Ziad H. Shehadeh
Senior Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture)
Fishery Resources Division

Martinez-Espinoza, M. 1996. Report of the Expert Consultation on Small-scale Rural Aquaculture. Rome, Italy, 28-31 May 1996. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 548. Rome, FAO. 1996. 182p.

The publication deals with the results of a preliminary
consultation on small-scale rural aquaculture, convened by the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resources Division, FAO, at FAO HQ, Rome in May 1996. It presents a summary of discussions and principal conclusions reached, followed by abstracts and full versions of the overview and thematic papers, together with abstracts of the information papers. The objective of the consultation was to provide FAO and its members with information and advice on the role of small-scale aquaculture in rural development. To this end, participants were asked to analyze and reflect on four keynote papers prepared by selected participants. The keynote papers covered four themes, identified in an overview paper: "Options for small-scale aquaculture development". The four theme papers were:

• defining objectives and indicators and identifying target groups,

• the implications of integrating small scale aquaculture within agriculture and rural development,

• the institutional context: the roles of the public/private sector, and

• options in research methods/approaches and mechanisms for extension based on research results.

Four information papers were also presented and discussed. Highlights of the meetings are summarized in a preceding article in this newsletter.

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FAO Fisheries Department. 1996. Fisheries and aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa: situation and outlook in 1996. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 919. Rome, FAO. 1996. 37p.

FAO Fisheries Department. 1996. Fisheries and aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean: situation and outlook in 1996. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 921. Rome, FAO. 1996. 54p.

FAO Fisheries Department. 1996. Fisheries and aquaculture in Europe: situation and outlook in 1996. Fisheries Circular. No. 911. Rome, FAO. 1996. 54p.

FAO Fisheries Department. 1996. Fisheries and aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: situation and outlook in 1996. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 922. Rome, FAO. 44p.


The FAO Fisheries Department has prepared a major review entitled The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, which includes eight regional summaries prepared from detailed analyses of the state of fisheries and aquaculture in each of the eight regions. These detailed studies are being published in the FAO Fisheries Circular series. The first four to appear in print are listed above. The circulars follow a standard format and are organized in five main sections: (1) Current Fisheries Situation - dealing with the role of fisheries in the regional economy and the role of regional fisheries in world fisheries; (2) The Fisheries Sector: situation and trends - including trends in production and status of stocks in marine and inland capture fisheries and production from aquaculture, fish utilization, distribution and marketing, domestic consumption and nutrition, international trade in fishery products, technology and infrastructure, and investment in the fisheries sector; (3) Institutional and Policy Framework - including macro-economics and fisheries sector planning, national policies for conservation and management, regional fisheries organizations and arrangements, national fisheries administrations, and fisheries research and training; (4) Special Issues - dealing with main issues facing fisheries and aquaculture in the region and (5) Outlook - which examines future production and consumption of fish and prospects for increased production by sub-sector.

Townsley, P. 1996. Rapid rural appraisal, participatory rural appraisal and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical paper. No. 358. Rome, FAO. 1996. 109p.

This publication is intended for aquaculture
development specialists, aquaculture project managers, and officials and specialists involved in the planning and management of aquaculture activities. It is intended to provide an introduction to Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) for people working in these fields. The principle components of these two approaches to information collection and planning are described along with the various tools used with a case study to illustrate their use and some of the issues they raise. Possible applications of the approaches for those involved in aquaculture development are given and an outline provided of the sorts of planning and institutional context where they can best be applied. The problems and shortcomings of the approaches are also discussed and guidelines given for the use of alternative approaches to information gathering and planning.

Subasinghe, R.P.; Arthur, J.R.; Shariff M. (Eds.) 1996. Health management in Asian aquaculture. Proceedings of the Regional Expert Consultation on Aquaculture Health Management in Asia and the Pacific. Serdang, Malaysia, 22-24 May 1995. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 360. Rome, FAO. 1996. 142p.

