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Special presentation the on-going and future APCHA activities (APHCA 02/6)

Protecting the environment from the impact of the growing industrialization of livestock production in East Asia

(by Hans Wagner, FAO-RAP, Bangkok)

Slide 1

Protecting the Environment from the
Impact of the Growing Industrialization
of Livestock Production in East Asia

APHCA 26th Session,
Subang Jaya, Malaysia
24 - 26 August 2002

Slide 2


Livestock trends

· The livestock sector is increasing faster than crops

- Livestock 3.3% per year;
- Crops only 1.4% per year

· But there are large variations within the region

Slide 3

Total meat demand in South and East Asia

Slide 4

Total milk demand in South and East Asia

Slide 5

But the social gap is widening...

The main beneficiaries of the demand surge are:

  • large-scale, urban, capital-intensive producers and processors;
    urban middle and upper class consumers;

Þ The overwhelming majority of the poor do not benefit (increase of 75 million)

Slide 6

Production increase 1992 - 1997

· 16 % from medium - large farms
· 80 % from industrial production

Slide 7

...with intensification come mounting
environmental problems...

· pollution of land and water by industrial livestock and aquaculture in high density areas;

· exploitation of common property/open access resources, mainly by the poor (deforestation, overgrazing,

· Inland fisheries and aquaculture are impacted by environmental degradation especially of water resources.

Slide 8


Data collected at first administrative breakdown (i.e. province)

Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2002
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 9


Data collected at first administrative breakdown (i.e. province)

Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2002
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 10

HUMAN POPULATION IN ASIA (persons per km2)

Source: Landscan 2000
Year: 2000
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 11

ESTIMATED POULTRY DENSITY IN Thailand Laos and Vietnam (animals per km2)

Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2000
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 12

ESTIMATED PIG DENSITY IN Thailand Laos and Vietnam (animals per km2)

Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2000
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 13


Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2000
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 14


Source: LEAD FAO
Year: 2000
Map prepared by LEAD - FAO

Slide 15

Region 2 - Thailand

Ecological zone: Tropical Humid

Farming system:

  • Important peri-urban distribution

  • Region designated for exportation

  • Importance of livestock contract farming

  • Solid and liquid waste separation

Environmental issues:

  • Surface and ground water pollution,

  • Wetlands and gulf of Thailand

  • Odour - health

Slide 16

Jiangsu Province - China

Ecological zone: Sub-tropical Humid

Farming system:

  • Presence of very large scale (public) farms

  • High concentration of animals, Gradient North - South

  • Solid and liquid wastes separation

Environmental issues:

  • Surface water (Taihu lake)

  • Coastal wetlands

  • Odour - health

Slide 17

Ho Chi Minh - Vietnam

Ecological zone: Tropical Humid

Farming system:

  • Middle and small scale mainly

  • Few large public farms (planned relocation)

  • Important peri-urban distribution

  • Bio-gas production

Environmental issues:

  • Surface and ground water

  • Odour

  • Health

Slide 18

Common observations


Under market pressure, and in a framework of weak regulations, traditional mix-farming systems have progressively split into specialised crop and livestock activities that operate in different geographical areas and under different management rules.

· Concentration of animals (Urbanisation)

· De-connection between livestock and land resources

® Environmental issues
® Public health issues
® Animal health issues
® Poverty alleviation issues

Slide 19

Common observations


Impacts on the Global environment

· Pollution (eutrophication) of surface and ground water

® Wetland affected: bio-diversity losses
® Pollution carried downstream to Marine Ecosystems

· Emission of green house gazes (methane, nitrous dioxide)

® Manure management
® Renewable energy (bio-gas)

Slide 20

Project Objectives

- Integration specialised livestock production with cropping activities on a national/regional scale;

- linking intensive livestock production to a land-based system rather than an often profitable, but undesirable and polluting component of the urban industrial system;

- provide local institutions and decision-makers with tools in order to insure the sustainability of livestock development

Slide 21

Project characteristics PDF-B

· Participating countries, Cambodia, China, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam;

· Area South China Sea - Gulf of Thailand

· Expansion of baseline information;

· Development of a full GEF project (US $ 10 million)

· PDF - B document submitted - delays in GEF replenishment

Update on the first report on the state of the world's animal genetic resource

(by Hans Wagner, FAO-RAP, Bangkok)

