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COUNTRY FILES (Contd.)

TANZANIA

1. GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE (Welcomme, 1979a)

The topography of continental Tanzania (surface area of 886 040 km2) (Fig. 1) is highly varied but four main types of terrain predominate:

  1. the coast, below 300 m altitude:
  2. the alluvial plains of the main eastward flowing rivers, from 300 to 1 000 m in altitude;
  3. an inland plateau which covers most of the country, 1–2 000 m; and
  4. highlands to the south and northeast, which range between 2 000 and 5 900 m. Parts of both eastern and western arms of the Rift Valley systems lie within Tanzania.

The climate is linked to the topography, having also four main areas:

  1. a hot humid coastal zone;
  2. a hot arid central area;
  3. high moist lake regions; and
  4. temperate uplands.

The overall climate is regulated by the monsoons which give two equinoctial rains, one from March to June, the other from October to December. At other times of the year the weather is hot and dry. Tanzania is a predominantly agricultural country, although some areas are used mainly for cattle ranching and game parks.

2. HYDROGRAPHY (Welcomme, 1979a; Balarin, 1985b)

2.1 Lakes (See Fig. 2)

Tanzania is extremely well endowed with lakes. The total water area in Tanzania covers nearly 61 500 km2 or about 6.5% of the total land area, 88% of which is made up by three major lakes. The main lakes are shared with neighbouring countries and are generally associated with the Great Rift Valley. These include Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa, both elongated and rather deep, and Lake Victoria, which is a broad and relatively shallow lake.

Almost half the areas of two of the Great Lakes (Victoria and Tanganyika) lie within Tanzania, while Tanzania possesses 800 km of shoreline on the third (Lake Malawi/Nyasa). Other large lakes include Lake Rukwa and Kitangiri and a group of Rift Valley soda lakes (Lakes Natron, Eyasi and Manyara) which are very shallow and liable to dry up in low rainfall periods.

Numerous smaller lakes are scattered throughout the country.

2.2 Rivers, Floodplains and Swamps (see Fig. 2)

There are comparatively few river systems within Tanzania as the main central plateau is arid. Four distinct river basins are apparent. The greater part of the eastern and southern regions are drained by rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean. These include one of the largest rivers in Africa, the Rufiji, with an average dis-charge of 1 133 m3/sec, and minor rivers such as Pangani, Ruwami, Ruvu and the Lake Nyasa rivers. The remaining basins are associated with either Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika or the interior drainage including the Lake Rukwa Basin.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1. LOCATION MAP AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF TANZANIA
(Balarin, 1985b)

Fig. 2

DRAINAGE BASIN

  1. Indian Ocean
  2. Atlantic Ocean (Lake Tanganyika)
  3. Mediterranean Sea (Lake Victoria)
  4. Interior drainage

NAME OF LAKE OR RESERVOIR (construction date)

  1. Lake Eyasi
  2. Lake Rukwa
  3. Lake Tanganyika
  4. Lake Victoria
  5. Lake Natron
  6. Lake Manyara
  7. Lake Nyasa
  8. Nyumba ya Mundu Dam (1945)
  9. Kidatu Reservoir (1974)
  10. Mtera Reservoir (1979)
  11. Hombolo Reservoir
  12. Lake Ikimba
  13. Lake Jipe
  14. Lake Chala
  15. Lake Kitangiri
  16. Lake Balangida
  17. Kibasira Swamp
  18. Malagarasi Swamp
  19. Bahi Swamp
  20. Rufiji Floodplain

Fig. 2. HYDROLOGICAL ZONES AND MAIN LAKES IN TANZANIA
(S.M.D., 1976)

Fig. 3

Fig. 3. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESERVOIRS IN TANZANIA
(Bailey, 1966)

The Pangani River (360 km) drains the northern highlands and the 720 km Rufiji system drains the southern uplands. The Ruvuma River forms the border with Mozambique for 640 km. The other major river system, the Malagarasi, flows from the central plateau into Lake Tanganyika. The main channel is some 560 km long and expands into the Malagarasi Swamps. The Rufiji basin contains three important floodplains (Kilombero, Usanga and Rufiji). Important swamps include Malagarasi, Bahi and Kilosa.

