Trees outside forests

Towards a better awareness


Ronald Bellefontaine
Sandrine Petit
Michelle Pain-Orcet
Philippe Deleporte
Jean-Guy Bertault

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-104656-5

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to

© FAO 2002





List of abbreviations and acronyms

Trees outside forests, a key factor in integrated urban and rural management



Definition, interests and scope of the concept

Definition and typology

Mounting interest in Trees outside forests

Relevant domains and disciplines

Functions and significance for development

A multi-purpose, multi-use resource

Trees outside forests: the under-counted economic benefits

A key environmental resource

Trends and dynamics

State of forest resources

The dynamics of Trees outside forests

Looking to the future

Policies and legislation

Policy and legislation on forest and agricultural land

Tree ownership and resource access

Establishing rights and land security

Appropriation and local usages

Local management

Traditional and local practices and lore

Cultural and religious representations

Toward integrated management

Local rationale or the technical option, can they be compatible?

Peasant practices and economic constraints: dysfunction or balance?

Town and country: clash or fusion of ecological imperatives?

Support and promotion strategies

Major international conventions and initiatives

Innovative approaches and legislative renewal

Conceivable orientations and actions

Trees outside forests and production systems

Agroforests: a forest-oriented agricultural strategy?

Coffee plantations: reconciling ecological and economic imperatives?

Linear tree systems: strategic components of integrated land management

Assessment: challenges and objectives

Assessment or inventory of Trees outside forests: bibliographical review

Assessment goals and users

Classification of Trees outside forests and major types of assessments

Some examples of inventories

Assessment: methods and arrangements


Field inventory

Sociocultural and economic approach

The environmental approach

Reviewing patterns of change at different times and places

Data systems



Trees outside forests, transmitting a universal lore

Trees Outside Forests: Costa Rica

Trees outside forests: France

Trees outside forests: India

Trees outside forests: Kenya

Trees outside Forests: Mali

Trees outside forests: Morocco

Trees outside forests: Namibia

Trees outside Forests: Sudan


Annex I: Forest Resource Assessment Definitions (FAO)