Slide 1

Update on
The First Report on the State of
the World’s AnGR

FAO’s Global Strategy
for the Management of
Farm Animal Genetic Resources

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 2


It is important to conserve and develop local breeds animals genetically adapted to their environment

More productive at lower costs
Sustainable in the long term
Support food, agriculture and cultural diversity
Most effective in achieving local food security objectives

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 3

Contribution of the SoW-AnGR to
achieving the objectives of the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Conservation of biological diversity [agrobiodiversity] and sustainable use
Fair and equitable sharing of benefits
Access to resources and technology transfer
SBSTTA-7 and COP-6

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 4

The intergovernmental support mechanism

Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)
Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on AnGR (ITWG-AnGR)
National Governments

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 5

The planning and implementation structure

National Focal Points
Regional Focal Points [Resource Persons]
Global Focal Point
Donor and Stakeholder Involvement

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 6

Brief History and timeline


Time lines

· Support by the ITWG and CGRFA

2000 - 2001

· Preparation of tools, guidelines


· Invitation by the DG

March 2001

· 180 member and 10 non-member countries

· 120 positive replies

· Regional Training Workshops

2001 - 2002

· Asia 22 countries

Nov. - Dec 2001

· Total 176 countries 320 professionals

· In-country training, draft report preparation

Sep 2002

· Submission of Final Country Reports:

May 2003*

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 7

Financial assistance to complement country efforts and activities

Condition, acceptance of the DG invite, submission of a work-plan and establishment of an NC and NCC.

Direct assistance through FAO or through WAAP (10 countries in South East Asia)

Other countries still negotiated (China, Pakistan, India, Iran and Mongolia)

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 8

Structure of Country Report

The Country Report should comprise six main parts:




State of Farm Animal Genetic Resources


Changing Demands on National Livestock Production


State of National Capacity


National Priorities for the Conservation and Utilization of AnGR


International Co-operation in Farm Animal Biodiversity


Other Elements

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 9

Developing the Country Report

The Country Report is meant to be a
strategic policy document

It should provides answers to 3 strategic questions:

  • Where we are?

  • Where do we need to be?

  • How to get to where we need to be?

It should then consider the priority issues surrounding these questions, and the needs

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 10


· is not an inventory of AnGR

· it is not an update of WWL-DAD

· it is not a report to satisfy international reporting commitment

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 11


to create a
for the better management of AnGR
and to
clearly establish priorities for action and needs

APHCA 26th Session

Slide 12

Follow-up activities

Regionalization process as Phase II
of SoW-AnGR

Regional review meeting

Preparation of regional priority actions report

Use experience for global synthesis

Prepare strategy for global synthesis

APHCA 26th Session

Village poultry development getting it right for the benefic of the poor (A component of HOPE-A)

(by Denis Hoffmann, FAO-RAP, Bangkok)

Live chicken market in Asia. (FAO photo)

Background & justification

Village poultry are a dominant feature of rural life throughout Asia. Poultry are often the only livestock owned by poor farmers, reproduce relatively cheaply and quickly and are easily managed in rural communities by women and children. Women are also usually the main beneficiaries with eggs, meat and live birds being available to supplement the household diet, to increase income and to meet family and social obligations. Well-adapted, indigenous breeds of poultry have been part of rural life in many countries for hundreds of years. In Asia, almost all farm families carry out traditional poultry raising to varying degrees.

Diversification is now an accepted strategy for agricultural development in poorer countries and is a major component of FAO’s Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS). An important element of diversification is the inclusion of livestock, especially short-cycle species, such as pigs, goats, sheep and poultry, which can provide comparatively rapid returns on investment. For the poorest and landless farmers, poultry in particular give excellent opportunities for improving dietary nutrition and increasing income in return for modest inputs.

But the potential benefits of indigenous breeds to the poor are far from being widely realized. While poultry development projects have been successful in some countries, many attempts have failed. It is not uncommon for farmers and development workers to treat village poultry as free-ranging commercial poultry. This is not the case and has lead to the poor performance of many rural poultry projects.

‘Rearing of improved birds on free range was practiced in Bangladesh a few years ago. The objective of free range rearing was that the birds would collect feeds available in the homestead compound or backyard. But with the increased number of rural households, the opportunity of poultry birds to collect feeds from the surroundings have decreased and the birds were emaciated due to malnutrition and the egg production was poor.’

