FAO. 1999. Inventory and monitoring of shrimp farms in Sri Lanka by ERS SAR data. Environmental and Natural

Resources Working Paper No. 1, by

C. Travaglia, J. M. Kapetsky and

G. Profeti. Rome. 34pp.

The study is based on interpretation of SAR satellite data and a detailed image analysis procedure is described.

Inventory and monitoring of shrimp farms are essential tools for decision making on aquaculture development, including regulatory laws, environmental protection and revenue collection. therefore, the availability of an accurate, fast and mainly objective methodology that also allows the observation of remote areas assumes a great value. The satellite remote sensing approach is also economically viable, as the value of shrimps more than justifies an accurate inventory and monitoring of the development of farms.

SAR data are unique for mapping shrimp farms, not only for their inherent all-weather capabilities, which is important as shrimp farms occur in tropical and subtropical areas, but mainly because the backscatter from surrounding dykes allows for recognition and separation of shrimp ponds from all other water-covered surfaces.

Although hardware and software needed for the extraction of useful information from SAR data are currently available at most remote sensing laboratories, good knowledge in imaging radar theory and practice in handling and processing SAR data are not. The report aims at the necessary technology transfer for an operational use of the approach in other, similar environments.

The methodology reported in this study has been tested under operative conditions in north-western Sri Lanka with the support of FAO project TCP/SRL/6712. the mapping accuracy achieved for shrimp farms, after field verification of preliminary results and refining of interpretation keys, is estimated to be more than 90 percent.

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FAO. 1999. Historical consumption and future demand for fish and fishery

products: Exploratory calculations for the years 2015/2030, by Y. Ye. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 946. Rome. 31pp.

The study provides an estimate of global demand for fish as food in the years 2015 and 2030. Global demand is obtained by adding estimates made for 17 groups of countries. After a review of consumption during the last 35 years, the author projects demand using observed statistical relationships between per caput consumption (live weight equivalent) and per caput GDP, a choice dictated by the paucity of historical data on price. For regions where a relationship (established through regression analysis) between observed per caput consumption and per caput GDP does not have statistical significance, or leads to clearly unrealistic results, a time trend regression was used. The author presents his results grouping the 17-country groups into six continents. He ends by discussing the significance of his findings, stressing that they represent potential demand; actual demand will be determined by the supply response to prices.

Rural aquaculture

As a follow up on the publication "Rural aquaculture: Overview and framework for country reviews". RAP Publication 1997/36 (see FAN No. 19, August 1998, p. 34), efforts have been made to review rural aquaculture in some of the major aquaculture countries in Asia and the Pacific Region, using the outline suggested by the above publication. The publications listed below, on the Philippines, India and the People's Republic of China, are the first three in the series. It is expected that similar publications on other countries in the region will follow.



FAO/RAP. 1999a. Rural aquaculture in the Philippines, by W.G. Yap. RAP

Publication 1999/20. Bangkok. 101pp.

In 1997, aquaculture accounted for 34 percent of total fishery production and 41 percent of exported fishery products by value. Aquaculture in the Philippines is mostly small scale and house-hold/community operations. It contributes substantially to food security, employment, household income and foreign exchange earnings. The sector provided employment to about 300 000 labourers and operators. The largest upsurge in the aquaculture labour force occurred in the seaweed culture sub-sector, with employment increasing from about 33 000 to 125 000 between 1980 and 1997. Small scale aquaculture assumes even greater importance when viewed against the micro-economies of specific localities (e.g. municipality of Lake Sebu where tilapia culture accounts for 50 percent of municipal income and 10 percent of the total labour force). In concluding his review, the author recommends projects for the further development of rural aquaculture.

FAO/RAP. 1999b. Rural aquaculture in India, by V.R.P. Sinha. RAP Publication 1999/21. Bangkok. 84pp.

Aquaculture production has increased threefold during the past decade, but aquaculture remains a small sub-sector of agriculture. Most aquaculture activities in India can be considered rural aquaculture. Freshwater aquaculture in village tanks and ponds follow the improved traditional semi-intensive composite culture/polyculture system. The practice meets household needs for fish and generates some additional income for the family. Successful commercial pond culture is a recent development in the States of Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, etc. In brackishwater aquaculture, more than half the total area (100 000 ha) under shrimp culture is made up of small farms following the traditional/improved or the traditional/extensive system of culture and as such they are considered a form of rural aquaculture. Freshwater aquaculture provides full time employment for about 1.2 million labourers and part time employment for 0.25 million, while brackishwater aquaculture employs about 67 000 and 15 000 respectively. The author presents case studies on income from integrated rural aquaculture activities (rice-fish, dairy-fish, vegetable-fish, etc.) and summarizes the results of recent rural aquaculture projects.

FAO/RAP. 1999c. Rural aquaculture in China, by S. Zhiwen. RAP Publication 1999/22. Bangkok. 71pp.

The dramatic growth in aquaculture production was given impetus by the introduction of the free market policy by the Government in 1978, particularly the policy stress on implementation of the household contract responsibility system with remuneration linked to output. In 1997, aquaculture production value was about 5 percent of total agricultural production value of 2 459 billion yuan; per capita fish availability from aquaculture reached 17.5 kg and aquaculture products accounted for most of fisheries exports, worth US$ 3.1 billion.

In 1997, 3.29 million labourers were employed in freshwater aquaculture and 0.46 million in marine aquaculture. In addition, the sector provided part time employment to a large number of labourers in pond coinstruction, maintenance, harvesting, etc. Surveys in 1997 showed that per capita net income of aquaculture households (5 325 yuan) was more than twice the per capita income of agricultural households (2 090 yuan). Rural aquaculture in the country involves the entire family irrespective of gender.