Table 1. DISTRIBUTION OF RESERVOIRS IN TANZANIA
(Balarin, 1985)

Physical regions\
Admin. Districts with most reservoirs
Capacity ('000 m3)Surface area (ha)Others no dataTotal no.Total stockedPrincipal watersheds
5+500+2500+50000.5+5+20+40+400+
Coast             
Bagamoyo, Tanga452--32132--    (?)4726Ruvu, Wami, Pangani
Pare-Usambara             
Korogwe, Pare  91-1  7  2-11-11  6Pangani
Kilimanjaro             
Kilimanjaro, Arusha  7---  4  3----  7  5Pangani
Masai Steppe             
Masai1371-  31052--21  1Masai
Eastern Rift             
Mbulu, Singida, Dodoma2483613  9793  12(+)5347Rift Valley, Wami, Rufiji
Central Plateau             
Tabora, Nzega, Maswa, Shinyanga357211220571155(+)200  71Malagarasi, Rift Valley
Lake Victoria Basin             
Musoma, Kwimba, Geita453--30153--388656Lake Victoria
Western Rift             
Mbeya, Rungwe  71--  7-1--  6(?)14  8Rukwa, Nyasa
Southern Highlands             
Iringa, Njombe  5---  5----33(?)38  8Rufiji
Southeastern Plateau             
Nachingwea, Masasi13---13----  -(?)13  9Mbwemkuru, Ruvuma
Total203  29  68126  7223  19  6244490  237   

Flow patterns vary with rainfall and rivers generally flow for 5–6 months of the year only, during the wet season. This condition is variable according to rainfall intensity; high altitude mountainous areas are more likely to have an all-year-round stream flow pattern.

2.3 Reservoirs (see Figs. 2, 3 and Table 1)

Water conservation dams have been constructed for domestic, livestock, irrigation or factory use, as well as flood control; in all cases these have been stocked with fish. Some of the earlier dam constructions are reviewed by Bailey (1966) and are summarized in Table 7 and Figure 9 according to the following categories:

large dams- over 5 million m3;
medium dams- 2.5–5 million m3;
small dams- 0.5–2.5 million m3; and
minor dams- above 5 000 m3.

In all, Bailey (1966) describes 490 dams, nearly 51% of which are less than 0.5 ha. Most of them are non-perennial, especially in the more arid regions. Most dams were built in the drier regions, in particular the eastern rift, the Masai Steppe and the western and central plateaus.

The Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir was constructed on the Pangani River in 1965. A further reservoir, which will be larger than Nyumba ya Mungu, is planned at Stiegler's Gorge on the Rufiji River. There are two reservoirs (Mtera and Kidatu) on the Great Ruaha, a tributary of the Rufiji. Hombolo is a smaller impoundment on the Wami. There are also numerous small reservoirs which have been stocked with fish.

2.4 Coastal Lagoons: There are none of significant size.

3. FISHERY PRODUCTION/POTENTIAL

3.1 Aquaculture

Some 10 000 ponds with a surface of 1 000 ha had been constructed by 1963, but because of poor technology and management many of these have since fallen into disuse.

In 1974, it was estimated that aquaculture production was about 1 800 t/yr with a forecasted rise to 80 000 t/yr by 1985 and 145 000 t/yr by 1995. In a more recent appraisal of the situation, FAO (1983b) considers that only about 800 ponds/reservoirs are still operational, yielding a low 130 kg/ha/yr. Several ponds are poorly managed, too shallow, lack proper water inlet/outlet, are overgrown or generally abandoned.

UNDP (1981) suggests that the fish yield of the 600–1 000 ponds believed functional in 1980 was no more than 8–13 t (i.e. 0.1 ha mean size at 130 kg/ha/yr). The latter is perhaps the most realistic estimate of total yield.

A good potential exists in Tanzania for the development of aquaculture in the large number of ponds already constructed, in several hundreds of water storage reservoirs, and in the development of the coastal belt through brackishwater aqua- culture. The stocking of small reservoirs, although initiated in various regions, still has not gained much momentum or any significant dimensions.

3.2 Fish production and per caput supply

Table 2. FISH PRODUCTION AND PER CAPUT SUPPLY - Tanzania, 1970–1987

 Nominal Domestic Production
(excluding exports)
(t) 2
Nominal Consumer Supply
(excluding imports and exports) (kg/person)
YearPopulation
'000
1
Inland captureAquaculture
3
Marine captureTotalInland captureAquaculture
3
Marine captureTotal
197013 513166 400  - 418 600185 00012.3-1.413.7
197113 960159 500-21 900181 40011.4-1.613.0
197214 421128 000-28 900156 900  8.9-2.010.9
197314 898144 700-23 000167 700  9.7-1.511.2
197415 391142 617-28 283170 900  9.3-1.811.1
197515 900160 366-35 265195 63110.1-2.212.3
197616 445190 784-48 491239 27511.6-2.914.5
197717 013223 872-46 995270 86713.1-2.815.9
197817 607163 775-47 323211 098  9.3-2.712.0
197918 225146 443-34 190180 633  8.0-1.9  9.9
198018 867189 900-37 994227 89410.1-2.012.1
198119 535191 760-38 913230 673  9.8-2.011.8
198220 230200 72813 527 038227 779  9.90.00061.311.2
198320 954205 699  8 533 478239 185  9.80.00041.611.4
198421 710237 30315 539 969277 28710.90.00071.812.7
198522 499257 88321 542 740300 64411.40.00091.913.3
198623 334265 73832 544 085309 85511.40.001 1.913.3
198724 201265 73535 547 775313 54511.00.001 1.912.9