Abdul Jalil Ambar
Breeding Farm Consultant
Smallholder Livestock Development Project,
in Five Southern Districts
May 2002
Excerpt from the 2nd INFPD Electronic Conference

Major constraints to village poultry development are a lack of awareness of the intrinsic value of local breeds, inadequate husbandry skills, poor support services, lack of marketing opportunities and, perhaps most importantly, sickness and mortalities due to the inter-related causes of poor nutrition and outbreaks of disease. In many situations, these constraints can be minimized using relatively low-cost interventions, thus providing opportunities for enhancing the livelihood of the rural poor with modest cost and effort.

Successful communication and collaboration with village farmers (both male and female) has also tended to be neglected. Farmers, for whom village poultry are an important commodity, have often had little formal education and require appropriate extension material that will facilitate their comprehension and information exchange. Support staff involved with the implementation of village poultry projects, frequently have had little experience with the design of effective communication material that pays attention to the language (both in terms of dialect and style) and the images employed.

The project concept

Recognizing the largely untapped potential value of village poultry, FAO and APHCA[1] have endorsed and strongly support the development of a regional programme for enhancing village poultry production. The programme is called HOPE-A (Householder Poultry Enterprise - Asia). HOPE-A aims to assist and encourage village poultry production in the Asia/Pacific region. The programme’s broad objectives are to improve the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the region’s poorer poultry farmers, through both direct assistance and by enhancing capacity in government and non-government agencies that support livestock development. Each participating country will develop its own strategy and seek bilateral funding to achieve these common HOPE-A objectives. This approach will ensure that country-specific needs are given priority and that HOPE-A activities are aligned with the various national poverty reduction programmes being either developed or implemented.

An additional, urgently needed, component of the HOPE-A concept is the Regional Coordination and Information Unit (RCIU), a small “driving force” with regional responsibilities. The present proposal seeks funding to develop and support this Unit. A full-time, two-person team is envisaged, a Project Manager with appropriate qualifications and an administrative assistant. They will work in cooperation with FAO’s regional senior animal production and health officer and utilize FAO/APHCA organizational support. The RCIU’s role will be, in relation to village poultry development, to: provide leadership and direction in planning and coordinating regional research and training activities, including the recruitment of appropriate national or international consultants as required; develop and maintain a central reference library and information distribution system for research and extension material; provide advice and maintain an exchange information flow among participating countries; act as a central contact point for HOPE-A for government and non-government agencies.

The RCIU’s first and most pressing function will be to address the issue of highest priority for regional poultry development, that is, the persistent and periodically devastating losses caused by the inter-related effects of disease and poor nutrition. Its other high priorities will be to increase the availability of good quality extension materials and to raise regional awareness of the intrinsic value of indigenous breeds of poultry.

Project purpose

To improve the livelihood of the rural poor through better self-management of village poultry.


The RCIU will plan, initiate and coordinate activities that are designed to:

1. Develop and implement disease control strategies that are widely applicable in the management of village poultry.

2. Improve the nutritional status of village poultry through the use of local low-cost dietary supplements.

3. Strengthen the capacity of government and non-government agencies to provide useful and profitable support to rural poultry farmers.

4. Strengthen the capacity and self-reliance of poultry farmers in rural areas.

5. Establish a sustainable regional information network for poultry farmers and their support services.


At the end of the project’s 3-year period, expected outputs are:

1. Major diseases identified and ranked in importance; availability of good quality vaccines increased regionally; farmers and support services familiar with on-farm control measures.

2. Potential ingredients for formulating cheap, nutritious feed supplements for birds identified; trial rations tested in some areas.

3. Extension materials and other training aids more accessible to government and non-government organizations that support rural poultry development.

4. Training programmes in place to equip farmers with improved knowledge and skills for profitable management of village poultry.

5. Regional Coordination and Information Unit established within the FAO/APHCA framework to provide on-going regional support and information exchange for rural poultry development.

Project activities

Through the recruitment and deployment of national and international consultants and in cooperation with other agencies, the RCIU will plan, initiate and support research and training activities with three main aims: (1) to reduce sickness and mortality in bird flocks; (2) to develop and pre-test extension packages for farmers and support organizations; (3) to identify strategies for conserving the more valuable traits of indigenous breeds. Additionally, the RCIU will design and develop datasets that will enable the overall impact of the project to be quantified. Each activity is summarized below.

