only 3 000 ha could be classified as stocked plantation. Nearly 50% is planted with teak and only 370 ha (6 % of the total plantation area) is planted with Eucalyptus. A few private companies have recently established plantations with E. camaldulensis on a small scale and plan to expand the area to 24 000 ha from 1993 to 1995. No in-depth studies on the ecological effects of Eucalyptus have taken place, but, in order to reduce any negative effects, it is recommended that: Eucalyptus only be planted on degraded land with no existing natural regeneration and which is not well suited for high value agricultural crops; no plantations be established in watersheds with steep slopes or other environmentally sensitive areas; natural vegetation be kept along rivers and streams; and large plantation areas be divided into smaller blocks with a variation in tree species between blocks and with a 10% mix of nitrogen fixing or soil improving species within each block.
EUCALYPTUS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN LAO P.D.R.
- AN NGO PERSPECTIVE
Khankeo Oupravanh1 and C. Pahlman2
1CIDSE and 2CUSO
The involvement of NGOs in the Lao forestry sector and their views on present and planned commercial plantation activities are described in the present paper.
More than 30 NGOs presently exist in Laos, with most of the forest-related activities supported and implemented by NGOs being coordinated through the Sustainable Agriculture Forum (SAF), an autonomous coalition of international NGOs and Lao development workers who are promoting sustainable agriculture, community forestry and other environmentally sound and participatory approaches to rural development in Lao P.D.R. Together with the Department of Forestry, SAF has held several workshops and training programmes as well as a survey aimed at identifying key constraints and opportunities for extending and implementing community forestry. A Community Forest Support Project is also being implemented jointly by DoF and participating NGOs. Key conclusions emerging from the workshops and the survey include: Local rural communities often have a long history of comprehensive and complex systems of forest protection and management, and community forest activities must build on such systems and be integrated with broader rural development activities; community forestry must be site specific; these activities are differentiated from plantation forestry, which primarily consists of commercial tree crops; local communities do possess capacity to manage nearby forest areas but require legal and enforceable rights against outside encroachment. The establishment of commercial plantations in Laos has so far been limited, with poor survival rates of the trees planted. In recent years however, a small but growing area of plantations using fast-growing species, especially Eucalyptus spp., have been established by the private sector and rapid development and expansion of such activities are foreseen both on farmers' land and on "unstocked degraded forest land". The NGOs in Laos recognize the potential of commercial plantations to provide a long-term source of income for both farmers and the government, but advocate against large scale plantations of fast-growing species due to the risks of environmental degradation and displacement of resource-poor farmers. The NGOs further warn against the private sector emphasis and against rural credit schemes tied to the promotion of a particular cash crop. The need for a gradual and careful approach in planting fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus is strongly emphasized.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS IN LAO P.D.R.
Japan International Volunteer Center Laos
The Japan International Volunteer Center Laos has worked in Lao P.D.R. since 1987, especially in the field of rural development and community development. The paper presents the views of this particular NGO with regard to Eucalyptus plantations.
Commercial plantations of fast growing trees, especially Eucalyptus spp., have been promoted in Lao by the private sector in cooperation with developed countries. Some 300 ha of eucalypts have been established by the Swedish-Lao joint venture Burapha and this will be doubled in the near future. The product will be exported to a pulp mill in neighbouring Thailand. However, lack of experience and knowledge with regard to promotion of fast growing species, including eucalypts, exist both within the Government and among local people. NGOs in Laos thus suggest that commercial plantation projects should be promoted slowly and carefully. Rural communities still practice subsistence level agriculture and rely on the resources found in natural forests on communal forest land. The Japan International Volunteer Center Laos thus advocates against the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations in these areas. Where industrial plantations of eucalypts are to be established on marginal lands, an assessment should be undertaken of the soil type, suitability of Eucalyptus, the effect on local communities and of the environmental effects.
REPORT OF LAO FUEL COMPANY
Lao Fuel Company
This paper gives a brief account of a plantation programme using Eucalyptus started by the Lao Fuel Company in 1990.