1 Source: FAO
2 Source: FAO Fisheries Statistics (see note below) (see also section 3.3)
Note: Recent report on Tanzania catch reporting system indicates need to revise raising factors. Total catch probably overestimated. (FAO Yearbook 1986 vol. 62)

3 included in “Inland capture” if not specified
4 - = data not available
5 Vincke, 1989, pers. comm.

3.3 Inland catch range and potential yield

Table 3.

Water bodyPeriodAnnual catch range (t) *Potential annual yield (t) *
Lakes   
Babati197948-
Basuto197816-
Burigi197625-
Gombo197977-
Haubi19783-
Ikimba19765-
Kagera Complex (e)Avg.2 000 (a)-
Kindai197433-
Kitangiri198740 (a)1 000
Manyara1974172-
Mujunju (e)1975370-
Nyasa1986–8810 000–15 000 (a)15 000–100 000
Rukwa19865 990 (a)3 000
Rutamba198732 (a)-
Singida1972113-
Tanganyika1986–8825 000 (a)100 000
Tlawi1978–791-
Victoria1986–88150 000 (a)63 000–100 000
 
Rivers/Swamps/Floodplains
Bahi Swamp1979266-
Bubu River197971-
Great Ruaha River and Usanga Floodplain1987392 (a)(c)-
Kilombero River and Floodplain1986–87829 (a)(d)-
Kilosa Swamp197490-
Malagarasi River/Swamp1987238 (a)-
Rufiji River & Floodplain19712 700 (a)-
Ruvuma RiverAvg.2 000 (a) 
Ugalla River/SwampAvg.200 (a)-
Wami River197947-
 
Reservoirs
Buigiri19777-
Chamwale19633-
Chibumagwe197834-
Dabalo19797-
Hombolo1979114-
Igundu19784-
Ikowa19797-
Kerenge196311-
Kisaki197929-
Magindu19630.2-
Malya197813-
Mgori197815-
Mianji197813-
Mlowa19796-
Mtera19863 254 (a) (b)-
Myombo19631-
Ngwazi197840-
Nhumbu19579-
Nondwa197925-
Nyumba Ya Mungu19874 300 (a)4 500
Shishiyu19781-
Usiulize197814-
Other Minor Fisheries1986–19885 000–10 000 (a)40 000–50 000 (f)

Footnotes to Table 3 * See main text for information sources used.
(a) Combination of official and other estimates, as quoted in Reynolds, 1989.
(b) Mtera also includes Ruaha River and other waters in Dodoma Region.
(c) Covers Mbeya Region section of Ruaha River.
(d) Includes also those sections of Ruaha, Wami, Ngerengere, Luhombero, Mkata, and Manyera Rivers flowing within or through Morogoro Region.
(e) Kagera Lakes Complex.
(f) Balarin (1985b), including the numerous swamps and minor lakes whose potential annual yield is not detailed in Table 3.

No data available for:
Lakes Ambussel, Bisongo/Ngoma (e), Burungi, Chala, Igalula, Ilamba, Jipe, Kajumbura (e), Kingili, Kitere, Magadi, Mamka, Mansi, Minyere, Mkoe, Ndutu, Nziwi, Rushwa, Sagara, Sekena (e), Welu;
Rivers Pangani, Ruvu, Songwe;
Reservoirs Eluanata, Geita, Igombe, Kalimawe, Kidatu, Manda, Mindutulieni, Muchlur, Mwetemo, Rwamkona.

Total annual yield: 211 975–221 975 t (combination of official and other estimates, as quoted in Reynolds, 1989)

Potential annual yield: 226 500–358 500 t

4. STATE OF THE FISHERY

4.1 Yield

Freshwater fish account for over 85% of total landings. The more common species include Lates, Limnothrissa, Stolothrissa (or dagaa), tilapia, Clarias, Haplochromis, Bagrus and Labeo. Estimated yield potential ranges between 220 000 and 360 000 tons per year (Table 3).

Tanzania has over 61 500 km2 of inland waters, including numerous lakes and rivers, of which Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa provide the majority of the catch.