(1) In most cases losses are likely to be disease agents, poor nutrition (which exacerbates the effects of disease) and predators. Specific objectives will be to:

(2) The aim will be to develop and pre-test[2] a range of extension packages tailored for use in different countries and different areas within countries. Literature already available will be assessed for possible translation and wider distribution. Illiteracy will be taken into account, as will the widespread and growing availability of radio and television in rural areas in the region. Extension aids will range from simple one-page leaflets, to video recordings for VCR and/or DVD units, with voice-overs in different languages. Non-visual tapes for broadcasting extension messages by radio will also be tested. Some of the packages developed will be useful for formal education at secondary and tertiary levels.

(3) The aim will be the identification of management and breeding strategies to conserve the more desirable characteristics of indigenous breeds. These characteristics include broodiness in hens, the darker and tastier meat so highly regarded in the market place, and the birds’ general “survivability” under adverse conditions. Conservation strategies are becoming increasingly relevant as the indiscriminate spread of imported breeds poses a long-term threat by diluting the advantageous and higher value traits of local breeds. Ultimately, breeding strategies will be devised that combine the valued traits of local breeds with the higher production traits of imported breeds in genetically stable crosses.

The RCIU’s fourth major activity will be to obtain base-line information to be used in measuring the impact of the project. Data might include: bird populations, growth and reproduction rates, mortalities, product sales, household incomes and dietary habits, gender issues and social interactions at household and community levels. The information compiled during this project will also be useful for quantifying benefits of future activities within the HOPE-A programme and other projects in the Region.

Beneficiaries of research and target institutions

The main target group and ultimate beneficiaries will be poor rural poultry farmers, the vast majority of whom in most target countries are women. The families of poor farmers will also benefit from higher nutrition and increased household income. Some project outputs will have relevance to all poultry enterprises, large and small, in the Region.

The government and non-government organizations that support poultry farmers will also be beneficiaries through an increased availability of good quality extension aids and targeted training.

The underlying philosophy of the HOPE-A programme is that poor farmers in developing countries can become a national asset rather than a liability if given the skills and opportunity for self-reliance. Thus in the longer term, national benefits will accrue.

Risks & assumptions

The widespread nature of the problem being addressed is a significant risk factor. Many poor farmers live in remote areas and have poor literacy skills, which presents a major hurdle to be overcome if the HOPE-A programme’s objectives are to be fully achieved. By necessity, this project’s research and capacity-building activities will have a relatively narrow initial focus within each participating country. A critical assumption is that outputs and benefits of the project will be sustained and spread, both nationally and regionally. In this context, failure to raise regional awareness of the potential value of local poultry breeds and a lack of institutional interest in supporting spillover benefits from the project are high-level risks.

Another assumption is that the project’s outputs will have wide application in the region. In this regard, risks are inadequacies in the project’s design and implementation, either in its research work, extension packages or training activities. Additional assumptions are given in the logic framework.

Project logical framework


Indicators of achievement

Means of verification



1. Livelihoods of poor farmers improved through enhanced production of household and village poultry.

1.1 Measures of empowerment, household income and quality of diet.

Datasets created by the Project.

FAO and other agency datasets.

Improved poultry production will increase profitability.

Livelihoods and project inputs are not disrupted by political upheaval, civil unrest, economic turmoil or unusual climatic conditions.


Benefits for poor poultry farmers generated by application of disease control strategies and other management interventions.

By 2006, in participating countries, evidence of:
Reduced losses in poultry from disease, predators and poor nutrition.
Higher poultry numbers and egg production in target areas.
Cost-efficient poultry production by resource poor farmers.
More reliable markets for poultry products.

Datasets created by the Project and verified by independent assessment.

Reports of other in-country agriculture development projects.

National statistics.

Poultry farmers able to effectively apply new management skills and maintain access to feed and sources and markets.

Strengthened capacity in poultry health care and extension in government and non-government organizations.

Increased number of trained staff.

Increased interaction between field staff and farmers.

Pre-testing of extension material.

Increased availability of appropriate extension material.

Existence of appropriate extension material

National Food Security Programme documents.

Government service staffing levels maintained

Farmers benefit from and appreciate the services provided.

Raised awareness of the value of indigenous poultry.

3.1 Poultry management strategies in place to conserve desirable traits.

Papers describing indigenous breeds and ecotypes.