In 1990, the Lao Fuel Company initiated a plantation programme in two districts within the Vientiane Prefecture. Planting was undertaken on 152 ha of land with Eucalyptus at a spacing of 2m x 3m. Three years after establishment, 75% of the trees are very healthy indicating that the trees are suited to this region, are tolerant to insects and fungi and suitable for most soil types. The company plans to develop an additionally 1 000 ha of plantations annually for the next five years. So far the company has invested around US$ 200 000 in the plantations including costs of equipment and land lease costs. It is estimated that US$ 1 465 000 is needed per year for the planned expansion of the programme. Lessons learned include: Maintenance work is important and equipment for site preparation and nursery work is needed. To solve the main problems encountered, the following prerequisites are needed: A source of long term financial support at low interest rate; security of market and fair prices; a source of good provenance or genetic tree stock for planting.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS: THE MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCES
Forestry Department Peninsula Malaysia
The present paper describes the early introductions of Eucalyptus in Malaysia, the current status of eucalypt plantations in the country, ecological, silvicultural and economic aspects and government policies with regard to the establishment of forest plantations.
Eucalyptus was first introduced in Peninsular Malaysia in 1883 as an ornamental tree. During the period 1931-1941 the first plantations (totalling 40 ha) of various Eucalyptus species were established in the Cameron Highlands 1500 m above sea level. Only E. robusta, E. grandis and E. saligna showed promising results. In Sarawak only 0.4 ha have been planted with Eucalyptus spp. In Sabah, 7 000 ha of E. deglupta were established at 120-500 m a.s.l. between 1974 and 1982 for the purpose of pulpwood and timber production and another 620 ha were planted with E. grandis, E, urophylla, E. globulus and E. camaldulensis by Sabah Forest Industries in 1991. However, the growth rates of Gmelina arborea, Paraserianthes falcataria and Acacia mangium planted under the same conditions as E. deglupta were far superior, and eucalypts are thus no longer planted. With regard to ecological and silvicultural aspects of Eucalyptus spp., the following is noted: Early growth is very rapid and survival rates high; crowns are light, resulting in a fairly thick undergrowth; no adverse effects on the soil condition has been found. Young trees have been severely attacked by moths, and heart rot has been recorded for E. deglupta in Peninsular Malaysia. Stem borers and termites may also pose a problem in plantations. Wildlife was found to be generally less abundant compared to natural forests except for wild pigs, deer, civets and the leopard cat. The only studies on economic aspects relate to the application of fertilizer to enhance the growth of E. deglupta, which was found to be un-economical. From a socio-economic point of view, indigenous species including fruit trees, and Acacia mangium are preferred by rural communities. In 1992, the government launched a Forest Plantation Project with the aim of growing utility timber to meet the expected increase in domestic demand. The species chosen are fast growing hardwood species such as Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria. Eucalyptus spp. are not included due to inferior growth performance. The author concludes that there is still a potential for Eucalyptus species at higher elevations and calls for a search for more promising species and provenances resistant to major pests and diseases.
PLANTING OF EUCALYPTUS IN MYANMAR
Union of Myanmar
The historical background, present situation and ecological, economic and social aspects of Eucalyptus plantations in Myanmar are discussed. The government forest policy and legislation is outlined, and nursery and plantation techniques used for E. camaldulensis are described in detail. A list of products obtained from eucalypts is included together with tables showing inter alia the internal rate of return for Eucalyptus plantations, wood properties and growth and yield data of E. camaldulensis.
Eucalyptus plantations were first established in Myanmar in 1922. During 1922-29, a total of 600 acres were planted with 7 different species of which E. camaldulensis was found to be the best. Planting of eucalypts stopped between 1922 and 1966 because of high establishment costs, low survival rate and the sufficient supply of fuelwood from natural forests. Myanmar is still endowed with one of the highest percentage of forest cover in the Asia-Pacific region, but, due to an expanding population, severe forest degradation has occurred and is presently estimated to take place at an annual rate of 218 000 ha. To counteract deforestation, Eucalyptus was reintroduced in 1967 and as of 1991, 40 000 ha of eucalypt plantations (equalling 8.8% of the total area of plantations) have been established mainly to supply raw material to pulp and paper industries and to meet local needs for fuelwood, posts and poles. Main species used are E. camaldulensis and E. grandis. The controversy regarding the ecological effects of Eucalyptus plantations also reached Myanmar and caused a reduction in area planted over a period of years. A study undertaken by the Forest Research Institute however, found no adverse effects of eucalypts in comparison with other native species in the dry zone - the main planting area - and comparisons versus open areas were favourable. In particular, E. camaldulensis was shown to improve the alkaline soil conditions found throughout the dry zone. The internal rate of return for plantations of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis was found to vary between 5.19% for fuelwood on poor sites and 29% for posts and poles on better sites. A new forest law was redrafted in 1992 allowing the establishment of community owned plantations, including commercial fuelwood plantations, on public forest lands even within the reserves on a usufruct basis. The Forest Department has allocated some 40% of the annual planting programme of 32 400 ha to fuelwood and industrial raw material plantations; E. camaldulensis and E. grandis will take up a good portion of this and communities and the private sector are to be closely involved. The author concludes that due to the ease of establishment, multiple use potential and favourable growth - particularly of E. camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. citriodora - compared to indigenous species, the suitability of eucalypts is beyond doubt in the dry zone of central Myanmar characterized by poor, alkaline soils. Eucalypts are not recommended in areas where other high value species such as teak or Xylia dolabriformis do well.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION IN NEPAL
Forest Products Development
The main topic of the paper is the experience gained with regard to Eucalyptus plantings by the Sagarnath Forestry Development Project initiated in 1978 in the Bhaber Terai region of Nepal - the only area in the country where Eucalyptus has been planted on a major scale.
