Principles and practices of small - and medium - scale fruit juice processing

by
R.P. Bates
J.R. Morris
and
P.G. Crandall
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department
University of Florida
United States

 

FAO
AGRICULTURAL
SERVICES
BULLETIN

146



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-104661-1

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2001


Table of Contents

FOREWORD

PART 1 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

1.1 Purpose of publication

1.2 Historical background

1.3 The value of juice

CHAPTER 2. DEFINING JUICES

2.1 Some definitions

2.2 Juice criteria

CHAPTER 3. FRUIT MORPHOLOGY AND COMPOSITION

3.1 Distinctions

3.2 Fruit/juice general composition

3.3 Phytochemicals

CHAPTER 4. JUICE SAFETY, GRADES AND STANDARDS

4.1 Safety, safety and safety

4.2 Quality

4.3 Regulatory concerns

CHAPTER 5. RAW MATERIAL FOR JUICE

5.1 Initial considerations

5.1.1 Fruit cultivar

5.1.2 Cultivation practices

5.1.3 Harvest season and maturity

5.1.4 Harvest and postharvest handling

CHAPTER 6. GENERAL JUICE MANUFACTURE PRINCIPLES

6.1 Unit operations applied to juice

6.1.1 Pre-process storage

6.1.2 Cleaning, sorting and inspection

6.1.3 Crushing and juicing

6.1.4 Pressing

6.1.5 Juice clarification

6.1.6 Filtration

6.1.7 Deaeration

6.1.8 A word of caution regarding processing systems

CHAPTER 7. GENERAL JUICE PROCESSING PRINCIPLES

7.1 Juice spoilage

CHAPTER 8. JUICE STABILIZATION AND PRESERVATION

8.1 Preservation

8.1.1 Refrigeration + sanitation

8.1.2 Freezing

8.1.3 Combined methods

8.2 Thermal processing

8.2.1 Canning

8.2.2 Hot fill

8.2.3 Aseptic processing

8.3 Non thermal and other methods

8.3.1 Sterile filtration

8.3.2 Chemical preservatives

8.3.3 Newer methods

8.4 Concentration

8.5 Jelly and jam manufacture

8.6 Wine

8.7 Water removal and water activity

8.8 Dehydration

8.9 Vacuum drying

8.10 Juice packaging systems

8.10.1 Storage requirements

8.10.2 Active packaging

8.10.3 Product identification

8.10.4 Bulk storage

CHAPTER 9. JUICE AND BEVERAGE BLENDS

9.1 Rationale

9.1.1 Blending strategies

CHAPTER 10. COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS

10.1 Trends

10.1.1 Pectin

10.1.2 Essential oils and essences

10.1.3 Pigments

10.2 Phytochemicals

PART 2 - SPECIFIC JUICE PRODUCTS

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 11. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF CITRUS JUICE PROCESSING