The drive to produce more fish and shellfish to meet
growing demand has lead many aquaculturists in Asia to intensify their operations. In many instances, the complex balance between the fish/shellfish and the environment is not well understood and the organism under culture often becomes stressed and prone to infections. As has been witnessed, disease has been and will continue to be a major constraint to the development of the aquaculture industry. Considering FAO's priority on developing sustainable aquaculture, the large Asian contribution to global aquaculture production and the seemingly high losses of revenue due to diseases and health-related problems, FAO, in consultation with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in the Asia-Pacific (NACA), the Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute (AAHRI), the South East Asian Development Centre (SEAFDEC) and the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM), and in collaboration with the Fish Health Section of the Asian Fisheries Society (FHS/AFS), organized a Regional Expert Consultation on Aquaculture Fish Health Management in Asia and the Pacific, which was held at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia in May 1995. This document comprises the technical papers presented at the Consultation, and is a supplement to the report of the consultation (FAO Fisheries Report No. 529. FAO, Rome, 1995. 24p).

FAO. 1996. Precautionary approach to fisheries. Part 2: scientific papers. Prepared for the Technical Consultation on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries (Including Species Introductions). Lysekil, Sweden, 6-13 June 1995. (A scientific meeting organized by the Government of Sweden in cooperation with FAO). FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 350, Part 2. Rome, FAO. 1996.

The document contains a series of scientific papers
intended to provide a comprehensive review and analytical background for the drafting of guidelines on the precautionary approach to fisheries by the Technical Consultation on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries organized in Lysekil, Sweden, 6-13 June 1995 by the Government of Sweden in co-operation with FAO. It provides a comprehensive review of the concept of precaution in all aspects of fisheries and its implications for fishery research, technology development and transfer, as well as for conservation and management. It also provides a series of topical papers on: (a) the development of scientific advice with incomplete information; (b) risk assessment, economics


and precautionary fishery management; (c) precautionary management reference points and management strategies; (d) the assessment of the precautionary nature of fishery management strategies; (e) the precautionary approach to species introduction; and (f) the precautionary aspects of fishery technology development. The paper entitled Precautionary approach to the introduction and transfer of aquatic species by D. Bartley and D. Minchin should be of special interest to aquaculturists, who would also benefit from the general principles and approaches discussed in the technical papers.

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FAO, 1997. Management for freshwater fish culture: ponds and water practices. FAO Training Series, No. 21/1. Rome, FAO. 1996. 233p.

The training manuals on simple methods for
aquaculture published in the FAO Training Series are prepared by the Inland water Resources and Aquaculture Service of the Fishery Resources and Aquaculture Division, Fisheries Department. They are written in simple language and present methods and equipment useful not only for those responsible for field projects and aquaculture extension in developing countries but also for use in aquaculture training courses. They concentrate on most aspects of semi-intensive fish culture in fresh waters from selection of the site and builing of the fish farm to the raising and final harvesting of the fish. This is the fifth manual in the series. It deals with the practical aspects of pond management in freshwater fish culture, including mangement of water quality, controlling water losses, protecting farm structures and fish stocks, pond fertilization, and the integration of animal husbandry and fish farming.

FAO Fisheries Department. 1997. Aquaculture development . FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 5. Rome, FAO. 1997. 40 p.

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food production systems in the world, with the bulk of its output currently being produced witthin developing

countries, and with expectations for aquaculture to continue its contributions to food security and poverty alleviation. The vast majority of aquaculture practices around the world have been pursued with significant nutritional and social benefits, and generally with little or no environmental costs. However, it is essential for current efforts aiming at the future success of aquaculture in both developing and developed countries, that potential social and environmental pro-blems are duly addresed in order to ensure that aqua-culture develops sustainably.

This document provides annotations to the Principles of Article 9 of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. These annotations are meant to serve as general guidance, and should be taken as suggestions or observations intended to assist those interested in identifying their own criteria and options for actions, as well as partners for collaboration, in support of sustainable aquaculture development.