The yield from Lake Victoria has increased from 46 000 t/yr in 1975 to 99 000 t/yr in 1985, with a corresponding increase in catch per unit of effort. Haplochromis made up 35% of the catch in 1975 but reduced to 12% in 1985, while Nile perch has been increasing in importance (0% in 1975; 38% in 1985). However, it is anticipated that the Nile Perch population will begin to decrease as the Haplochromis stocks become depleted. Potential MSY has been estimated at 63 000–100 000 t/yr (Table 3) but FAO (1984) suggested that the lower value was a more realistic figure.

Lake Tanganyika fish yield estimates for 1983–86 fluctuated between 100 000 t/yr (official estimate) and 250 000 t/yr (FAO estimate). In 1975, the official estimate was 64 000 t/yr. FAO (1984) suggested a 100 000 t/yr potential.

Lake Nyasa, of which about 300 km of shoreline border Tanzania, yielded 25 000 to 35 000 t/yr (official estimate) or 10 000–15 000 t/yr (other estimates) in 1986. The potential is not well defined and ranges from 15 000 to 100 000 t/yr (Table 3).

Other waters of significant fishery potential include Nyumba ya Mungu which, in 1970, recorded a 25 000 t/yr catch; its potential, however, is likely to be only 4 000–5 000 t/yr, which is closer to the most recent recorded yield: 4 300 t in 1987. Lake Rukwa yielded 6 000 t/yr in 1986 (official estimate), against a recommended potential yield of 3 000 t/yr (FAO, 1984). Numerous swamps and minor lakes and up to a potential of 40 000–50 000 t/yr.

4.2 Factors influencing yield

Whereas the fisheries mentioned above depend much on the development of a suitable infrastructure of commercial-scale fisheries, several other fisheries, particularly Lakes Rukwa and Kitangiri, are subject to large natural fluctuations in area. The case of the Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir shows a production rise and subsequent fall which conform to the normal pattern for newly established reservoirs. The peak production of 28 500 t seems excessive for a body of water of this size, but the present yield is consistent with yield patterns for other reservoirs in Africa.

4.3 Future development possibilities

There is the possibility for catch increases from numerous inland water bodies of Tanzania. Apart from Lake Victoria (which seems to be in an unbalanced condition), Lake Tanganyika could theoretically sustain a much higher yield. For the third Great Lake (Lake Nyasa) it is not clear whether or not the present catch range is close to the maximum sustainable yield. Additional production may be anticipated from the Mtera Reservoir on the Great Ruaha River and from the numerous smaller reservoirs that have been stocked.

Further development of fish production is hoped for by the spread of aquaculture, where it is estimated that 2 000 t could be produced from existing ponds, and 10 000 t from expanding aquaculture in about 40 000 ha of small dams and reservoirs. Increases in production through aquaculture could obviously surpass this.

From the wide range of potential estimates proposed for Tanzanian inland waters fisheries, the actual knowledge of the resources appears to be very limited; further studies are necessary.

5. KEY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Balarin, 1985b

6. WATER BODIES DIRECTORY

Lakes
AmboseliGomboMagadiNziwi
AmbusselHaubiMagadiRukwa
BabatiIgalulaMamkaRutamba
BalangidaIkimbaMansiSagara
Balangida LeluIlambaManyaraSekena
BasutoJipeMinyereSingida
Bisongo (= Ngoma)KajumburaMkoeTanganyika
BurigiKindaiMujunju (= Rwakajunju)Tlawi
BurungiKingiliNatronVictoria
ChalaKitangiriNdutuWelu
EmpakaiKitereNyasa/Malawi 
EyasiLwelo  
 
Rivers/Swamps
Bubu River Pangani RiverSongwe River
Great Ruaha River Rufiji River/FloodplainWami River
Kagera River Ruvu RiverBahi Swamp
Kilombero River/Floodplain Ruvubu RiverKilosa Swamp
Malagarasi River/Swamp Ruvuma River/Floodplain 
 
Reservoirs
BuigiriIgunduMgoriNhumbu
ChamwaleIkowaMianjiNondwa
ChibumagweKalimaweMindutulieniNyumba ya Mungu
DabaloKerengeMlowaRwamkona
EluanataKidatuMteraShishiyu
ElysiaKisakiMuchlurUchama
GeitaMaginduMwetemoUsiulize
HomboloMalyaMyombo 
IgombeMandaNgwazi 

LAKE AMBOSELI
(International water)

Geographical data
Location:Kenya, Tanzania - 2° 32'–43'S; 37° 1'–14'E
Altitude:1 140 m
Surface area:189 km2 (max) (Kenya: 177 km2 Tanzania: 12 km2)
Max. length:30 km
Max. width:9 km
Inflowing river:Namanga
Special features:Lake Amboseli is a seasonal water body.