11.1 What is citrus and where is it grown?

11.2 Nutritional benefits from consuming citrus

11.2.1 Sport or isotonnesic beverages

11.2.2 Energy beverages

11.2.3 Nutraceutical beverages

11.2.4 Herbal beverages

11.2.5 Smart beverages

11.2.6 Fun beverages

11.3 Economically feasible by-products from citrus and an idea of volumes

11.3.1 Pectin

11.3.2 Pectin pomace and dietary fibre

11.3.3 Dried citrus peel

1.3.4 Pulp wash

11.3.5 Juice sacs and whole juice vesicles

11.3.6 Beverage bases and clouding agents

11.3.7 Healthful, nutraceutical citrus beverages

11.3.8 Fractionated citrus oils and D-limonene

11.3.9 Citrus molasses and beverage alcohol base

11.3.10 Flavonoids and limonin

11.3.11 Conclusions

11.4 Overview of large scale citrus processing operation

11.4.1 Harvesting and transporting oranges into the processing plant

11.4.2 Citrus juice extraction systems

11.4.3 Manufacture of peel oil

11.4.4 Evaporation, concentration of the juice, storage and transportation

11.4.5 Saving money by manufacturing 72ºBrix concentrate

11.5 Principal pieces of citrus extraction equipment for use at an appropriate scale

11.5.1 Small village-scale harvesting

11.5.2 Washing and storing fruit

11.5.3 Small-scale citrus

11.5.4 Small-scale citrus extraction

11.5.5 Small-scale citrus juice pasteurization

11.6 Overview of small scale fruit processing equipment with references on how to make equipment

11.7 Sanitation and good manufacturing practices

11.7.1 International

11.7.2 National and local regulations

11.8 Processing citrus other than oranges

11.8.1 Tangerine

11.8.2 Grapefruit

11.8.3 Lemon and lime

11.8.4 Exotic fruits

11.8.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 12. GRAPE JUICE

12.1 Importance

12.2 Grape juice composition

12.3 Pre-harvest factors influencing grape juice quality

12.3.1 Climate

12.3.2 Soil

12.3.3 Cultivar

12.3.4 Vineyard management

12.4 Harvest and postharvest factors influencing grape juice quality

12.5 Juice production

12.5.1 Hot press

12.5.2 Cold-press

12.6 Processing factors that influence quality

12.7 Grape juice concentrate

12.7.1 Rising film evaporator

12.7.2 Falling film evaporator

12.7.3 Plate evaporators

12.7.4 Centrifugal or conical evaporators

12.7.5 Freeze concentration

12.8 Grape spreads

12.8.1 Sweeteners

12.8.2 Acids

12.8.3 Buffer salts

12.9 Pectins

12.9.1 Addition of pectin

12.9.2 Syneresis

12.9.3 Procedure

CHAPTER 13. TREE FRUIT : APPLE, PEAR, PEACH, PLUM, APRICOT AND PLUMS

13.1 Raw material

13.2 Harvest

13.2.1 Time elapsed from full bloom to maturity

13.2.2 Starch/iodine test

13.2.3 Pressure test

13.2.4 Soluble solids

13.2.5 Ground colour change

13.2.7 Water core

13.2.8 Easy removal of fruit from spur

13.3 Storage

13.4 Storage facilities

13.4.1 Air-cooled storage

13.4.2 Mechanically refrigerated storage

13.5 Processing

13.6 Apple juice manufacture

13.6.1 Prejuicing

13.6.2 Extraction

13.6.3 Unclarified juice

13.6.4 Enzyme treatment

13.6.5 Tannin and gelatin treatment

13.6.6 Heat clarification

13.6.7 Centrifuged apple juice

13.6.8 Bentonnesite fining

13.6.9 Filtration

13.7 Pasteurization

13.8 Concentration

13.9 Applesauce

13.10 Pears

13.11 Peaches

13.12 Apricot

13.13 Plums and prunes

CHAPTER 14. BERRIES

14.1 Cranberry

14.2 Strawberry

14.3 Blueberry

14.4 Blackberry

14.5 Raspberry and other berries

14.6 Cherry

CHAPTER 15. TROPICAL FRUITS

15.1 Pineapple

15.2 Mango

15.3 Passion fruit

15.4 Guava

15.5 Papaya

15.6 Guanabana (Soursop)

15.7 Acerola

15.8 Naranjilla

15.9 Carambola

15.10 Lychee

15.11 Banana

15.13 Other fruits for juice

CHAPTER 16. VEGETABLE JUICES

16.1 Tomato juice

16.2 Carrot

16.3 Other juices

16.4 Non-fruit/vegetable juices

CHAPTER 17. COMPLEMENTARY/COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS

17.1 Jams, jellies and syrups

17.2 Smoothies

17.3 Dairy

17.4 Sports drinks

17.5 Herbals and teas

17.6 Competitive products

CHAPTER 18. COMMERCIALIZATION

18.1 The total picture

18.2 The outsourcing and co-packing option

CHAPTER 19. REFERENCES AND RESOURCES

19.1 Working by analogy

19.2 Doing your homework

19.3 Textbooks

19.4 Abstracts

19.5 Patents

19.6 Patents

19.7 Periodicals

19.8 The Internet

19.9 Institutional resources

ANNEX A. Suppliers

ANNEX B. Bibliography