Shark Utilization, Marketing and Trade



by
Stefania Vannuccini
FAO Consultant

FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 389
Rome, 1999

 

Table of Contents



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-47
ISBN 92-5-104361-2

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


PREPARATION OF THE DOCUMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

STANDARD SYMBOLS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BIOLOGY

3. CATCHES

3.1 CATCHES BY SPECIES
3.2 CATCHES BY COUNTRY
3.3 CATCHES BY FISHING AREA

3.3.1 Western Indian Ocean
3.3.2 Eastern Indian Ocean
3.3.3 Western Central Pacific
3.3.4 Northwest Pacific
3.3.5 Eastern Central Pacific
3.3.6 Northwest Atlantic
3.3.7 Northeast Atlantic
3.3.8 Western Central Atlantic
3.3.9 Eastern Central Atlantic
3.3.10 Southwest Atlantic
3.3.11 Mediterranean and Black Sea
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3

3.4 COMMENTS
3.5 PROTECTION/REGULATIONS

4. UTILIZATION

5. PRODUCTION AND TRADE

5.1 PRODUCTION
5.2 EXPORTS
5.3 IMPORTS

Table 6 - Table 9
Table 10 - Table 11
Table 12 - Table 13
Table 14 - Table 16
Table 17

6. PRODUCTS

6.1 MEAT

6.1.1 Market names
6.1.2 Preferred species
6.1.3 Markets and trade

6.1.3.1 Africa
6.1.3.2 Europe
6.1.3.3 Asia
6.1.3.4 North and Central America
6.1.3.5 Latin America
6.1.3.6 Oceania

6.1.4 Prices
6.1.5 Processing and preparation
6.1.6 Composition and nutritional value

6.2 FINS

6.2.1 Characteristics
6.2.2 Products
6.2.3 Grading
6.2.4 Preferred species
6.2.5 Pricing
6.2.6 Processing

6.2.6.1 Fresh Fins
6.2.6.2 Dried Fins
6.2.6.3 Processed Fins
6.2.6.4 Fin Needles
6.2.6.5 Fin Nets

6.2.7 Artificial shark fin
6.2.8 Trade and markets

6.2.8.1 Africa
6.2.8.2 Asia
6.2.8.3 Europe
6.2.8.4 North and Central America
6.2.8.5 Latin America
6.2.8.6 Oceania

6.3 INTERNAL ORGANS AND OTHER EDIBLE PRODUCTS
6.4 NON-FOOD USES

6.4.1 Shark liver oil products
6.4.2 Shark cartilage
6.4.3 Shark skin
6.4.4 Shark teeth
6.4.5 Other uses of shark

7. SELECTED MARKETS

7.1 USA

7.1.1 Catches
7.1.2 Markets and Trade
Table 25 - Table 29
Table 30 - Table 34
Table 35
Table 36 - Table 38

7.2 UK

7.2.1 Catches
7.2.2 Markets and trade
Table 43 - Table 48

7.3 FRANCE

7.3.1 Catches
7.3.2 Markets and trade
Table 50 - Table 58

7.4 GERMANY

7.4.1 Catches
7.4.2 Markets and trade
Table 61 - Table 69

7.5 ITALY

7.5.1 Catches
7.5.2 Markets and trade
Table 73 - Table 80

7.6 SPAIN

7.6.1 Catches
7.6.2 Markets and trade
Table 83 - Table 90

7.7 JAPAN

7.7.1 Catches
7.7.2 Markets and trade
Table 95 - Table 100

8. REFERENCES

APPENDIX I: INTERNATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SHARKS

APPENDIX II: COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SHARK SPECIES BY COUNTRY (by SEI POH CHEN)

APPENDIX III: NON-FOOD USES OF SHARKS by HOOI KOK KUANG

1 INTRODUCTION
2 SHARK LIVER OIL PRODUCTS
3 SHARK CARTILAGE PRODUCTS
4 SHARK SKIN PRODUCTS
5 SHARK TEETH AND JAW PRODUCTS
6 OTHER USES
7 REFERENCES

APPENDIX IV. COUNTRY AND REGIONAL STUDIES

APPENDIX IV.1: HONG KONG (by HOOI KOK KUANG)

1 BACKGROUND
2 MEAT
3 FINS

3.1 Volumes
3.2 Prices

4 OTHER SHARK PRODUCTS AND COOKERY
5 SHARK FIN IDENTIFICATION
6 REFERENCES
7 PHOTOGRAPHS OF SHARKS AND SHARK PRODUCTS
8 CHINESE NAMES FOR SHARK FINS
9 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF SHARK FINS

APPENDIX IV.2: SHARK PRODUCT MARKETS IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA (by SEI POH CHEN)

1 INTRODUCTION
2 SHARK FIN

2.1 Background information
2.2 Factors affecting trade
2.3 Processing of "raw" fins
2.5 Availability of supply

3 SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: TRADE IN SHARK PRODUCTS

3.1 Singapore
3.2 Malaysia

4 COMPANIES TRADING IN SHARK PRODUCTS

4.1 Singapore companies
4.2 Malaysian companies

5 SHARK SPECIES USED FOR FINS
6 THE GRADING OF FINS INTO BLACK AND WHITE GROUPS

6.1 Information provided by Central Institute of Fisheries Technology Cochin India*
6.2 Information provided by The Marine Products Development Authority
6.3 Recent market trends in the Indian shark fin trade