Indigenous breeds clearly shown to be a major contributing factor in profitable rural poultry management.


Cost-effective and sustainable disease control strategies developed for poor poultry farmers.

Major diseases identified.
Increased availability of vaccines in rural areas.
On farm management procedures promoted.

Local and national statistics on poultry populations.

Intermediary organizations willing and able to reproduce and deliver new technologies to poor poultry farmers.

Low cost feed supplements available to farmers.

Rations based on local ingredients costed and tested in feeding trials.

Project progress reports.

Pre-tested extension packages available for regional use.

3.1 Various extension packages developed and tested for accurate interpretation.

Existence of extension packages/materials

3.2 Extension packages being used by government and non-government agencies.

Final technical reports.

Training programmes for farmers in place.

4.1 Farmer field schools and/or similar activities planned by National or Provincial authorities, NGO’s or other development organizations.

External referee reports.

Extension articles.

4.2 Extension aids provided by the project being utilized in activities in 4.1

Refereed publications.

An effective and sustainable Regional Coordination and Information Unit (RCIU) established within FAO/APHCA.

5.1 Project field activities implemented effectively, recruitment of appropriate consultants achieved and regional missions planned and completed cost-effectively.

APHCA’s annual report

Countries in the Region will cooperate with the RCIU and support project’s field activities.

5.2 Central database, information system and extension library operational and being utilized regionally.

5.3 Project reports to APHCA and funding agencies satisfactory.

Countries in the Region will recognize the RCIU as a source of useful advice, information and support in development of their poultry industries.

5.4 RCIU facilities and operations taken over and maintained by FAO/APHCA.


Project activities commissioned to achieve Output 1 (Disease control)

1.1 Known causes of disease and existing control measures reviewed; vaccine field testing completed; new protocols for regional production and distribution prepared and necessary modifications implemented.

Project annual reports to APHCA.

Sufficient valid data available and accessible for accurate conclusions to be made.

Project termination report.

Relevant countries willing to cooperate in vaccine field trials and farmer training.

1.2 Farmers being trained in use of vaccines and other disease control measures.

Reports from link projects.

Modifications, if required, are not prohibitively expensive.

Project activities commissioned to achieve Output 2 (Low-cost feed supplements).

2.1 Local feed sources surveyed, various rations compared in feed trials.
2.2 Recommended rations promoted to farmers.

National reports to APHCA.

Suitable local feed sources are available at economic costs.

Project activities commissioned to achieve Output 3 (Extension methods).

3.1 Existing extension material reviewed and complemented by new packages prepared by project.

Farmers show appropriate levels of interest and commitment.

Appropriate numbers of veterinary and extension staff are available for training activities.

3.2 Extension packages pre-tested by appropriate target groups.

Annual and final Project reports to funding agency.

Project activities commissioned to achieve Output 4 (Farmer training).

3.3 In-country train-the-trainers workshops held to promote the use and on-going improvement of extension materials.

Annual Project reports to APHCA.

Extension methods and training given are appropriate for the particular country and locality.

Reports by National agencies.

Farmers show sufficient interest and aptitude for necessary skills to be acquired and applied.

4.1 Farmer field schools run by support staff monitored by consultants.

Reports by link projects.

Project activities commissioned to achieve Output 5 (Effective and Sustainable RCIU)

4.2 Changes in poultry management at farm level assessed for initial impact of extension.

Extension publications.

Refereed publications.

FAO/APHCA will continue to provide a supportive framework for the RCIU.

5.1 Project work plan implemented and completed according to schedule and within budget.

Post-project RCIU operations and facilities tailored to be manageable within the FAO/APHCA framework.

Report(s) of external Project reviewer(s).

[1] Formed in 1975, the Animal Production and Health Commission of Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) is an intergovernmental agency that actively promotes and supports livestock development in member countries. There are currently 15 member countries. HOPE-A was approved as an APHCA initiative at their annual meeting in Bangladesh in 2000 and strongly endorsed and supported as a Long-term Activity at the 25th meeting in the Philippines in 2001.
[2] It is vital that new extension material be pre-tested in the field prior to widespread diffusion to ensure that it will effectively communicate the desired message(s) to farmers. Pre-testing does cost money but it can be done in relatively simple and cheap ways. The amount is insignificant compared to actual production costs and it can actually save money by avoiding the production of materials that are not understood or accepted.

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