The author notes that 80% of domestic and industrial energy consumed in Nepal is provided by fuelwood, largely obtained from natural forests, which are being depleted at an increasing rate. In many areas, the scarcity of fuelwood is forcing people to use animal dung and agricultural residues for cooking and heating leading to loss of natural fertilizers and a severe reduction in agricultural production. This has led to a call for intensive management of commercial forest resources and the replacement of depleted and non-productive natural forests by higher yielding plantations. Thus the Sagarnath Forestry Development Project was initiated in 1978 with an aim to replace 11 000 ha of natural forests with low standing volume (50 m3/ha) with a plantation of fast growing species. Trials with various Eucalyptus species commenced in 1981 and E. camaldulensis has proved to be the best species, superior to both sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo) and teak (Tectona grandis), two of the other main species. From 1981 to 1992, a total of 5 600 ha of Eucalyptus spp. have been established, equivalent to almost 60% of the total area planted. The yield, based on 1250 trees/ha and a 10 year rotation, is estimated at 80 m3/ha. The main products obtained are firewood (75%) and transmission poles (25%) with oil being extracted from the leaves. Establishment and management of the plantations involve the local communities to a large extent. Intercropping is encouraged for the first 3 years, which is of significant importance for food production, reduces costs for fire protection and weeding, and generates employment. The Asian Development Bank estimated the economical and financial rate of return for the eucalypt plantations to be 36% and 16% respectively. The plantation is grown under rain fed conditions and has no access to the water table, which is at 80 m depth or more. The change in habitat has provided an excellent environment for minor, existing populations of spotted deer (Axis axis), the pea fowl (Paro crixatul) and the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus). The numbers of wild boars and leopards also increased. The Government of Nepal has no other programme of large scale plantings of Eucalyptus, but is considering implementing replications of the Sagarnath project on a smaller scale in other parts of the Terai region.
EXPERIENCE WITH EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS:
THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC ASPECTS AND POLICY ISSUES IN THE BUTWAL PLYWOOD FACTORY FORESTRY PROGRAMME
Pran Jeevan Nidhi
Butwal Plywood Factory Forestry Programme
This paper reports on research carried out by the Butwal Plywood Factory in Nepal to assess the feasibility of intercropping Eucalyptus plantings in the establishment phase and of mixed cropping of Eucalyptus and leguminous tree species.
Large tracts of forest areas in the Terai region of Nepal are being converted into agricultural land due to accelerating population growth, causing a long term wood supply problem for forest industries. As a result, the Butwal Plywood Factory initiated a forestry research programme in 1985 to assess the feasibility of integrating the needs of the local people for agricultural products and firewood with the needs of the plywood factory for raw material without causing adverse effects to the soil. Two different approaches were tested: Intercropping of Eucalyptus plantations in the establishment phase; and mixed cropping of Eucalyptus and leguminous tree species. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was chosen for this programme due to the success of this species at Sagarnath (See previous paper). For intercropping, E. camaldulensis was planted at 4 x 2 m and intercropped with Sesbania spp.. Cassia siamea, Indigofera spp., lentils and palmarosa grass respectively. Spot weeding and harrowing was done twice a year except when palmarosa grass was used. The trial showed no deleterious effect on the establishment and early growth of E. camaldulensis due to intercropping with any of the above crops, in fact growth was enhanced compared with the control plot with no intercropping. Winter crops have been growing well indicating that the water table has not been lowered. For the mixed cropping, a spacing of 1.5 x 3 m was used for the eucalypts with planting of Acacia catechu, Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia siamea and Dalbergia sissoo respectively between the rows. In the control plot E. camaldulensis was planted at 1.5 x 1.5 m. Results 6 years after establishment indicated that the leguminous trees did not particularly benefit the eucalypts, but that the combinations offered a number of tree crop options for management to consider. Mixed plantations of eucalypts and sissoo could for instance be managed for fuelwood or small poles (eucalypts) as an early crop and for high quality timber (sissoo) as a final crop. Due to the scarcity of leasable public land, the Butwal Plywood Factory, in addition to the above forestry programme, sells various tree seedlings and an extension service to the farmers to encourage them to plant trees on private land. A total of 11 370 E. camaldulensis seedlings were provided to 225 farmers during the period 1986-1992.