LAKE AMBUSSEL

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 3° 56'S; 37° 16'E
Surface area:19 km2
Max. length:6 km
Max. width:4.5 km

LAKE BABATI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 17'S; 35° 43'E
Surface area:21 km2
Depth:5 m (max)
Max. length:10 km
Max. width:3 km
 
Physical and chemical data
pH:7.5
Cl:25.5 mg/l
Total dissolved solids: 542 mg/l

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1961–62-  30   5
1963–69---
1970944156  67
1971814202  73
197246895  74
1973295151  59
1974255139  49
1975---
1976835186148
1977273291168
1978  17264124
1979  48302142

LAKE BALANGIDA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 21'S; 35° 21'E
Surface area:33 km2
Max. length:15.5 km
Max. width:3 km
Special features:highly alkaline

LAKE BALANGIDA LELU

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 40'S; 35° 14'E
Surface area:47 km2
Max. length:15 km
Max. width:4.5 km
Special features:highly alkaline

LAKE BASUTO

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:2.6 km2
 
Physical and chemical data
pH:8.6
Cl:130 mg/l
Total dissolved solids: 1 392 mg/l

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1970-9120
1971478112  30
19724554124
19733885710
19741775915
1975---
1976290100  18
1977  3534  5
1978  1621  4

LAKE BISONGO (= NGOMA)

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania (Kagera Lakes Complex)
Surface area:22 km2 (Kiss, 1977a)
Max. length:14.5 km
Max. width:4.8 km
Depth:8.6 m (max); 5.3 m (mean)
 
Physical and chemical data (Kiss, 1976a; 1977a)
Conductivity:101 (surface), 97 (bottom) μ S/cm
pH:8.4 (surface), 7.2 (bottom)
Ionic composition:    mg/l 
 Ca  4.22 
 Mg  4.65 
 Cl  8.20 
 HCO3+CO354.9 

LAKE BURIGI

Geographical data (Kiss, 1976b, 1977a)
Location:Tanzania - 2°0'–2° 15'S; 31° 10'–31° 20'E
Altitude:1 150 m
Surface area:186 km2 (of which 56 km2 are swamps)
Depth:7.8 m (max); 4.6 m (mean)
Volume:930 × 106 m3
Max. length:42 km
Max. width:7 km
Shoreline:227 km
Outflowing river:Mwisa River to Kagera River
 
Physical and chemical data (Kiss, 1976a; 1977a)
Conductivity:430 μ S/cm   
pH:8.85 (surface)   
 8.35 (bottom)   
Ionic composition: mg/l     
 Na40.0     
 K19.5     
 Ca20.7     
 Mg16.7     
 HCO3289.8     
 Cl9.45 (surface); 
  14.08 (bottom) 
 PO4-P8.0     

Fisheries data(Kiss, 1976b; 1977a)
Fish species:only 4 recorded by Kiss: of fishing interest: Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias mossambicus; of no fishing interest: Oreochromis variabilis and Haplochromis nubilus
No. of fishermen:20 in 1975–76
Total annual catch:25 t in 1975–76

LAKE BURUNGI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 3° 52'S; 35° 53'E
Surface area:38 km2
Max. length:11 km
Max. width:5 km
Inflowing river:Tarangire
Outflowing river:none - internal basin

LAKE CHALA
(International water)

Geographical data
Location:Kenya, Tanzania - 3° 19'S; 37° 42'E
Surface area:5.2 km2 (Kenya: 2.6 km2; Tanzania: 2.6 km2)
Max. length:4 km
Max. width:3 km

LAKE EMPAKAI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:7.4 km2
Max. length:3.5 km
Max. width:3 km
Special features:high altitude lake situated in Empakai Crater.

LAKE EYASI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 3° 20'–3° 50'S; 34° 45'–35° 20'E
Altitude:1 117 m
Max. length:75 km
Max. width:15 km
Special features:a soda lake of high salinity.

LAKE GOMBO

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 6° 38'S; 36° 42'E
Surface area:1.4 km2
Max. length:2 km
Max. width:1 km
Outflowing river:Gombo Mkondoa
 
Fisheries data
No. of fishermen:14 (1979)
No. of boats:18 (1979)
Total annual catch:77 t in 1979

LAKE HAUBI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No. of fishermenNo. of boats
19761.741
19772.851
19783.142
19790.74-

LAKE IGALULA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:10.4 km2

LAKE IKIMBA

Geographical data (Kiss, 1976b)
Location:Tanzania - 1° 25'–1° 30'S; 31° 35'E
Altitude:1 150 m
Surface area:35.3 km2
Depth:4 m (max); 2.8 m (mean)
Volume:99 × 106 m3
Max. length:6.1 km
Max. width:6.1 km
Shoreline:27 k
Outflowing river:Ngono River: acts as runoff but is itself separated from the lake by a swampy zone almost as extensive as the lake.