7 REFERENCES
8 TABLES OF TRADE STATISTICS FOR SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA

Table 4 - Table 7
Table 8 - Table 12
Table 13 - Table 17

APPENDIX IV.3: THE INDIAN SHARK INDUSTRY (by R.A.M. VARMA)

1 RESOURCES
2 SPECIES AND BIOLOGY OF INDIAN SHARKS

2.1 Carcharhinus limbatus
2.2 Carcharhinus sorrah
2.3 Carcharhinus dussumieri
2.4 Carcharhinus melanopterus
2.5 Carcharhinus macloti
2.6 Galeocerdo cuvier
2.7 Scoliodon laticaudus
2.8 Rhizoprionodon acutus
2.9 Sphyrna lewini

3 SHARK PRODUCTS AND PREPARATION TECHNIQUES

3.1 Shark meat for human consumption
3.2 Shark hide for the tanning industry
3.4 Shark fin rays for soup
3.5 Shark liver oil

4 SHARK EXPORTS AND PRICES
5 REFERENCES

APPENDIX IV.4: INVESTIGATION ON SHARK UTILIZATION IN CHINA (by INFOYU)

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 The shark study
1.2 Background
1.3 Shark fishing in China

2 SHARK RESOURCES IN CHINA
3 SHARK UTILIZATION IN CHINA

3.1 Catch practices
3.2 The utilization and consumption of Chinese shark
3.3 The impact of Chinese consumption of shark on the shark resources of China

4 TRADE IN SHARK AND SHARK PRODUCTS
5 SHARK FISHERY MANAGEMENT AND REGULATION IN CHINA

5.1 Management Authorities
5.2 Laws and Regulations

6 PUBLICATIONS CONSULTED
7 CHINESE COMPANIES INVOLVED IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SHARK PRODUCTS
8 PHOTOGRAPHS

APPENDIX IV.5: SHARKS AND RAYS IN LATIN AMERICA (by J. SANTIAGO CARO ROS)

1 INTRODUCTION
2 ARGENTINA

2.1 Main species considered
2.2 Catches
2.3 Industrialisation
2.4. Markets
2.5 Legislation

3 CHILE

3.1 Main species considered
3.2 Catches
3.3 Industrialisation
3.4 Markets
3.5 Legislation

4 MEXICO

4.1 Main species considered
4.2 Catches
4.3 Industrialisation
4.4 Markets
4.5 Legislation

5 PERU

5.1 Main species considered
5.2 Catches
5.3 Industrialisation
5.4 Markets

6 COSTA RICA

6.1 Main species considered
6.2 Catches
6.3 Industrialisation
6.4 Markets
6.5 Legislation

7 BRAZIL

7.1 Main species considered
7.2 Catches
7.3 Industrialisation
7.4 Markets

8 URUGUAY

8.1 Main species considered
8.2 Catches
8.3 Industrialisation
8.4 Markets

9 VENEZUELA

9.1 Main species
9.2 Catches
9.3 Industrialisation
9.4 Markets

10 CONCLUSION

10.1 Main species considered
10.2 Catches
10.3 Industrialisation
10.4 Markets
10.5 Legislation

11 EXPORTERS OF SHARK PRODUCTS FROM LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

11.1 Brazil
11.2 Colombia
11.3 Costa Rica
11.4 Chile
11.5 El Salvador
11.6 Guatemala
11.7 Mexico
11.8 Nicaragua
11.9 Panama
11.10 Peru
11.11 Trinidad and Tobago
11.12 Uruguay
11.13 Venezuela

APPENDIX IV.6: SHARKS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN by MASSIMO SPAGNOLO

1 STOCKS AND CATCHES
2 LANDINGS BY TYPE OF FISHING GEAR
3 TRADE

3.1 Shark trade in Italy
3.2 Shark Trade in Spain
3.3 Shark trade in France
3.4 Shark trade in Greece

APPENDIX IV.7: IMPROVEMENT OF DRIED SHARK TRADE BETWEEN BRUFUT IN THE GAMBIA AND MANKESSIM IN GHANA by O. ABOBARIN, O. K. L. DRAMMIEH and M. NJIE

1 INTRODUCTION
2 PRODUCTION

2.1 Fishing
2.2 Shark Products

3 THE ECONOMIC OPERATORS

3.1 Fishermen
3.2 Boat owners
3.3 Shark processors
3.4 Packers, loaders and hauliers
3.5 Exporters/Importers
3.6 Wholesalers and retailers

4 TRADE

4.1 Domestic trade
4.2 Exports
4.3 Trade problems

5 CONCLUSION
6 SUMMARY OF CONSTRAINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

WHERE TO PURCHASE FAO PUBLICATIONS LOCALLY

BACK COVER