EUCALYPTUS IN PAKISTAN
Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan
Eucalypt introductions date back to 1843 but no substantial plantings were made to 1950. There was a further impetus in the 1970's and in 1985 in the motivation of farmers in fuelwood plantations. Eucalypts are mostly grown in irrigated plantations; in all some 10,000 ha are established. E. camaldulensis has proven most adaptable in all agro ecological zones and is the most common species planted. The environment is characterised by extremes of temperature, low relative humidity, erratic and irregular rainfall; soil salinity is common. This species is especially favoured in the arid and semi arid plains. Volume production is good. Regimes are tested for spacing and use of irrigation water. Strength properties of E. camaldulensis were intensively tested leading to its use in: particle and chipboard board, pulp and paper, crossarms, fence posts, poles, fuelwood and charcoal. It is accepted and favoured by farmers. Alleleotrophic effects are minimal; water stress is tolerable. Pests and diseases are noted.
EUCALYPTS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PNG Forest Research Institute
Papua New Guinea
The author gives a brief description of the present status of forest cover in Papua New Guinea and of the forest policy guidelines with regard to plantations, followed by a detailed account of the distribution of the indigenous Eucalyptus species within the country and of the extent of Eucalyptus plantations of both native and exotic species, their silvicultural requirements and growth and yield. Positive and negative impacts of Eucalyptus plantations are presented.
Over 77% of the land area of Papua New Guinea is covered with tree vegetation. However, controversy still exist with regard to the actual sizes of the area of productive and accessible forests and of the total logged over area. The latter is presently being accumulated at the rate of at least 100 000 ha annually and re- and afforestation activities will thus achieve greater significance in the near future. The new Forest Policy (1990) advocates reforestation of logged over areas, afforestation of non-forested and severely deforested land, and woodlot establishment and agroforestry to be implemented in areas with a wood shortage. Several indigenous Eucalyptus species exist in PNG - the best known species being E. deglupta. The main introduced species are E. robusta and E.grandis. Plantation programmes are few and far between. To date (1991 figures), a total of around 42 000 ha have been established and approx. 37% of these comprise of E. deglupta. On good sites, this species is envisaged to produce 25-40 m3/ha/annum on a 10 year rotation. On peat soils, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level and where annual flooding occurs, E. robusta and E. grandis are the preferred species. No detailed studies have been carried out on the impacts of Eucalyptus plantations in PNG. However, a number of positive effects are noted including conservation of natural forests by substituting wood grown in plantations on unproductive grasslands and previously logged over forests for wood from pristine forests for industrial use; creation of employment; repair/building of roads and other infrastructure; provision of timber and poles in timber scarce, highly populated areas such as the Waghi swamps; improvement of soil properties and drainage systems; intercropping of sweet potato, cardamon, and grasses suitable for cattle grazing. The only negative impact mentioned is the loss of plant biodiversity. No strong criticism of plantation forestry in general or Eucalyptus in particular has been encountered.
REGENERATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST ON NEW BRITAIN ISLAND, PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Nissho Iwai Corporation
The author of the present paper, the former managing director of a timber company located on New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, argues that forest concessionaires with long term leases should, in their own interest, engage in reforestation of harvested area for the purpose of sustainable forest management and to ensure and increase a constant supply of commercial raw material from acceptable species at a reasonable cost. The paper describes studies undertaken to assess the feasibility of such reforestation schemes.
Studies carried out on New Britain Island in PNG by the timber company SBLC between 1976 and 1985 indicated that the yield of commercial timber for plywood production on areas reforested with Eucalyptus deglupta, Octomeles sumatrana, Terminalia brasii and Tectona grandis would be around 3-400 m3/ha after 15-30 years dependent on the species used. This is ten times the yield obtained through selective cutting of the existing natural forests, which take 30-50 years to regenerate naturally. Tables showing growth rates for the four different species as well as estimated net returns are presented. Considering the increasing population and rising demand for timber, reforestation with fast growing, commercial species should therefore be carried out on 10% of the forest where selective felling has taken place. The remaining 90% should be left to regenerate naturally to promote and protect biodiversity or be used for food and cash crop production. In order to promote reforestation, it is recommended that the Government of PNG provide the following guarantees to the forest concessionaires: The right of land lease for reforestation for a period long enough to harvest the planted trees, the right of ownership of the trees, and tax incentives against the cost of investment if the concessionaire helps to set up processing facilities. The benefits accruing to developing countries engaging in such a scheme include: More foreign currency income as foreign companies are often involved; higher government revenues; increased employment opportunities; technology transfer; fewer environmental problems and the availability of reserved land for future development. The author concludes that further overseas investors should be invited to participate in reforestation programmes in Papua New Guinea.