FAO. 1999. Global characterization of inland fishery enhancements and associated environmental impacts. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 945. Rome, FAO. 89pp.

This circular summarizes the results of an effort to characterize inland fishery enhancements on a global scale. The basis was an automated literature search in the aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) for the years 1978-1997 with focus on introductions, stocking, environmental engineering and fertilization. The results were combined with information from the FAO Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS) and the FAO Hatchery Production Database.

The results were linked to maps for a geographical presentation. An additional overview of the possible environmental impacts of inland fishery enhancements and associated prevention, mitigation and rehabilitation measures is also given. The results were combined with information from the FAO Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS) and the FAO Hatchery Production Database. The results were linked to maps for a geographical presentation. An additional overview of the possible environmental impacts of inland fishery enhancements and associated prevention, mitigation and rehabilitation measures is also given.


FAO/RAP. 1999. Trickle down system (TDS) of aquaculture extension for rural development, by D. Kumar. RAP Publication 1999/23.

Extension services have made tremendous contributions to the development and establishment of aquaculture as an important contributor to household food security, employment and income. As in the case of agriculture, each country has developed its own aquaculture extension delivery system with its own methods and approaches. In this publication reviews an extension method called Trickle-Down-System (TDS) of extension, which was successfully applied through FAO aquaculture projects in Bangladesh and Vietnam. The document details methods for planning, design and operation of TDS and presents case studies of application in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

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Top: Extension agent visiting home of RDF (Result Demonstration Farmers)

Below: RDF taking lead role in method demonstration

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FAO. 1999. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia, by T. Petr ed. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 385. Rome, FAO. 304pp.

The 13 papers presented in this publication review fish stocks and fisheries of mountainous areas of Asia. Cool and coldwater streams and rivers support subsistence and/or recreational/sport fisheries, with commercial fisheries practised only in some lakes and reservoirs. While fishing of streams and rivers is largely unmanaged, considerable management effort has gone into some lakes and reservoirs, especially in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and India in order to maintain reasonably high fish catches. A number of countries are pursuing the development of hatchery technologies for indigenous fish, with success achieved with mahseer (Tor spp.) in India and Nepal. Much still needs to be done to develop efficient technologies for production of viable fingerlings of other indigenous species. This is a matter of priority, especially as some species, like river sturgeon and the salmonid (Hucho taimen), are in danger of extinction. Deterioration of catchment soils by inappropriate agricultural practices anddeforestation and pollution inputs are reducing water quality in streams and rivers, making them unsuitable for many coldwater fish species.


CIHEM/FAO/INRH. 1999. Aquaculture planning in Mediterranean countries. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes Volume 43. Zaragoza, Spain. 187pp.

This publication comprises the Proceedings of the Workshop on Aquaculture Planning in Mediterranean Countries, of the CIHEM Network on Socio-economic and Legal Aspects of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (SELAM). The Workshop was organized by the International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEM), the FAO Fisheries Department and the Institut Nationale de la Recherche Halieutique (INRH), Morocco, and convened in Tangiers from 12 to 14 March 1998.

The objectives of the Workshop were to: (a) Analyze the evolution of aquaculture planning and development in the countries of the Mediterranean basin; (b) identify the most pressing needs in strategic planning, with a view to sustainable and responsible development of the sector; and (c) identify the role of regional cooperation in the aquaculture development planning in the region. The sessions addressed the general framework of aquaculture planning in Mediterranean countries, several national case studies, the planning process, supranational and international guidelines for planning, and regional cooperation. The publication compiles the manuscripts presented at the Workshop, and a summary of Workshop conclusions and recommendations.

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FAO. 1999. Report of the Consultation on the Application of Article 9 of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in the Mediterranean Region. Rome, Italy, 19-23 July 1999. FAO Fisheries Report No. 606. Rome, FAO. 208pp.

The Consultation was the final activity of a special project (TEMP/RER/908/MUL) requested and financed by the Italian Government. It was held at FAO, Rome and attended by delegations from 20 members of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) and by observers. The Consultation discussed two working documents presented by the secretariat: a synthesis of the national reports submitted by the countries, and a proposal for elements to be considered for the preparation of action plans at national and regional levels.

Three working groups discussed elements dealing with: (i) Dissemination of the Code and improvement of the planning process, (ii) enhancement of the harmonization between aquaculture development and environmental conservation and (iii) the use of the Code to upgrade the economic value of aquaculture and to improve and stabilize trade in aquaculture products in the Mediterranean. The working groups evaluated the document provided by the Secretariat and amended the list of proposed activities. These were also ranked in order of priority at the national and regional level and general mechanisms for their implementation proposed. The Consultation recommended that the GFCM be the umbrella institution for implementation of the programme of activities identified by the Working Groups.

Reddy, P.V.G.K. 1999. Genetic resources of Indian major carps. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 387. Rome, FAO. 76pp.

This publication, written for resource managers, aquaculturists and scientists, reviews the genetic resources of Indian major carps: the catla (Catla catla), the rohu (Labeo rohita), the mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), and the kalbasu (Labeo calbasu). The review includes information on spawning behaviour and breeding under natural and culture conditions, distribution, genetic characterization, status of genetic resources, conservation efforts, and hybridization among Indian major carps and with other cyprinids. Research on genetic improvement through selective breeding, chromosome-set manipulation and genetic engineering in India is reviewed. The status of Indian major carps in Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and India work on cryopreservation and genebanking is also discussed.

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