Annex 2. Sampling designs

Annexe 3. Glossary


1. Diversity of definitions of forest

2. Definition of Trees outside forests

3. Examples of ambiguities in the definition of Trees outside forests

4. The many facets of Trees outside forests: an overview

5. Selection of local or exotic species

6.Diversity of rônier products

7. Pharmaceutical products from trees

8.Trees outside forests: fuelwood production

9. Agroforestry systems and fuelwood production

10. Cameroon: the trade in non-wood forest products

11. Fruit production in home or village gardens

12. Trees outside forests as a source of livestock feed

13. Gum arabic: a valuable product of Trees outside forests

14. Some environmental contributions of trees outside forested areas

15. Soil protection and water conservation

16. Home gardens and biological diversity

17. Tree-planting to better the urban climate

18. Decline of world forest resources

19. Dynamics of tree advance on farmlands in Nepal

20. Transferring rights to users

21. Legislation concerning urban trees

22. Land insecurity and land markets.

23. African bocage landscapes

24. Traditional rules of tree and shrub management

25. Improved pruning techniques for fodder trees

26. Local terms which combine plant uses, morphology and properties

27. Shedding light on local lore

28. Social ubiquity of the date palm among the Toubou

29. Indifference to corridor cropping

30. Trees growing in fields

31. Ecosystem maintenance and slash-and-burn practices

32. Relations between farmers, woodcutters and foresters

33. Ignorance of customs and usages can lead to conflict

34. Labels and eco-certification

35. Agroforestry reconstruction: the example of dammar

36. Coffee production and farm size

37. Shade trees and coffee production

38. Windbreaks and higher yields

39. Riparian buffers as water purification systems

40. Wood and crop productivity in connection with tree rows

41. Tree grants in France

42. Windbreaks in the Maggia Valley in Niger

43. Definition of the term `classification'

44. Inventory of village forests in Bangladesh

45. Kenyan woody biomass inventory

46. Inventory of urban trees in Hong Kong

47. The three levels of assessment

48. From forest inventory to the inventory of trees outside forests

49. Assessment methods for non-wood forest products


1. Country classification by forest cover according to the national definition

2. Trees outside forests, source of a wide range of non-wood products

3. Selected permanent crop sectors: summary (1996 data)

4. Farming systems and coffee farm size in Mexico and Central America

5. Findings of the bibliometric review of 32 selected articles.

6. Quantitative reviews of wood and non-wood products

7. The major challenges by territorial scale

8. Parameter categories by speed and type of results

9. Comparison of forest cover in 1967 and 1977

10. Data summary from the inventory on pasture in Cañas, Guanacaste

11. Extent of linear formations

12. Length of hedgerows by presence of embankments or low walls, and ditches or streams

13. Wood resources: current trends and prospects (`000 ha)

14. National woody biomass inventory, current trends and prospects (productivity in m3/ha.

15. Average per hectare volume and area by diameter class


1. Classification of land above water and water

2. Classification of wooded lands (FAO, 1998b).

3. Preliminary classification of Trees outside forests

4 The five major coffee-growing categories in Mexico and Central America (adapted from Moguel and Toledo, 1999).

5. General situation of the Department of Mayenne. The forest regions:

6. Evolving efficiency as a function of plot size. Efficiency. Area of plots.


1. Dune Stabilization and crop protection

2. Microafforestation and rural hedgerows near Saint-Floret, France.

3. Trees outside forests or thurifera broom forest?

4. Dune stabilization with Prosopis spp and Leptadenia pyrotechnica in Mauritania.

5. Faidherbia albida agroforestry parkland near Ségou, Mali.

6. Bunds planted with Leucaena leucephala in Cape Verde.

8. Faidherbia albida agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso .

9. Fulani camp in a Balanites aegyptiaca agroforestry parkland in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso

10. Pollarded tree in Puy-de-Dôme, France.

11. Bicycle transport of cailcédrat tree fodder to feed home-reared sheep in Bamako, Mali.

12. Rill erosion and the role of Trees outside forests in Togo.

13. Mountain landscape in south-western China.

14. Some islands and corridors of biodiversity maintained between forest (background at right) and field. The Belgian Ardennes.

15. Policy of maintaining rows of trees along rural roads attractive to tourists, in the Allier region of France.

16. Agricultural fronts, deforestation and "orphan" trees (Rwegura, Burundi) - © R. Bellefontaine

17. Degraded forest in the mid-altitude range in the Himalayas in Pakistan.

18. Dynamism of natural plant propagation by root cuttings and layering (Combretum micranthum) in Niger under 400 mm/yr.

19. Pinus merkusii invades a clearing in Cambodia

20. Integration of walnut trees (Juglans regia) in an arid ecosystem. The Imlit Valley in Morocco.

21. Wood products from poplar windbreaks add to farmer incomes in Ksar el Kébir, Morocco.

22. Tree left standing as a boundary marker at the edge of a rapeseed field in France.

23. Harvesting fodder by drastic pruning of Faidherbia albida in Burkina Faso.

24. Spontaneous natural regeneration by rooting in the dry tropics. Niger.

25. The practice of stumped pollarding in Arles, France

26. Sacred woods and single trees in northern Côte d'Ivoire.

27. The integrated management of this riparian buffer of ash trees in Cévennes, France, offers numerous benefits for formers

28. Sheanut and néré agroforestry parkland in northern Côte d'Ivoire.

29. Terrace cropping in the Byumba region, Rwanda, with banana and scattered trees in concessions.

30. Hedgerow promotion policy (Calliandra calothyrsus) in the island of la Réunion.

31. Land management and the maintenance of trees, hedgerows and micro-woodlots in rural France.

32 Simplified land management and contractually co-managed ecosystems (Tiger-bush in Niger

33. The production of labelling walnuts grown on pasture is encouraged. Belley, southern Jura.

34. Multi-purpose riparian buffers in Tanzania

35. Growing coffee under shade. Costa Rica

36. Bocage landscape in the Belgian Ardennes near Francorchamps

37. Riparian buffer tree system in the Alagnon Valley of Auvergne, France.

38. Olive grove protected by a cypress windbreak in Volubilis, Morocco.

39. Problems estimating the biomass of thorn trees (Prosopis spp) in Cape Verde

40. Small oasis near Zer-el-ghibli, Mauritania .

41. It is essential to adopt a standard inventory protocol for thorny, multi-stemmed trees (Acacia erhenbergiana, Mali. © Cossalter/Cirad)

42. The potential of standing Prosopis juliflora in Cape Verde is hard to estimate. .

43. Inventory in Mali: Burkea africana

44. The sustainable use of tree resources growing outside forests demands a light hand rather than severe pruning for Faidherbia albida,

45. Botanical garden in Burundi (Araucaria bidwilli).

46. Trees outside forests here we have a Faidherbia albida, which may grow wild but are mostly cultivated, are an often overlooked and underrated household resource .

47. Woodlot within a barley field

48. Growing coffee under shade. Costa Rica

49. Pruned tree in Auvergne, France

50. Trees lining rural roads are also under threat from agricultural intensification in France.

51. Agroforestry utilization of land in the Middle Hills section of the Indian Himalayas. Irrigable terraces. .

52. Hedgerows criss-cross a mountain farming district in India .

53. Microreforestation with Eucalyptus.

54. Single trees scattered throughout fields.

55. Growing millet on a sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) agroforestry parkland in Mali.

56. Olive and almond groves in the 1970s in Morocco as part of soil protection and restoration efforts

57. Date-palm grove in The Todra Valley, Morocco.

58. Agroforestry stand of Acacia senegal (gum-tree).

59. Camel browsing on one of the few trees in the region .