CURRENT STATUS OF EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS IN NORTHWEST PHILIPPINES
Professor, Mariano Marcos State University and
Director, Institute of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture
Batac, Ilocos Norte
The paper relates the experience gained from planting of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for fuelwood production in Northwestern Philippines undertaken by the Philippine Forestry Development Programme in Ilocos Norte (PFDPIN) in close collaboration with NGOs and local communities in the area.
The aim of the Philippine Forestry Development Programme in Ilocos Norte, initiated by the Philippine Government in 1984, was to reforest 25 000 ha of grasslands resulting from shifting cultivation practices and over-exploitation of forest lands by forest industries. Five different tree species were selected based on a trial planting of 16 exotic and indigenous species. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was one of the preferred species due to its adaptability; easy establishment; availability of seeds; fire resistance; ability to grow well in relatively poor soils; coppicing ability and its economic uses. This single species thus covers 65% of the project area planted. The majority of the Eucalyptus plantations were established by NGOs and community groups through subcontracts. The contract covers land clearing, preparation, planting, weeding, protection and maintenance for 3 years after planting. Training on all aspects was provided and contractors were paid an additional cash incentive if the survival rate exceeded 65% leading to very successful establishments. The reforestation programme provided employment for about 5 300 families, increasing their income by as much as 500%. Encouraged by the success of this project, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines has adopted this scheme for its nationwide reforestation programme. Growth of E. camaldulensis in the plantations was far more impressive than in earlier provenance trials. After eight years, the dominant trees (upper 60%) reached a height of 13.5 m with a diameter of 13.0 cm and the survival rate was about 75%. The effects on the soil are unclear. Organic matter content, pH value, nitrogen and phosphorus levels increased during the first year of the plantation, but decreased towards the sixth year, where the organic matter content and nitrogen level were back to the original levels. pH and Phosphorus levels also decreased but were still higher than initial levels. E. camaldulensis was found to coppice well and regenerate after forest fires. Observations elsewhere in the country indicate that: Inoculation with ectomycorrhiza increased growth of E. camaldulensis and E. deglupta considerably; E. deglupta can with advantage be established on marginal grasslands through the Taungya system; and E. camaldulensis was found to be a suitable substrate for cultivation of shitake mushrooms.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS IN SRI LANKA (ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC ASPECTS AND POLICY ISSUES)
Conservator of Forests
The historical background of Eucalyptus in Sri Lanka and the present extent of eucalypt plantations are summarized; a description of establishment techniques and main uses given; and ecological, social and economic aspects discussed. The government forest policy with regard to future plantation establishment is outlined.
Eucalyptus trees were first introduced to Sri Lanka in the latter part of the 18th century and as early as 1882 the first small plantations were established. Afforestation of the patama grasslands in the uplands began in the 1930s with the planting of E. grandis, E. microcorys and E. robusta mainly as windbreaks. The total area of Eucalyptus plantations raised in the country up to 1991 amounts to 29 600 ha and covers three different agro-climatic zones. In the dry and intermediate zones E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are the main species with the latter becoming increasingly popular. In the wet zone E. grandis and E. camaldulensis are preferred and in the uplands E. grandis, E. microcorys and E. robusta prevail. A study to determine the effects of E. camaldulensis on the fertility status of the soils in the dry zone of Sri Lanka revealed that the soils under a 14 year old E. camaldulensis stand had a lower organic matter content, N and K levels than soils under a similar aged teak plantation and a natural forest, but these levels were higher than those found in soils with no tree cover. Application of fertilizer is therefore advocated in short rotation plantations of Eucalyptus. No significant difference was found in the physical properties (porosity and bulk density) of the soils under the three vegetation types. The soil under E. camaldulensis in the dry zone tend to become slightly acidic. Detailed studies of the effect of eucalypts on soil erosion and water resources have not been undertaken in Sri Lanka, but observations indicate that very little or no understorey vegetation exist in older eucalypt plantations to minimize surface runoff. However, the large amount of litter produced (1.7 times that of natural forests in the area) compensate somewhat for this. Frequent burning of litter is however common to prevent wildfires. Soil moisture content has been observed to be lower than in teak plantations and natural forests. A much lower biodiversity is also noted in eucalypt plantations. Eucalypts have been successfully included in an agroforestry programme as a fuelwood and timber species, but local people generally prefer to plant food, fruit and fodder trees. The IRR for a 25 year rotation of eucalypts is estimated to lie between 15.4% (3 rotations of fuelwood and pulp production in the dry zone) and 20% (timber production in the wet zone). The Government aims to establish an average of 4 000 ha of plantations per annum during 1985-2000 mainly for industrial wood and fuelwood purposes, with Eucalyptus covering around 10-15%. Private sector involvement is promoted.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION IN THAILAND
Royal Forest Department
This country report from Thailand presents the historical background and present situation with regard to Eucalyptus plantations and their ecological, economic and social aspects. Government policies concerning Eucalyptus plantations are outlined.
