- All incoming ingredients should be verified for correct labeling of product,
purchasing specification, cargo destination, lot numbers/date, and regulatory
compliance, as appropriate, especially for medicated feeds.
- Before acceptance and unloading procedures begin, the following factors
should be considered: colour of the product, odour of the product, presence
of any foreign material, presence of any insect infestation, granulation (texture),
density of the product, moisture, weight, and other appropriate factors (including
- A visual comparison should be made to a known sample of the ingredient.
The contents of the carrier should be inspected for load depressions which
could indicate leakage.
- Before or during unloading of all bagged ingredients (i.e., premixes, minerals,
medications, etc.), a physical count should be taken and compared with delivery
tickets and bills of lading. Any bag count variances or damaged products should
be noted on receiving documents and on the bill of lading. The variances must
be reported to the mill manager as well as the purchasing manager so that
a claim can be made to the supplier and/or carrier.
- When sampling, utilize sampling procedures in accordance with section 13
of these guidelines concerning Sampling Methods and Analyses.
- Periodic random analysis for all ingredients should be made from time to
time for nutrient values such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude
fibre, ash, calcium, phosphorus, salt, and other values, such as moisture,
as appropriate. Microscopic examination may also be appropriate to determine
quality of ingredients and premixes (AOAC, 1990; Bates, Akiyama & Lee,
1995; Jones, 2000; Khajarern & Khajarern, 1999).
- Before or during unloading, if any ingredient does not meet purchasing
specifications, the production manager and/or purchasing manager should be
notified at once, and he should have authority for right of refusal.
- Refusal of a load can be a very difficult choice, especially if the mill
is short of the particular ingredient which should be refused due to contamination,
failure to meet specifications or any other valid reason. It is very risky
to all customers and the financial stability of the mill if contaminated ingredients
are allowed into the mill system. It may be very difficult and costly to remove
the contamination, depending upon the nature of it.
- Documentation allowing a paper trail or chain of custody should
be maintained which may include: type of ingredient received, date received,
shipper, supplier, unloading assignment, number of bags, bag size, lot number,
quality comments, and receivers signature.
- Both bulk and bagged ingredients should be used in a manner such that first-in,
first-out rotational procedures occur.
- All bins should be checked for bridging on a daily basis, depending upon
the ingredient. When bridging or hang-ups are evident, debridging or dislodging
efforts should commence as soon as practical. Great care needs to be taken
here not to expose employees to asphyxiation and/or being buried alive with
a sudden collapse of bridged material. The mass of grain or meal in a bridge
situation can cause a tank to implode at the top when it breaks free with
potential for serious injury to nearby employees (with an explosion-like effect
at the bottom).
- Ingredients received by rail, barge, or truck should be checked for possible
leakage conditions resulting from a physical defect in the vehicle. Rail car
and sea container seals should be inspected to assure doors have not been
opened or tampered with. Any broken seal or unsealed door should be noted
and reported to the purchasing manager.
- When possible, all carriers of both bagged and bulk ingredients should
be checked against shipper weights. Variances should be noted and reported
to the purchasing manager.
- The bulk unloading area should be inspected daily for good housekeeping
and safety practices. Complete clean up between ingredient changes should
- Ingredient routings should be carefully made by the mill manager and double-checked
by the mill superintendent before unloading the ingredients. Cross-contamination
of ingredients can be a very costly mistake, putting crops, feed customers,
and consumers at risk.