Ten Years of IPM Training in Asia - From Farmer Field School to Community IPM

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

Editors: John Pontius, Russell Dilts, Andrew Bartlett
Bangkok, July 2002
FAO Community IPM Programme

Table of Contents

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FAO 2002

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FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
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Table of Contents



1. Ten years of IPM field schools

1.1 Empowerment of farmers
1.2 Farmers and what they have to say
1.3 Outsiders' views on IPM field schools
1.4 Community IPM and the future

2. A brief look at the historical context of the FFS

2.1 Small farmers in Asia and the Green Revolution
2.2 The importance of being expert
2.3 Getting the bugs out
2.4 IPM and sustainable agriculture

2.4.1 Developments in the Philippines
2.4.2 Indonesia and farmer field schools

2.5 The spread of FFS implementation

3. The IPM farmer field school

3.1 The typical rice IPM field school

3.1.1 To the field
3.1.2 Further notes on the FFS
3.1.3 The role of the facilitator

3.2 Implementation issues

3.2.1 Facilitation
3.2.2 Logistics

4. Community IPM

4.1 Community IPM basics

4.1.1 Building community IPM

4.2 Community IPM in Gerung subdistrict

4.2.1 Gerung subdistrict
4.2.2 National IPM programme field activities in Gerung subdistrict
4.2.3 IPM farmer activities

4.3 A change in roles
4.4 The farmer planning meeting and the farmer technical meeting

4.4.1 Farmer planning meetings
4.4.2 Farmer technical meetings

4.5 IPM, institutionalization and civil society at the community level

4.5.1 Building a civil society

4.6 Pitfalls

4.6.1 The task-at-hand trap
4.6.2 The template trap

5. Educational foundations of the field school

5.1 The principles of education and the IPM farmer field school

5.1.1 A definition of learning and the learning cycle
5.1.2 "Andragogy"
5.1.3 Learner-centred approach
5.1.4 Learning theory and the FFS

5.2 A critical theoretical framework and the FFS approach

5.2.1 The technical domain
5.2.2 The practical domain
5.2.3 The empowerment domain
5.2.4 The FFS learning approach

6. Rice IPM in Asia: ecological principles underlying the FFS

6.1 Early development of IPM
6.2 Pest control and IPM in tropical rice systems

6.2.1 A broader ecological understanding

6.3 A general theory of tropical rice agro-ecosystems

6.3.1 Key processes
6.3.2 Some conclusions

6.4 IPM and the FFS

7. Participatory management and evaluation in community IPM

7.1 Management
7.2 Participatory evaluation
7.3 Frameworks for analysis

7.3.1 Relationships
7.3.2 Social gains
7.3.3 The partial budget analysis

7.4 A cautionary note on participatory evaluation

8. The big picture

8.1 Farmer-to-farmer activities in the region

8.1.1 Bangladesh
8.1.2 Cambodia
8.1.3 China
8.1.4 Indonesia: the IPM Farmers' Association
8.1.5 Nepal
8.1.6 Sri Lanka
8.1.7 Viet Nam

8.2 Operational principles

8.2.1 Capturing systems
8.2.2 Move quickly
8.2.3 Let the farmers show them
8.2.4 Actively engage local institutions
8.2.5 Use TOT trainers as communicators
8.2.6 Establish new systems through training
8.2.7 Create room for farmers to take action
8.2.8 Continuously build farmer capacities
8.2.9 Organize IPM nodes and networks
8.2.10 Scale up, down and out
8.2.11 Maintain flexibility and organizational learning

8.3 Looking ahead

8.3.1 A sustainable livelihood framework
8.3.2 Further developments

8.4 A final note about empowerment