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6.1 “Role of Men and Women in Peanut Production and Post-harvest Technology in Thailand”
by Dr. Jungjun Duangpatra
Kasertsart University, Thailand

Thai Agronomist from KU, presented a resource paper on the “Role of Men and Women in Peanut Production and Post-harvest Technology in Thailand”. Her presentation highlighted the importance of the peanut crop in small-farm production that depended on family labor. In Thailand, a distinct task specific role of men and women in local peanut production and post-harvest management is not clearly evident. Such gender roles depend on the nature and practices of each farmer and the family status. The Thailand peanut sector, production is still very labour intensive, particularly mechanization is not widespread due to the small size of the farms. The Thai technology support to small farmers includes all aspects starting from advice on seed germination to post-harvest processing. Development of peanut production and post harvest technology is well established in Thailand. Both women and men have equal roles, involved in-farm level and socio-economic activities, especially those people who are targeted for a transfer of technology. Mechanisms of participation are more important than role of men and women. However, for household food security in the peanut sector, the women's role seems to be more important than that of men.

6.2 “Peanuts in Household Food Security and Extension Strategies to Enhance Women's Role in Peanut Sector”
by Dr. Patricia C. Jimenez
Farm Home Resources Management (FHRM) Section
Agricultural Training Institute, Philippines

The resource paper stated that the Philippines Department of Agriculture had identified peanuts as one of its priority crops. Stressing the importance of peanuts as food, she illustrated its nutritional value. The paper also highlighted the local beliefs and practices of using peanuts touching upon both positive and negative aspects. In the Philippines peanut are one of the important cash crops, both in vending and in local markets. Additionally, there were many non-food industrial uses for peanut products and by-products. The income-generating opportunities arising from peanuts were many such as peanut butter making, roasted peanut and confectionery. The number of of males and females in the Philippine peanut product industries were almost equal. Peanuts are an important commercial crop for both the local and export markets. Interviews with women peanut producers in the central part of the Philippines revealed that they fully participated in all the production activities, such as in plowing, harrowing, planting, weeding, harvesting and post-harvest activities such as drying and storing. Women were also partners in non-chemical cultural practices of peanut production. They were very involved in peanut processing as an income-generating enterprise to augment family income. Some families do task-sharing in their peanut business, when father and son do the cooking while the mother and daughter do the peanut vending. The local government units and the Rural Improvement Clubs of the Philippines provide education on the nutritional importance of peanut in managing dietary deficiencies. There are also programs to include peanut products in children's feeding program. The extension needs of the women in the peanut sector were identified.

6.3 “Gender Differences in Groundnut Production Technology Evaluation and Choice: ICRISAT Experience and Relevance for Future Technology Development”
by Dr. M.C.S. Bantilan
Ms. Padmaja R. Kamtam
Socio-economics and Policy Programme
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Patancheru, India

A resource paper prepared by Scientists from the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics was presented by Dr. Padmaja R. Kamtam. The paper focussed was on “Gender Differences in Groundnut Production Technology Evaluation and Choice : ICRISAT Experience and its Relevance for Future Technology Development”. The paper emphasized the Commitment of ICRISAT to equity in its pursuit of poverty alleviation and the importance of attention to the different ways men and women benefit from research. ICRISAT assumes that gender -role differentiation provides an important basis for targeting technologies that would improve food security and household welfare and hence concerns itself with the impact of change in agricultural technology on the welfare of women. Currently ICRISAT is evaluating gender differences in preferences for alternative variety traits, assessing the welfare impacts of groundnut technologies, and farm investment priorities. It is examining gender-related indicators for targeting nutrition interventions. The paper included short case studies and reviewed participatory approaches in gender analysis of groundnut production technology (GPT).

The paper provided an overview of gender analysis and GPT study, which examined the role of women in groundnut production in semi-arid India. ICRISAT has also done pioneering work on assessing gender differences in groundnut technology evaluation. An important finding of this study is that gender-related differential effects stem from culturally defined labor specialization among men and women. In other words, traditional tasks especially those guided by the principal that “men do heavier jobs and women do lighter jobs”, have varying consequences on decision-making power on labour allocation, household resource use and product utilization. New activity patterns suggest that technology intervention led to gender-specific tasks which are consistent with conventional division of labor. User perspectives of technology were closely related to the roles and responsibilities and power relationships between men and women. Women considered occupational hazards as well as workability options and not just the financial outcome as did the male farmers. The study suggested that gender specific perceptions will yield valuable information about the usefulness of a technology as well as the constraints that hinder adoption. Gender-differentiated impacts may be generated by desegregating overall gains among different members of households such as men and women and perhaps children. Important qualitative data add to the dimensions in which men and women assess benefits and how decision-making power is shared among household members. These are useful indicators of real gains enjoyed by different household members. Complementing gender-differentiated quantitative information with qualitative observations provide a holistic basis for capturing the effects of technology intervention in terms of balance of efficiency and equity consequences. Participatory research and gender analyses are crucial for ensuring that women's special needs are taken into account.

