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Ziad H. Shehadeh

Fishery Resources Division


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Regional Programme on
Sustainable Aquaculture
for Rural Development (SARDev)

It has become very clear from various fora that Sustainable Aquaculture for Rural Development" with focus on (i) poverty alleviation, (ii) food security, (iii) environmental and natural resources management, and (iv) advancement of women is an appropriate, relevant and timely theme for regional co-operation. Developmental research on rural aquaculture was identified as a priority theme for regional co-operation by the 1996 FAO-NACA Survey and Analysis of Aquaculture Development Research Priorities and Capacities in Asia. It was envisaged that the recommendations of the study and associated workshop would form the basis of specific regional and sub-regional follow-up programmes. Accordingly, project concepts were prepared for this purpose by the workshop.

The development of a Programme on "Sustainable Aquaculture for Rural Development" (SARDev) was approved by the Governing Council of NACA (Hanoi, December 1997), based on a concept prepared by a regional consultation of experts and lead centres convened by NACA. NACA’s Technical Advisory Committee, at its 5th Meeting, held in India in June 1998, reviewed the programme concept, clarified its objectives and outputs and the implementation mechanism, and recommended to the Secretariat a plan of action to develop the proposal. In addition, the FAO Asia- Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC), in its twenty-sixth Session (Beijing, September 1998), agreed that small-scale rural aquaculture was an effective vehicle for rural development and established an ad hoc Working Group of Experts on Rural Aquaculture to address issues and advise the Commission in this field.

In view of these developments, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and FAO have agreed to collaborate on the establishment of the Regional Programme on Sustainable

Aquaculture for Rural Development (SARDev Programme) for the Asia-Pacific region and have signed a Letter of Agreement for that purpose. FAO will play a catalytic role, by assisting in planning and project formulation, in the context of its Regular Programme activities in this field. The organization will also continue to cooperate with the programme, once established, by means of specific joint activities in areas of mutual interest.

The objectives of the programme would be to:

i) promote the development and utilization of sustainable aquaculture technology and management systems that are appropriate for target rural communities through applied and adaptive research, manpower training and information exchange;

ii) develop the capacities of farmers and women in poor rural communities to adapt and apply technologies and management systems aimed to produce more food, generate more income and manage the environment and production resources in a sustainable manner; and

iii) strengthen the capabilities of regional, national and local institutions including farmers and women’s groups involved in technology development, training, information dissemi-nation and utilization.

NACA and FAO will convene a planning workshop, tentatively scheduled for 29-31 March 1999, in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The workshop will:

i) collate national information relevant to the above 3 purposes including past, ongoing and planned activities on rural aquaculture, needs and priorities;

ii) discuss the experience of other organizations in rural aquaculture development; iii) define the Programme scope; iv) define more precisely the objectives, outputs, targets and activities of the Programme; and


v) identify possible 'catalytic' project components that can facilitate the development of the Regional Programme.

Participants will include experts from a number of countries in Asia-Pacific , plus experts from FAO-RAPA, FAO-Rome, and NACA, and from regional and international organizations with active programmes in small-scale rural aquaculture. They will encompass expertise in rural aquaculture technologies, extension, rural development, information trans-mission,and gender issues in development.

The conclusions reached at the workshop will provide guidelines for the joint NACA-FAO project formulation mission, to be fielded shortly after the workshop.

Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millenium

The Conference is organized by the Network ofAquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), in>cooperation with FAO, and hosted by the Thai>Government. It will be held on 20-25 February 2 000>and will be preceded by an inaugural ceremony on>20 February 2 000.

Objectives and outputs

The Conference is global in scope, with reviews of regional and global trends and perspectives, and aims to envision the state of aquaculture in the next century. It will work to attain a consensus on perspectives and future trends in aquaculture, and develop strategies to address emerging opportunities and constraints, including a plan of action for regional and inter-regional cooperation. The recommendations of the Conference will provide governments with guidelines for aquaculture development planning in the next century.


Governments, NGOs, farmer organizations, industrial houses, R & D institutions, investment agencies, development assistance organizations, societies, and other support institutions will be participating. The organizers expect some 500-600 participants to the Conference and triple this number to take part in or visit the Aquaculture Trade Fair 2000 which will be held simultaneously.


The programme of the Conference was finalized at the Second Steering Committee meeting held at the NACA headquarters on 21-23 January 1999. It was described by the Steering Committee Chairman, Dr T V R Pillay, as "proactive and forward looking". [Dr Pillay was chief organizer of the first global technical conference on aquaculture, (organized by FAO and the Govemment of Japan), held in Kyoto, Japan in 1976.]