Eucalyptus was first introduced in Thailand around the turn of the century. Various small scale species trials were carried out between 1940 and 1975, but it was only in the mid to late 1970s that the first Eucalyptus plantations were established by the Royal Forest Department and the Forest Industry Organisation. By 1987 a total of 94 000 ha had been planted, 45% of this by private individuals and enterprises. With an average annual increase of 16-17 000 ha, the present area is estimated to amount to some 192 000 ha. Most of these plantations are found in the North, Northeast and Central regions. The main species planted is Eucalyptus camaldulensis and contract farming using eucalypts is very popular. The primary use of Eucalyptus wood is for firewood and charcoal, as 82% of household cooking energy consumption is in the form of fuelwood. The second major end use is raw material for domestic as well as foreign pulp and paper industries. Eucalypts are also used as piling poles. The controversies on the effects of eucalypts on the environment came to a peak in 1986-1989. The main criticisms centered on the excessive water use; adverse effects on the soil structure; and impacts on wildlife. A study showed no statistical difference between Eucalyptus plantations and non-forested land with regard to the physical properties of soil texture or 13 chemical properties including acidity. organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. A number of meetings and seminars were held, which concluded that there was still no convincing evidence of the ill effects of eucalypt plantations on soil water and wildlife. The acceptance of Eucalyptus among local farmers has been very good. Cassava is one of the most popular cash crops in Thailand, but eucalypts cause less adverse effects on soil fertility and the environment and results in higher average annual income. Due to over production of cassava in the country, the Government thus plans to provide soft loans of 5% interest as incentives to farmers to convert cassava fields into Eucalyptus plantations. Export tax for logs and wood chips of Eucalyptus spp. and Acacia spp. has previously (1988) been abolished. Based on land classification, infertile soil unsuitable for agriculture will be classified as forest tree farm areas with Eucalyptus having a high priority on saline soils in the Northeast (2.8 million ha); highland areas with low rainfall; and the aforementioned cassava fields.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST THAILAND
United Nations Centre for Regional Development
The paper gives a brief description of land tenure arrangements in Thailand and their influence on local people's attitude towards tree planting and examines in detail Eucalyptus woodlots established on village communal land in Northeast Thailand with respect to the contribution of Eucalyptus to community development.
Planting of Eucalyptus in Thailand expanded greatly after the new National Forest Policy was adopted in 1985 and is supported by the Royal Forest Department, most Thai forestry academics and the private forest industries. Environmental groups and some local people have expressed opposition to Eucalyptus, in particular commercial Eucalyptus plantations on National reserved Forest Land, due to the eviction of rural people from such areas. On private lands, Eucalyptus is often planted through contract farming. The Population and Community Development Association (PDA), one of the largest NGOs in Thailand, has since 1983 successfully promoted the planting of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and other fast-growing trees, hardwood species and fruit trees as part of the Community Forestry Project in Northeast Thailand. This project is supported by foreign NGOs and implemented with the assistance of the Royal Forest Department. In the beginning of the project E. camaldulensis accounted for 70-100% of the trees planted. Now the plantings are more diversified although eucalypts still account for the majority. The woodlots are established and maintained collectively and the income earned from harvesting of the wood used for community development activities such as infrastructure and public facilities and for the establishment of village credit services. Whereas farmers are less willing to plant Eucalyptus on their private land due to scarcity of land and the longer wait for returns compared to their traditional crops such as cassava, they are generally very positive towards the idea of planting Eucalyptus and other tree crops on communal land.
THE ROLE OF EUCALYPTUS OR IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS IN THAILAND
Sanamchai City Co. Ltd.