6.4 “Technology Transfer: Women Roles in Development of Peanut Processing, Consumption and Marketing in Thailand”
by Dr. Vichai Harutahithansan
KAPI, Kasetsart University, Thailand

In two provinces of Thailand technology transfer of peanut processing, along with education on business and marketing, was affected to farm housewives in villages where they produced peanut as a cash crop. A first round of research was conducted in 1991/92 with farmers at Huay-Bong-Nua Village, Prao District, Chiang Mai Province, in the northern Thailand. A pilot group of seven housewives was trained in techniques of processing and quality control of peanut products with emphasis on processing oil-roasted and ground-roasted peanuts. Those two peanut products were planned to be marketed in downtown Chiang Mai and Prao District markets. Consumer acceptability of both products was high as their qualities were better than those of similar products in the markets. With this group of housewives, a follow-up was done in 1993/94 that revealed that this group had not continued to process peanut products. The reason for such lapse were that there was not enough raw peanuts for their use, due to very dry seasons during those years. A second round of research was conducted in 1995/96 with farmers in Nong-No Village, Kud-Jub District, Udorn Thanee Province, in north-eastern Thailand. A pilot group of 20 housewives was trained in the techniques of sand roasted whole pod, oil roasted and ground roasted peanut. The products were tested in the markets of downtown Udorn-Thanee and Bangkok. The results revealed that the housewives were well trained, understood the techniques of processing and quality control, and also learned how to sell their products in the markets and how to manage their work. The results also showed that improvement in the socio-economic status of the groups appeared promising, especially for families in Kud-Jub District. They earned more income from these activities, now a part of routine work of the group beside their main agricultural work.

6.5 “USAID Peanut Collaborative Research Support Programme and Linkages”
by Dr. Penkwan Chompreeda, Kasertsat University, Thailand
Dr. Tim William. Peanut CRSP, University of Georgia, USA

The USAID Peanut CRSP was started in 1982. It is funded through Title XII - Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger and authorized under the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975. It is implemented by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through to the University of Georgia. Additional U.S. University participants are Alabama A and M, Auburn, Connecticut, Florida, Purdue, North Carolina A and T, North Carolina State, Texas A and M, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State (Virginia Tech). Participating host country institutions represent Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger and Senegal in West Africa; Malawi in South Africa; Philippines and Thailand in Southeast Asia; Bolivia and Peru in South America; Haiti and Jamaica in the Caribbean; and Bulgaria in Eastern Europe.

Since the Peanut CRSP is funded through USAID, the primary goal is to improve the well-being of people in developing countries through:

Peanuts are particularly important to the realization of these goals because they are most valuable crop in many areas of the developing world. Peanuts provide a much needed source of purchasing power to small-scale farmers, many of whom are women. Peanuts are nutritious food and versatile in use and thus promotes health and family welfare and value-added industries in developing countries. As local markets exist for peanuts, they provide an essential opportunity for small-scale subsistence farmers to purchase inputs, such as fertilizers, needed to make farming sustainable. Peanuts are very important in a number of ways to food security at the household level. Firstly, the peanut is a high energy, high protein food that is highly effective in satisfying hunger, thus a little peanut goes a long way in feeding a family. Secondly, peanut is a crop that is easily processed and transformed into higher value products that are easily marketed. As such it provides women with a means of generating income to allow purchases of other foods, medicines and education for the family members. Thirdly, as a legume in the cropping system the peanut is one of the most effective of nitrogen fixers which allows it to sustain general cereal grain production at higher levels, directly and indirectly increasing household food security. High yields of cereals result in lower market prices and increases the availability of food per unit of income.

The global program of the Peanut CRSP addresses the following five priority constraints in peanut sector:

Aflatoxin Contamination: The Expected outcome is improved health, trade, and peanut value through decrease or elimination of aflatoxin contamination. This constraint is addressed through genetic prevention, pre-harvest management schemes, and detoxification of contaminated peanuts or products.

Production Efficiency: The expected outcome is increased farm prosperity through improved production efficiency and sustainability. The approaches adopted are genetic improvement, better management practices, and model-guided management, research, and policy recommendations.

Socioeconomic Forces: The expected outcome is rapid development through the adoption of technologies resulting from more sociologically appropriate research, policy interventions, and technology transfer. The approaches adopted are determination of gender and policy effects on the peanut system and of the impact of adopted technologies.

Post harvest and Marketing Technologies: The expected outcome is improved health, increased prosperity, and trade through marketing, processing and consumption of peanuts as safer, more nutritious value-added products. The approaches adopted are better understanding of nutritional benefits of peanuts, expanded availability of peanut products matching local preferences, and increased income and employment from production of value-added products.

Training, Information, and Programme Support: The expected outcome is the development and adoption of profitable technologies through increased training, technology diffusion and scientific exchange. The approaches adopted are consolidation and distribution of information, trained scientists, and development of collaborative linkages, and scientist exchange programs.

Historically the Peanut CRSP has supported the development of activities that exploit these contributions of the crop to household food security, and a hope is that Peanut CRSP programme will be able to cooperate with Asian and global partners into the future in exploiting the knowledge that exists. The ongoing mission is to develop the peanut sector and transfer technologies as a way of helping improve the living standards of nations, communities, families and individuals. In addition to this activity in South East Asia there are other projects focused on women in development.

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