The programme of the Conference will consist of the following sessions:

Global and Regional Overviews

The Conference programme starts with three keynote addresses: (i) a review of the global development in aquaculture since the Kyoto Conference in 1976, (ii) a look at global prospects beyond 2 000, and (iii) a presentation of the issues and challenges facing Asian aquaculture. This will be immediately followed by the presentation of aquaculture development status and trends in other regions including Africa, Latin America, North America, Europe (East and West), the Near East and the Pacific Community.

Policy and Technology

Two parallel sessions will follow the global and regional reviews:

(1) Policy and planning for sustainable aquaculture, which will consist of discussion groups on (i) increasing the contribution of aquaculture to food security and poverty alleviation, (ii) addressing social issues, (iii) integrating aquaculture into rural and coastal development, (iv) involving stakeholders in aquaculture policy-making, planning and management, (v) promoting sustainable aquaculture with economic incentives, and (vi) creating the information base for aquaculture policy making, planning and management, and (vii) establishing legal, institutional and regulatory frameworks for aquaculture development and management.

(2) Technologies for sustainable aquaculture , which will consist of discussion groups on (i) aquaculture systems and species, (ii) genetics and broodstock and seed improvement, (iii) health management and disease control, (1v) nutrition and feeding, (v) culture based fisheries and enhancement, and (vi) systems approach to aquaculture management.


Two other discussion sessions will focus on:

Aquaculture Products Quality, Safety, Marketing and Trade, and Aquaculture Development Financing and

Institutional Support Five important issues will be covered in separate special sessions or by special lectures and discusdons:

Special Sessions and Topics

• environment and community-based management issues in aquaculture,

• human resource development,

• demand and supply of aquaculture products

• role of development banks in promoting aquaculture development, and

• regional and inter-regional cooperation. The final day of the Conference will consist of summary presentations of the syntheses and recommendations of the different group discussions, and the workshop conclusions and recommendations, all to be presented in plenary.

Conference organization

A Programme Committee is being appointed by the Steering Committee to assist in the technical organization of the Conference while the Government of Thailand will form a national organizing committee to take care of logistics .

Keynote speakers, session chairpersons, special lecturers, resource persons, and panel discussants are being invited in line with Conference structure. Technical review papers on topics relevant to the various conference session themes are welcome.

NACA will conduct a regional planning workshop for Asia in September 1999, and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community is formulating an aquaculture development strategy for the Pacific Community which will also be presented at the Conference. FAO will hold regional exercises to develop the review of status and trends in regions other than Asia and the Pacific. A synthesis of all these reviews (including that of Asia and the Pacific) will be carried out in a workshop to be held in Bangkok in October, 1999. This global synthesis will be brought into the Conference to provide the global overview.

Plenary lectures will precede group discussion sessions. The group discussion sessions will be based on a resource paper, a panel discussion, and a general

discussion. Panel discussants will debate the different aspects of the topic, and the general or open discussion will serve to clarify and suggest resolutions on important issues. Panel discussants will thus be expected to present more specialized papers of a strategic rather than technical orientation.

Contributed technical and experience papers are expected to provide scientific background and support to the topics under discussion. Authors will be requested to highlight the main points of their papers during the general discussion. As in the Kyoto conference, the summaries of the technical papers will also be part of the proceedings while the full papers will be in the technical publication of the Conference.

For more information, contact:

J. Jia (FAO/FIRI) e-mail:

Fax: 0039-06-57053020, or

The Secretary General,

Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millenium


Fax: 0066-2-561-1727 Co

llpag27-1.gif (3347 byte)aborative activities with ICLARM


Study on the Production, Accessibility and Consumption Patterns of Aquaculture Products

The FAO Fisheries Department and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) have signed a Letter of Agreement for a collaborative macro-analysis of the production, accessibility and consumption patterns of major farmed freshwater fish in five Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Philippines and Thailand). The study will be carried out during the period 1 December 1998 - 31 December 1999. Focal points for the study are Dr. Madan Dey (ICLARM), Dr. Erhard Ruckes (Fish Utilization and Marketing Service, FAO) and Dr. Ziad Shehadeh (Inland Water Resources and aquaculture Service, FAO). The study will be carried out in collaboration with professional colleagues in the five target countries and will be co-ordinated by the study leader, Dr. M. Dey.

The tentative scope of the study consists of the following components:


1. Sector overview - production levels & production trends. Contribution of aquaculture to national fish and protein production and supplies. Trends. Prevalent farm size; farm ownership/tenure (family-based; private-commercial; state-owned; collective; etc.) and estimated contribution to national aquaculture production. Prevalent production systems and main cultured species. Mode of operation (stand-alone/ part of farming system). Objective (subsistence/ market-oriented).

2. Development Policies - macro-economic policies as they may influence markets and access. Export earnings vs. products for local consumption. Land ownership/tenure security. Incentives & disincentives.