This paper traces the history of Eucalyptus plantations in Thailand and examines the positive environmental and social effects of plantations in general and those of Eucalyptus in particular and makes recommendations for further expansion of re- and afforestation activities.
In the 1950s, five species of Eucalyptus (E. alba, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. decoisneana and E. deglupta) were introduced for trial plantings throughout Thailand and an additional 20 species were tested in various regions of the country. E. camaldulensis outperformed almost all local and exotic species regardless of their origin. However, no planting of eucalypts on a large scale was initiated, mainly because there was no lack of supply of wood from natural forests. In the 1970s this scenario changed due to rapid depletion of natural forests and Eucalyptus received more attention and was widely planted. In the 1980s the controversy on eucalypts developed. The author of this paper nevertheless sees the planting of trees in general and Eucalyptus in particular as one of the means to solve current environmental and socio-economic problems through: The reforestation of catchment areas especially in connection with the construction of new dams, which would also create jobs and income for rural people; conversion of marginal agricultural land to tree farms of fast growing species or fruit trees; and the adoption of integrated agriculture, agroforestry, nature farming and alternative agricultural techniques. Presently, the Government of Thailand provides a cash incentive to farmers, who wish to plant local tree species on agricultural lands. The author recommends that fast-growing species be included in this programme (Currently, a soft loan can be obtained rather than a cash incentive for such species). Community forestry projects, village woodlot projects etc. should also consider planting Eucalyptus to provide fuelwood and charcoal and as a medium for growing edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the author advocates the planting of Eucalyptus for timber and recommends that the Royal Forest Department encourage tree planting by schools, temples and NGOs. He concludes that "for simple beginning with simple species, Eucalyptus is the best".
EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS PLANTATION OF F.I.O. THAILAND
Suntud Sangul and Sureeporn Niyomdham
Forest Industries Organisation
This paper describes the experience with establishment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations by the Forest Industries Organisation of Thailand using the Taungya system.
Reforestation is one of the conditions for obtaining a forestry concession in Thailand. As an attempt to combine reforestation and agriculture, the Forest Industries Organisation of Thailand initiated a project at Somdej involving 225 families. The Taungya system was successfully employed with E. camaldulensis planted at 2m x 8m in order to provide sufficient space for villagers to plant cash crops in between the trees. Based on the experiences gained from this projects, the authors recommend that the private sector be encouraged to participate in reforestation efforts. Incentives to make such investments attractive appear to be: Granting of long term permits; offsetting of costs in reforestation against income; rebates of import duties on reforestation equipment; institutional credit at equitable rates; modification of forest laws to remove inconsistencies; allocation of supervisory professional staff for the reforestation programme. The authors also point out that private investors can reduce planting space to 2m x 2m or 3m x 3m to secure profitability. Important factors for a successful project include appropriate site quality and intensive management practices.
WHY IS EUCALYPTUS NOT ADOPTED FOR AGROFORESTRY?
Project for Integration of Life and Environment
Japan International Volunteer Centre
The author of the present paper examines the positive and negative aspects of Eucalyptus and explains why the Japan International Voluntary Centre in Thailand has chosen not to include Eucalyptus in its agroforestry programme.
Agroforestry has long been practiced in Thailand using a mixture of indigenous, multipurpose species, but this practice changed after the introduction of commercial crops grown in monocultural systems. The Japan International Voluntary Centre in Thailand is promoting agroforestry on degraded forest land in order to achieve self-sufficiency among farmers and maintain the ecological balance. In choosing tree species and cropping system emphasis is placed on: Multiple use potential; ability to grow in mixture with other species; positive ecological impacts including soil improvement and wildlife habitats; special advantages such as fast growth, low management requirements and drought tolerance; and social acceptance. Eucalyptus species are characterized by long deep roots; ability to grow on poor sites; hard leaves and small crowns. Their positive aspects include: Fast growth; high survival rate; low maintenance requirements and good economic returns. Negative aspects include: High water and nutrient use; competitiveness towards other plants; risk of desertification and soil erosion; low decomposition rate of leaves;and loss of biodiversity. Due to these negative impacts on the environment, which are amplified when grown in monoculture, the author recommends that: Planting of Eucalyptus in monoculture should not be allowed on a large scale in the conserved zone or in watershed areas; commercial plantations should contain at least ten different species including indigenous species and maintenance of the ecological balance should be the guideline for management; government reforestation projects in reserved forests should not include monoculture plantations and Eucalyptus should be avoided; Eucalyptus should only be used in agroforestry systems and with careful management. In spite of its economic returns, the JVC has chosen not to include Eucalyptus in its agroforestry project due to the adverse environmental impacts caused by this species.
EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION IN VIETNAM
(ITS HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS)
Tran Xuan Thiep
Forest Inventory and Planning Institute
Ministry of Forestry
This paper summarizes the history and present situation of Eucalyptus plantation development in Vietnam. Economical, social and ecological impacts of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed and the main government forest policies on forest plantations outlined.
As early as 1904 a single Eucalyptus tree was discovered at Coc Leu in Northern Vietnam. Species trials involving several Eucalyptus species were undertaken in Northern Vietnam in the 1930s and in Southern Vietnam in the 1950s, with more extensive trials undertaken throughout the country after 1975. Promising species include E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis and the former of these has been planted extensively. Other species and provenances found suitable either for tropical lowlands (E. urophylla and E. globulus) or for the highlands (E. citriodora, E. saligna and E. grandis) warrant more attention and widespread use. E. exserta, which was widely accepted locally in Northern Vietnam in the 1960s is now used only for fuelwood production. Large scale plantings of Eucalyptus have taken place especially since 1980 and the area planted exceeds the combined area planted with all other tree species. There is no available information on the total area of eucalypts in the country, but it is estimated to lie between 300 000 and 400 000 ha of plantations and the equivalent of 700 000 - 800 000 ha planted as scattered trees. Growth data is presented for the most important species. Damage to trees caused by termites has been noted everywhere in Vietnam and threats of wildfire are very serious in Western Vietnam. Establishment of Eucalyptus plantations just for fuelwood production is uneconomical, but pulp wood is an important end use and export of both wood chips and pulp is likely to increase. Positive social impacts of eucalypts include employment and increased income and an alleviation of the shortage of fuelwood and industrial raw material. Controversies regarding the widespread use of eucalypts and its alleged adverse environmental effects peaked in the late 1980s and caused a reduction in its use. Research findings on environmental impacts include: The requirement for P2O5 is higher than for other species; no grass cover exists under well stocked eucalypt stands; chemical soil properties do not change significantly; soil moisture is reduced - possible due to litter removal; birds are more numerous than in open areas. To avoid negative impacts FIPI recommends that a mixture of eucalypts and other broad-leaved species be planted and not more than 20 000 ha in each block. The Government has pursued an active policy of reforestation, which has resulted in the allocation of 4 400 000 ha of land to 2 638 communes, 7 447 cooperatives, 716 organisations and 473 500 households, currently engaged in forest plantation, maintenance and protection. Soft loans and food aid from WFP have been provided together with technical assistance and the rights to the trees planted. The Forest Resource Protection and Development Act of 1991 provides extensive legal rights for forest users.
THE GREAT EUCALYPTUS DEBATE:
WHAT IS IT REALLY ABOUT?
Winrock - F/FRED
The author of the present paper has undertaken a socio-economic analysis of the Eucalyptus debate, which took place in India during the 1980s, and identifies the kinds of issues that have been debated with a view toward improving the quality and precision of the ongoing debate in other countries.
"The Great Eucalyptus Debate" refer to the controversy which raged in and around the Social Forestry programme of India in the 1980s. At the request of the FAO this author undertook a socio-economic analysis of this debate, and concluded that although, ostensibly, the debate was about species choice, many of the underlying issues were socio-economic in nature and Eucalyptus had mainly become a symbol of a range of issues may of which had little to do with the inherent biological characteristics of the species. Issues raised and debated include the design of the tree planting interventions also called the tree growing practice: The function of the trees (cash income or subsistence uses); location (cropland vs. marginal lands and private vs. communal land); arrangement (block plantations vs. mixed woodlots and agroforestry, rotation length); management (loss of employment), and the entire economic development strategy (industrial growth vs. ecodevelopment). The Social Forestry programme was not so much a failure as insufficient, in that it successfully helped the relatively better off segments of the population (landed farmers), while failing to address the needs and opportunities of the poorest members of society (landless and marginal farmers), which were the primary intended beneficiaries. The cut off point between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries appears not to have been between the rich and the poor, but between the landed and the landless or near landless i.e. between the poor and the very poor. Four examples of successful projects benefitting landless and near landless farmers are presented which involve a change in tree growing practice (species, function, location, arrangement or management) or in social infrastructure (the allocation of long term tenure rights). To avoid similar problems to those that occurred in India in future projects the author provides a simplified decision algorithm which is based on a two-step approach: First match the tree growing practice to the user, then match the species to the practice.
 Mr Ahmad was not able to
attend the meeting but submitted this paper.|