Given the diversity in aquaculture and the sometimes different perceptions of "sustainability", more balanced and informed approaches are required to address developmental and environmental issues at any given location. Commitment for collaboration, constructive dialogues among responsible partners, and participation of aquafarmers and their communities are important when assigning responsibilities for sustainable development of aquaculture.

De Graaf, G. And H. Jensen. 1996. Artificial propagation and pond rearing of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus in sub-Saharan Africa - A handbook. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 362. Rome, FAO. 1996. 73p.

The manual is based on the experiences of the authors on the artificial reproduction and pond rearing of the African catfish C. Gariepinus within FAO field projects in the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria.

The manual is divided into five major sections dealing with: 1) general biology, including natural feeding habits and reproduction; 2) induced propagation without and through hormone injection; 3) fry nursing in earthen ponds, including pond preparation, fertilization, feeding and management; 4) monoculture, including feeding methods; and 5) polyculture with tilapia. Information is also provided concerning the economics of different fingerling and grow-out farming practices in Africa, and concerning diseases and hybridization.



Barg, U.C., D.M. Bartley, A.G.J. Tacon and R.L. Welcomme. 1996. Aquaculture and its environment: a case for collaboration. Paper presented at the Second World Fisheries Congress, 28 July-2 August 1996, Brisbane, Australia.

Bartley, D.M. 1997. Current status, trends and problems on genetics and breeding in aquaculture and fisheries. Paper presented at the Seminar on Genetics and Breeding of Mediterranean Aquaculture Species. Network on Technology of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (TECAM), Zaragosa, Spain, 28-30 April, 1997.

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Halwart, M., M. Borlinghaus and G. Kaule. 1996. Activity pattern of fish in rice fields. Aquaculture 145: 159-170.

Heidenreich, A. and M. Halwart. 1995. Fish farming and other integrated pest management strategies against Pomacea snails in rice fields: A computer simulation. Paper presented at the 4th Asian Fisheries Forum, 16-20 October, Beijing, P. R. China.

Satia, B.P. and D.M. Bartley. 1997. The paradox of international introductions of aquatic organisms in Africa. Paper presented to the First Meeting on Population Genetics and Aquaculture in Africa. Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1-4, April, 1997.

Tacon, A.G.J., 1996. Feeding tomorrow's fish - the Asian experience. Paper presented at the INFOFISH-AQUATECH 96 International Conference on Aquaculture, 25-27 September 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tacon, A.G.J., 1996. Raw materials for salmonids - alternatives to fishmeal. Paper presented at the Nutreco Aquaculture Business Conference `Aquavision', 13-14 November 1996, Stavanger, Norway

Tacon, A.G.J. & D.M. Akiyama. 1997. Feed ingredients, In L.R. D'Abramo, D.E. Conklin & D.M. Akiyama (Editors), Crustacean Nutrition. Advances in World Aquaculture, Vol.6, 587pp.


Barg, U.C. and R. Lavilla-Pitogo. 1996. The use of chemicals in aquaculture: a summary brief of two international expert meetings. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), December 1996, No. 14: 12 - 14.

Pedini, M. 1996. Aquaculture in the GFCM countries: its evolution from 1984 to1994. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), December 1996, No. 14: 18 - 23.

Shehadeh, Z.H. and I. Feidi. 1996. Aquaculture development and resource limitations in Egypt. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), December 1996, No. 14: 3 - 7.

Tacon, A.G.J. 1996. European aquaculture - trends and outlooks. FAO GLOBEFISH Research Programme, Vol. 51, 205p. Rome, FAO.

Van Houtte, A. 1996. Legal aspects concerning aquaculture: some food for thought.FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), December 1996, No.14: 14 - 17.

Welcomme, R.L. 1996. Stocking as a technique for enhancement of fisheries. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), December 1996, No. 14: 8 - 11.

Welcomme, R.L. and D. M. Bartley. 1997. A review of present techniques for the enhancement of fisheries. Presented to the FAO/ODA International Expert Consultation on Inland Fishery Enhancements, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2 - 14, 1997.

The FAO Aquaculture Newsletter is now available in the internet at the following address: