- Additive: An ingredient or combination of ingredients added to the
basic feed mix or parts thereof to fulfil a specific need. Usually used in
micro quantities and requires careful handling and mixing (AAFCO, 2000).
- Complete feed: A nutritionally adequate feed for animals other than
man: by specific formula is compounded to be fed as the sole ration and is
capable of maintaining life and/or promoting production without any additional
substance being consumed except water (AAFCO, 2000).
- Compound feed: A mixture of products of vegetable or animal origin
in their natural state, fresh or preserved, or products derived from the industrial
processing thereof, or organic or inorganic substances, whether or not containing
additives, for oral feeding in the form of a complete feed (HMSO, 1992; see
also formula feed).
- Concentrate: A feed used with another to improve the nutritive balance
of the total and intended to be further diluted and mixed to produce a supplement
or a complete feed (AAFCO, 2000).
- Conditioned, conditioning: (Process) Having achieved pre-determined
moisture characteristics and/or temperature of ingredients or a mixture of
ingredients prior to further processing (AAFCO, 2000).
- Cooked, cooking: (Process) Heated in the presence of moisture to
alter chemical and/or physical characteristics or to sterilize (AAFCO, 2000).
- Crumbled, crumbling: (Process) Pellets reduced to granular form
- Date of Manufacture: The date on which the food becomes the product
as described (FAO/WHO, 1999).
- Date of Packaging: The date on which the food is placed in the immediate
container in which it will be ultimately sold (FAO/WHO, 1999).
- Diet: Feed ingredients or mixture of ingredients including water,
which is consumed by animals (AAFCO, 2000).
- Diluent: (Physical form) An edible substance used to mix with and
reduce the concentrate of nutrients and/or additives to make them more acceptable
to animals, safer to use, and more capable of being mixed uniformly in a feed.
(It may also be a carrier) (AAFCO, 2000).
- Expanded, expanding: (Process) Subjected to moisture, pressure,
and temperature to gelatinize the starch portion. When extruded, its volume
is increased, due to abrupt reduction in pressure (AAFCO, 2000).
- Extruded: (Process) A process by which feed has been pressed, pushed,
or protruded through orifices under pressure (AAFCO, 2000).
- Farm-Made Aquafeeds: Feeds in pellet or other forms, consisting
of one or more artificial and/or natural feedstuffs, produced for the exclusive
use of a particular farming activity, not for commercial sale or profit (New,
Tacon & Csavas, 1995).
- Feed (s): Edible materials(s) which are consumed by animals and
contribute energy and/or nutrients to the animals diet. (Usually refers to
animals rather than man (AAFCO, 2000).
- Fish Meal: (Feed Ingredient) Fish meal is the clean, dried, ground
tissue of undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings, either or both, with or
without the extraction of part of the oil. It must contain not more than 10%
moisture. If it contains more than 3% salt (NaCl), the amount of salt must
constitute a part of the brand name, provided that in no case must the salt
content of this product exceed 7% (AAFCO, 2000).
- Food: Any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which
is intended for human consumption, and includes drinks, chewing gum and any
substance which has been used in the manufacture, preparation or treatment
of food but does not include cosmetics or tobacco or substances
used only as drugs (FAO/WHO, 1999).
- Formula feed: Two or more ingredients proportioned, mixed and processed
according to specifications (AAFCO, 2000).
- Gelatinized, gelatinizing: (Process) Having had the starch granules
completely ruptured by a combination of moisture, heat and pressure, and in
some instances, by mechanical shear (AAFCO, 2000).
- Ground, grinding: (Process) Reduced in particle size by impact,
shearing or attrition (AAFCO, 2000).
- Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition
of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect (FAO/WHO, 1997a).
- HACCP: Hazard analysis critical control point. A system which identifies,
evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety (FAO/WHO,
- Heat-processed, heat-processing: (Process) Subjected to a method
of preparation involving the use of elevated temperatures with or without
pressure (AAFCO, 2000).
- Ingredient, feed ingredient: Means a component part or constituent
of any combinations or mixture making up a commercial feed (AAFCO, 2000).
- Irradiated, irradiating: (Process) Treated, prepared, or altered
by exposure to a specific radiation (AAFCO, 2000).
- Label: Any tag, brand, mark, pictorial or other descriptive matter,
written, printed, stencilled, marked, embossed or impressed on, or attached
to, a container of food (FAO/WHO, 1999).
- Labelling: Any written, printed or graphic matter that is present
on the label, accompanies the food, or is displayed near the food, including
that for the purpose of promoting its sale or disposal (FAO/WHO, 1999).
- Mash: (Physical form) A mixture of ingredients in meal form (AAFCO,
- Meal: (Physical form) An ingredient which has been ground or otherwise
reduced in particle size (AAFCO, 2000).
- Medicated feed: Any feed which contains drug ingredients intended
or presented for the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
of animals other than man or which contains drug ingredients intended to affect
the structure or any function of the body of animals other than man (AAFCO,
- Micro-ingredients: Vitamins, minerals, antibiotics, drugs, and other
materials normally required in small amounts and measured in milligrams, micrograms
or parts per million (ppm) (AAFCO, 2000).
- Pellets: (Physical form) Agglomerated feed formed by compacting
and forcing through die openings by a mechanical process (AAFCO, 2000).
- Pelleted, pelleting: (Process) Having agglomerated feed by compaction
and forced through die openings (AAFCO, 2000).
- Premix: A uniform mixture of one or more micro-ingredients with
diluent and/or carrier. Premixes are used to facilitate uniform dispersion
of micro-ingredients in a larger mix (AAFCO, 2000).
- Premixing: (Process) The preliminary mixing of ingredients with
diluents and/or carriers (AAFCO, 2000).
- Ration: The amount of the total feed which is provided to one animal
over a 24 hour period (AAFCO, 2000).
- Risk: A risk is an estimate of the probability and severity of the
adverse health effects in exposed populations, consequential to hazards in
food (FAO/WHO, 1997b).
- Risk Management: The process of weighing policy alternatives in
the light of the results of risk assessment and, if required, selecting and
implementing appropriate control options, including regulatory measures (FAO/WHO,
- Screened, screening: (Process) Having separated various sized particles
by passing over and/or through screens (AAFCO, 2000).
- Shrimp Meal: (Feed Ingredient) Shrimp meal is the undecomposed ground
dried waste of shrimp and contains parts and/or whole shrimp. If it contains
more than 3% salt (NaCl), the amount of salt must constitute a part of the
brand name, provided that in no case must the salt content of this product
exceed 7% (AAFCO, 2000).
- Sifted: (Process) Materials that have been passed through wire sieves
to separate particles in different sizes. The separation of finer materials
than would be done by screening (AAFCO, 2000).
- Steamed, steaming: (Process) Having treated ingredients with steam
to alter physical and/or chemical properties (AAFCO, 2000).
- Straight feedstuff or straights: A vegetable or animal product in
its natural state, fresh or preserved, and any product derived from the industrial
processing thereof, and single organic or inorganic substance, whether or
not it contains any additive, intended as such for feeding (HMSO, 1992).
- Supplement: A feed used with another to improve the nutritive balance
or performance of the total and intended to be: (i) fed undiluted as a supplement
to other feeds; or (ii) offered free choice with other parts of the ration
separately available; or (iii) further diluted and mixed to produce a complete
feed (AAFCO, 2000).
For additional feed terms and feed ingredient definitions see