3. Demand Characteristics - protein consumption: fish vs. other protein sources. Freshwater fish vs. marine fish. Consumption/demand by income group; changes in consumption by income group over last 20 years. Consumption by aquaculture producers vs. non-producers. Cultural preferences and geographic differences. Trends. Elasticities of demand (price and income elasticities, cross price elasticities).

4. Marketing - (a) overview of marketing practices. Market structure and channels (rural, urban, export). Marketing margins. Credit. Insurance schemes in aquaculture. Ownership structure (private/co-operative/municipal/state, etc.). Short section on retail developments. (b) Obstacles to access: deficiencies in market access which may be due to low volume, lack of buyers, inadequate infrastructure and marketing facilities; economic factors such as weakness of competitive position and lack of bargaining power in price formation, financial constraints, consumer attitudes. (c) Impact of changes in production centres and methods of production - shift of production to peri-urban areas near major consumption centres. Effects of growing intensification of production on fish prices. Impact of increased industrialization of production (i.e. shift to large-scale industrial producers).

5. Socio-economics - purchasing power(rural vs. urban consumers) . Trends. Price levels of different species (cultured & captured, high value and low value) vs. other protein sources. Role of women in fish production, and fish trade.

6. Conclusions and recommendations - consumption and access implications (for aquaculture products) of noted trends, policy measures, production, disposable income, marketing, etc. Analysis of future domestic market potential in view of

existing and evolving consumption patterns and marketing development, and measures required to realize the potential. Specific actions by specific actors/sectors. Possible role of government.

A first draft of the study report is expected March 2 000. The two organizations are considering convening a workshop on the study theme following completion of the final report of the study.

Farmer-Proven Integrated Agriculture/ Aquaculture: A Technology Information Kit

FAO, ICLARM and the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) are collaborating on revising and updating an information kit on farm-proven integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming techno-logies prepared in 1992 by IIRR and ICLARM but which was given only limited circulation at the time . The document will be revised based on review of the organization and contents of the 1992 document by a number of selected experts in the field, who will advise, among other things, on potential additions to the document . The document is intended for use in education and extension and to increase the awareness of policy makers and planners about opportunities for, and benefits of certain farming practices that integrate agriculture and aquaculture.. The revised document will be published by the end of 1999 or early in the year 2 000.

Technical Report on Integrated Rice-Fish Farming

In a related development, the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (FAO-RAP) has recently signed an agreement with ICLARM for the preparation of a Technical Report on Integrated Rice-Fish Farming. The report will review the status of rice-fish farming globally, with emphasis on Asia-Pacific region, technologies in practice, socio-economic impacts (on income, food security, rural development etc.), research need to be undertaken and institutional support needed for popularization of the farming system.

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The European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC) will hold a Symposium on Fisheries and Society in connection with its 21st session in Hungary in June 2000.



The value of inland fisheries to the people of Europe needs to be clearly re-stated. The Symposium will assess the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sector to providing food, employment and recreation together with cultural values in such fields as ethnology, ecology and bio-diversity. With a multiplicity of social, technical, environmental and political pressures affecting inland fisheries at the present time, there is an urgent need for greater understanding, recognition and communication of the value of fish and fisheries. The principal aim of the Symposium will be to make a broad assessment of the state of inland fisheries in Europe at the end of the 2nd millennium and to set down the essential steps to be taken for developments into the 21 st century.


The symposium will examine social, economic and cultural aspects of inland fisheries, in accordance with the following themes: • Sectoral and fishery evaluation
• Economic aspects and trends
• Social and cultural aspects and trends
• Interactions between recreational fisheries, commercial fisheries and aquaculture
• Interactions with other sectors
• The future of inland fisheries over the next decade.

Information Topics

It is anticipated that information will be presented on the following topics:

• Assessment of fisheries systems
• Valuation of social, economic and cultural components
• Harmonisation amongst users
• Socio-economic principles of management
• Legislation and enforcement
• New trends in education and promotion
• Future demands on the fisheries sector
• User participation in fisheries management
• Sectoral and policy assessment

Call for Papers

Contributions are invited within any of these broad headings. It is suggested that the majority will relate to experiences within

countries, both reviewing past and present and predicting future opportunities. Inter-active discussion during the Symposium will lead to a major statement embracing the entire concept of the inland fisheries of Europe. Anyone wishing to present a paper or poster display should submit a title by 31 March 1999 to the Secretary of EIFAC, Fishery Resources Division, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, e-mail, fax (+39) 065705 3020.

Papers will be accepted in English or French, the official languages of EIFAC, but no interpretation will be provided. An abstract, not to exceed 150 words, of the proposed contribution should be submitted, preferably by e-mail, by 31 August 1999. The Steering Committee will review all abstracts in relation to the objectives and themes of the Symposium and the authors will be informed of the outcome by 1 December 1999. Successful authors must submit a draft manuscript not later than 1 March 2000.