Physical and chemical data (Kiss, 1976b)
Conductivity:K25 77–79 μ S/cm
pH:7.89 (surface); 7.68 (bottom)
Temperature:22–26° C 
Ionic composition:   mg/l
 Na  4.4
 K  2.3
 Ca  4.28
 Mg  2.82
 HCO348.8
 Cl  2.45
 SiO2  4.8
 NH4-N  0.05
 PO4-P  4.5
 Fe  0.5
 NO2-NO3not detectable
 SO4not detectable
 
Fisheries data (Kiss, 1976b, 1977a)
Fish species:Only 4 recorded by Kiss: Protopterus aethiopicus, Clarias mossambicus, Oreochromis variabilis, Haplochromis nubilus. Physical condition of fish below all standards (minimum size, ecto- and endo-parasites).
No. of fishermen:10 in 1975–76
Total annual catch:5 t in 1975–76

LAKE ILAMBA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:8.1 km2

LAKE JIPE
(International water)

Geographical data (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Tanzania/Kenya - 3° 35'S; 37° 85'E
Altitude:700 m
Surface area:39 km2 (total)
Max. length:12 km
Max. width:3 km
Inflowing river:Lumi
 
Physical and chemical data (Kilham, 1971)
Conductivity:K25 618 μ S/cm  
Total alkalinity:CaCo3 437 mg/l  
Ionic composition: mg/l 
 Na170.0 
 K  11.0 
 Ca    7.6 
 Mg  20.2 
 Cl  94.0 
 SO4    8.0 
 SiO2  46.0 

Fisheries data (FAO/UNDP, 1966)
Total annual catch and effort: 150 t (in 1965) in Kenya waters only
Potential annual yield: 300 t total lake

LAKE KAJUMBURA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania (Kagera Lakes Complex)
Surface area:0.5 km2

LAKE KINDAI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 51'S; 34° 44'E
Surface area:2.6 km2
Max. length:2.5 km
Max. width:1.5 km

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1966  9830-
19681413417
19691643015
19701573715
19711813419
1972  383419
1973  595528
1974  332220

LAKE KINGILI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:6.1 km2

LAKE KITANGIRI

Geographical data (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Tanzania
 4° 00'–5° 00'S; 34° 10'–34° 25'E (including floodplain)
 4° 00'–4° 10'S; 34° 10'–34° 14'E (Lake only)
Altitude:800 m
Surface area:1 200 km2 (including floodplain)
 105 km2 (lake only, but varies seasonally)
Depth:3–5 m
Max. length:40 km
Max. width:12 km
Annual fluctuation in level: 1–3 m
Major inflowing rivers: Wembere, Manonga
Outflowing river:Sibiti to Lake Eyasi
 
Physical and chemical data (Talling & Talling, 1965)
Conductivity:K20 785 μ S/cm
pH:8.0–8.9
Dissolved solids:404–432 mg/l 
Ionic composition: mg/l 
 Na155.0 
 K4.8 
 Ca24.1 
 Mg6.7 
 Cl64.0 
 SO4<5.0 
 SiO234.5 
 HCO3+CO36.65 meq/l
 Total P1 020.0 μ g/l

Fisheries data
No. of fish species: 20 (Mann, 1965)
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
19704 113  317  235*
197111 498    296280
19721 771   --
1973467 68  71
1974532132  95
1975704136-
1976303396100
1977205129108
19781 285   188155
198740 (average)**  

* Welcomme, 1972
** Regional Fisheries Office, 1988

Potential annual yield: 1 000 t/yr (FAO, 1984)

LAKE KITERE

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 10° 22'S; 39° 45'E
Surface area:7.9 km2
Max. length:4.5 km
Max. width:2.5 km
Inflowing river:Mambi
Outflowing river:Mambi

LAKE LWELO

Location:Tanzania (Kagera Lakes Complex)

LAKE MAGADI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 3° 11'S; 35° 32'E
Surface area:8.4 km2
Max. length:4 km
Max. width:3 km
Special features:soda lake situated in Ngorongoro Crater

LAKE MAGADI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 3° 5'S; 36° 10'E
Surface area:6 km2
Max. length:3.5 km
Max. width:2.5 km
Inflowing river:Emugur Opetati
Outflowing river:none - internal basin

LAKE MAMKA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 44'S; 38° 5'E
Surface area:2.5 km2
Max. length:3 km
Max. width:1.5 km

LAKE MANSI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 7° 17'S; 39° 5'E
Surface area:39 km2
Max. length:4 km
Max. width:4 km
Outflowing river:Mbezi
Special features:largely overgrown with vegetation

LAKE MANYARA

Geographic location (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Tanzania - 3° 25'–3° 45'S; 35° 50'E
Altitude:1 045 m
Surface area:Approx. 470 km2
Max. length:40 km
Max. width:15 km
Depth:3.7 m (max) (Melack & Kilham, 1974)
Special features:soda lake; fishing restricted to littoral areas with inflowing rivers
 
Physical and chemical data
Conductivity:K20 94 000 μ S/cm (Talling & Talling, 1965)
 K20 8 610 μ S/cm (Melack & Kilham, 1974)
pH:9.1 (Melack & Kilham, 1974)
Ionic composition:(Talling & Talling, 1965)
  mg/l 
 Na21 500 
 K94 
 Ca10 
 Mg30 
 Cl8 670 
 SO41 056 
 SiO219 
 Total P65 
 HCO3+CO3806meq/l

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1970-294202
1971640356139
1972729296197
1973164101  54
1974172252  72

LAKE MINYERE

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 5° 7'S; 35° 4'E
Surface area:2.5 km2
Max. length:3.5 km
Max. width:1 km
Inflowing river:Mponde
Outflowing river:Mponde

LAKE MKOE

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 9° 34'S; 39° 36'E
Surface area:3.5 km2
Max. length:3.3 km
Max. width:1.5 km
Inflowing river:lateral spillage from Mbwemkuru
Outflowing river:channel to Mbwemkuru

LAKE MUJUNJU (= RWAKAJUNJU)

Geographic location (Kiss, 1977a) 
Location:Tanzania - 1° 40'S; 30° 55'E (Kagera Lakes Complex)
Altitude:1 280 m
Surface area:80 km2
Depth:11 m (max); 5.9 m (mean)
Volume:182 × 106 m3
Shoreline:57 km
Max. length:14.9 km
Max. width:6.1 km
 
Physical and chemical data (Kiss, 1977a)
Conductivity:K25 97 μ S/cm (surface); 98 μ S/cm (bottom)
pH:8.5 (surface); 7.4 (bottom)
Surface temperature: 23–25° C 
Ionic composition:   
  mg/l 
 Na6.5   
 K4.6   
 Ca5.35 
 Mg4.34 
 HCO3+CO345.75(surface); 48.80 (bottom)
 Cl9.23(surface); 10.29 (bottom)
 Fe++0.15(surface); 0.80 (bottom)

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1969–70472--
1971–74---
197537010086 (Blin, 1977)

LAKE NATRON
(International water)

Geographical data (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Kenya, Tanzania - 2° 10'– 2° 35'S; 36° E
Altitude:675 m
Surface area:1 000 km2
Max. length:50 km
Max. width:25 km
Special features:highly alkaline

Physical and chemical data (Guest & Stevens, 1951)
Ionic composition:

 mg/l 
K3 000 
Cl65 000 
SO43 100 
SiO2850 
HCO3+CO32 600meq/l
PO4-P29 000 μ g/l

LAKE NDUTU

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 2° 59'S; 35° 2'E
Surface area:13.5 km2 (varies seasonally)
Max. length:5.5 km
Max. width:3.5 km

LAKE NYASA/MALAWI
(International water)

Geographic location (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania
 9° 30 – 14° 40'S; 34° –35° E
Altitude:471 m
Surface area:30 800 km2 total (see Fig. 4)
 24 400 km2 in Malawi; 6 400 km2 in Mozambique; Tanzania claims 5 569 km2 of Malawian waters
Max. length:603 km
Max. width:87 km
Depth:758 m (max); 426 m (mean)
Volume:8 400 km3
Shoreline:1 500 km (total lake); 300 km in Tanzania
Catchment area:65 000 km2
Annual fluctuation in level: 6 m
Major inflowing rivers:Ruhuhu, Songwe
Outflowing river:Shire
Special features:Tanzania has some 300 km of shoreline on the lake, but because the Nyasa area is remote from major centres of population, development activity has been minimal and the evolution of the fisheries has not been well documented. It is not known to what extent the development of the Nyasa fisheries is complicated by the question of territorial jurisdiction. Around the time of Independence, it was reported that the formal border between Malawi and Tanzania coincided with the Tanzanian shoreline, so that, in theory, all the waters of the lake belonged to Malawi (Dibbs, 1964).
 