The Convener of the Symposium is Dr Matti Sipponen (Finland), fax (+358-14) 443 7335. The Chairman is Dr Karoly Pinter (Hungary), fax (+36-1) 301 4781. The twenty-sixth session of the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission

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The Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) held its Twenty-sixth Session and a Symposium on Fish Utilization in the Asia-Pacific Region from 24 to 30 September 1998 at the Beijing Continental Grand Hotel, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. The Session was attended by the representatives of sixteen Members of the Commission and observers from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). The Commission, inter alia, identified emerging issues in fisheries and aquaculture in the region and agreed to establish three Ad Hoc working groups:

a) Ad hoc Working Group of Experts in Food Safety;

b) Ad hoc Working Group of Experts in Capture Fishery Data Collection; and

c) Ad hoc Working Group of Experts in Rural Aquaculture.

The deliberations on aquaculture are reported in the following verbatim excerpts from the report of the session:


  • The Commission noted that aquaculture haddeveloped rapidly during the past decade with eight out of the top ten global producers located in Asia. The general impression was that the potential for further growth and development of aquaculture is good and that increased production could reduce the shortfall created by the decrease in supply from capture fisheries. The Commission fully agreed that the strategic issue for aquaculture development is sustainability. Sustainability in aquaculture could be achieved only by resolving the issues of immediate concern that included improved resource use and input supply, strengthening of the aquaculture information system, improved health management of cultivable species, accelerated research and improved training. In addition, there were requirements for extension services, integration of rural aquaculture with the agriculture and livestock sectors, improved quality and safety of aquaculture products; integrated planning for aquaculture development and promotion of small-scale aquaculture for rural food security.

  • Several Members were of the view that the future role of APFIC should include the promotion of technical cooperation amongst countries in the region in the acceleration of sustainable aquaculture development. A number of examples of the positive impacts of appropriate technology transfer from one country to another were cited, including those for converting wastelands for aquaculture, cage culture and fish disease control through proper farm management, and small-scale backyard hatcheries for fish and shrimp.

  • The Commission agreed that good extension work played an essential role in sustainable aquaculture development and noted that several Members were still in need of assistance in the strengthening of their aquaculture extension systems. The technologies for breeding, fry/fingerling rearing and grow-out were available; however, what was lacking was the effective

transfer of these technologies from research laboratories to the farmers. It was pointed out that technical cooperation among the Members could help in transferring successful extension experience from one country to another.

  • The Commission agreed that small-scale rural aquaculture should be considered as an effective vehicle for rural development by making a sustainable contribution to rural food security through the production of fish for food and the generation of employment and income. It was pointed out that the major constraints, such as lack of seed and extension services, had to be dealt with.
  • Several Members suggested that, for landlocked countries and countries whose capture fisheries were overexploited, special emphasis should be given to the development of aquaculture. It was also pointed out that some cold water species (Tor putitora (Mahseer) and Tor tor) in the Himalayan range are overexploited and are in danger of extinction. It was suggested that special efforts be made for artificial breeding and culturing of these species.
  • The Commission agreed that the measures for assurance of quality and safety of aquaculture products should be applied not only to products for export but also to products for local consumption. In this connection, however, special care should be taken in integrating aquaculture with livestock rearing (for example, integrating fish culture with pig rearing).
  • Some Members underlined that aquaculture might cause some pollution and negative ecological impact and suggested that, to minimize this impact, aquaculture farm design and operation should be standardized. It was also pointed out that the introduction of exotic species for culture may create an undesirable impact on local ecosystems. Consequently, such introductions should be carried out with extreme care and following the international rules, regulations and procedures related to the transfer of live animals and quarantine guidelines.




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Convenor: Bonnie Brown (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA)

Instructors: Jim Parsons (Blue Lakes Trout, USA)
John Benzie (Australian Institute of Marine Science, AUSTRALIA)

Topics will include selection protocols and theories, quantitative genetic overview, molecular assisted strategies, steps to domesticate local (wild) aquatic animals/plants, and case histories tailored to the atendees. There is no charge for attending this workshop; however, space is limited to 24 participants so be sure to include the application below with your conference registration.



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Send completed application form as soon as possible to:
World Aquaculture ‘99
Conference Manager
21710 Seventh Place West, Bothell, WA 98021.

For other information please contact:
Bonnie Brown, Tel: 1 804 828 1562,
Fax: 1 804 828 0503, e-mail:
Devin Bartley, Tel: 39 06 5705 4376,
Fax: 39 06 5705 3020, e-mail:

space is limited in the workshop and applicants are encouraged to send forms in early to ensure participation. There is no fee for the workshop other than normal WAS registration.