Physical and chemical data (Jackson et al., 1963)
Conductivity:K20 220 μ S/cm
Surface temperature:23–25 C
pH:7.7–8.6
Alkalinity:N × 10-4: 20.0–25.9

Ionic composition:(Jackson et al., 1963) (Talling & Talling, 1965)
  mg/lmg/l 
 Na-21.0 
 K-6.4 
 Ca15.1–20.219.8 
 CaCO3100.0–129.0- 
 Mg6–94.7 
 HCO3+CO3-144.0 
 Cl-4.3 
 SO4-<5.0–5.5 
 SiO21.5–7.01.1 
 NO3-N0.02- 
 PO4-P0.1–0.2- 

Fisheries data
No. of fish species:
 245 described species, of which 193 are cichlids (Greenwood, 1964)
No. of fishermen:(Welcomme,1972) 
 Malawi6 500 
 Tanzania3 654 
No. of boats:(Welcomme,1972) 
 Malawi1 000canoes
     100dinghies
       25boats
 Tanzania1 898canoes
Total annual catch and effort: (from Tanzanian shore)

YearTotal catch
(t)
No.of fishermenNo.of boats
1973-2 8071 991
19746 6932 7812 284
19756 303--
19761 264--
19779 794--
1978   872--
1979   743--
1980   946--
19817 496--
198624 800–35 900*    
 10 000–15 000**  

* Official estimate, Fisheries Department, 1988.
** Current estimate, several authors cited in Reynolds, 1989

Campbell and Moreni (1988) noted that fishing activity along the Tanzanian shore appeared to be minimal, owing to lack of gear and inadequate craft.

Potential annual yield: (cited in Balarin, 1985b)
                      15 000 t/yr (Robinson, 1982)
                    100 000 t/yr (MNRT, 1983)


Fig. 4

Fig. 4. LAKES NYASA/MALAWI AND MALOMBE
(Welcomme, 1972)

LAKE NZIWI

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania
Surface area:6.1 km2

LAKE RUKWA

Geographical data (Welcomme, 1972)
Location:Tanzania - 7° 38'–8° 22'S; 31° 49'–32° 55'E
Altitude:500 m
Surface area:2 300 km2 circa (total area) The lake is divided into a permanent South Lake with a shallow North Lake which dries up from time to time.
Depth:6.5 m (max)
Max. length:150 km
Max. width:15 km
 
Physical and chemical data
Conductivity:North Lake: K20 5 120 μ S/cm (Talling & Talling, 1965)
 South Lake: K25 354–400 μ S/cm
pH:8.0–9.3

Ionic composition: South LakeNorth Lake 
  (Ricardo, 1939)(Talling & Talling, 1965) 
  mg/lmg/l 
 Na149.41 140.0 
 K  19.4     85.0 
 Ca  12.2    <1.0 
 Mg    4.6    <1.0 
 Cl  25.8  383.0 
 SO4    2.9  130.0 
 SiO2  76.7  115.0 
 HCO3+CO3           7.09 meq/l             53.5 meq/l 
 Total P-       4 500.0 μ g/l 

Fisheries data 
No. of fish species:17 (Poll, 1957)
No. of fishermen:1 381 in 1970 (Welcomme, 1972)
No. of boats:1 376 in 1970 (Welcomme, 1972)
Total annual catch and effort: 

YearTotal catch (t)No. of fishermenNo. of boats
19709 8791 3811 376
19716 6131 4581 466
1972---
19734 8171 5831 371
19742 287   882   725
19753 342   546-
19762 4623 0501 988
19773 007   349   282
19785 905   515   479
1979   175--
1980   118--
1981   313--
19865 990(Regional Fisheries Office, 1988)

Potential annual yield: 3 000 t (FAO, 1984)

LAKE RUTAMBA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 10° 2'S; 39° 28'E
Surface area:2.4 km2
Depth:6–8 m (max); 2 m (mean)
Max. length:3.5 km
Max. width:2.3 km
Annual fluctuation in level: 2 m
Inflowing river:Nghara
Outflowing river:Lupululu
 
Fisheries data
No. of fishermen:115 (1979)
No. of boats:28 (1979)
Total annual catch: 
 79 t in 1979
 32 t in 1987 (Regional Fisheries Office, 1988)

LAKE SAGARA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 5° 13'S; 31° 6'E
Surface area:9.6 km2
Max. length:5.5 km
Max. width:2.5 km
Inflowing river:Zivwe
Outflowing river:Zivwe

LAKE SEKENA

Location:Tanzania (Kagera Lakes Complex)

LAKE SINGIDA

Geographical data
Location:Tanzania - 4° 47'S; 35° 45'E
Surface area:12.3 km2
Max. length:7 km
Max. width:2.5 km

Fisheries data
Total annual catch and effort:

YearTotal catch
(t)
No. of fishermenNo. of boats
1967  502310
19682494623
19692465628
19702595017
19714163818
19721133818




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