A Fishery Manager's Guidebook - Management Measures and Their Application













Table of Contents


FISHERIES
TECHNICAL
PAPER

424

Food
and
Agriculture
Organization
of
the
United
Nations



Rome, 2002

Edited by
Kevern L. Cochrane
Senior Fishery Resources Officer
Fishery Resources Division
FAO Fisheries Department

The designation employed and the presentation of the material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-10473204

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief. Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy orby e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

1. WHY DO WE NEED THIS GUIDEBOOK?
2. WHAT IS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT?
3. THE WORKING PRINCIPLES OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
4. WHO IS THE FISHERY MANAGER?
5. WHAT CONSTITUTES A MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY?
6. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: WHO NEEDS THEM IN A FISHERY?
7. MANAGEMENT PLANS, MEASURES AND STRATEGIES
8. PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS IN FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

8.1 Biological Considerations
8.2 Ecological and Environmental Considerations
8.3 Technological Considerations
8.4 Social and Cultural Considerations
8.5 Economic Considerations
8.6 Considerations Imposed by Other Parties

9. IS ALL THIS LEGAL?

9.1 National Legislation
9.2 International legislation and instruments

10. RECOMMENDED READING

CHAPTER 2: THE USE OF TECHNICAL MEASURES IN RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES: REGULATION OF FISHING GEAR

1. INTRODUCTION
2. FISHING GEARS

2.1 The ideal fishing gear
2.2 Classification of fishing gears

3. PASSIVE FISHING GEARS

3.1 Nets
3.2 Hook and line fishing
3.3 Pots and traps

4. ACTIVE FISHING GEARS

4.1 Spears and harpoons
4.2 Trawls and dredges
4.3 Seine nets
4.4 Beach seines
4.5 Purse seines
4.6 Other fishing gears and devices

5. GEAR SELECTIVITY AND ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF FISHING

5.1 Selectivity properties and ecosystem effects of different fishing methods

6. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: SELECTIVITY AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF FISHING
7. RECOMMENDED READING

CHAPTER 3: THE USE OF TECHNICAL MEASURES IN RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES: AREA AND TIME RESTRICTIONS

1. WHAT ARE AREA AND TIME RESTRICTIONS?
2. WHY WOULD YOU ESTABLISH AREA OR TIME RESTRICTIONS?

2.1 As a fishery management measure
2.2 As a wider conservation measure
2.3 To resolve equity issues

3. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AREA AND TIME RESTRICTIONS?

3.1 Advantages
3.2 Disadvantages

4. CASE STUDIES

4.1 Gulf of Mexico: a mixture of area and time closures
4.2 Coral reefs
4.3 Surf zone fisheries
4.4 Georges Bank
4.5 The Plaice Box
4.6 Adaptive management using the closed area approach: an example for NW Australia

5. WHAT ARE THE PRACTICAL STEPS TOWARDS ESTABLISHING TIME AND AREA RESTRICTIONS?

5.1 Set your goal
5.2 Specify criteria for selection
5.3 Assemble information and conduct a preliminary evaluation
5.4 Implement the process of negotiation
5.5 Evaluate the need for underpinning research

6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS
7. REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4: INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTROLS: THE PRACTICE OF FISHING EFFORT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT IN RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES

1. INTRODUCTION
2. WHAT ARE INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTROLS?

2.1 Input controls or fishing effort management
2.2 Output controls or catch management
2.3 The need for fishing effort and catch management controls to be generally applied

3. WHY WOULD YOU WANT TO USE EFFORT OR CATCH MANAGEMENT?

3.1 How do they link with the objectives of fisheries management?

4. HOW WOULD YOU IMPOSE FISHING EFFORT MANAGEMENT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT?

4.1 Requirement for restrictive licensing
4.2 Reducing fleet capacity
4.3 Forms of catch management

5. WHAT STRUCTURES DO YOU NEED FOR EFFORT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT?

5.1 The centralised nature of fishing effort management and catch management
5.2 Monitoring, enforcement and advisory structures

6. WHAT PROBLEMS EXIST WITH THE APPLICATION OF EFFORT MANAGEMENT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT AND HOW MIGHT THEY BE CIRCUMVENTED?

6.1 The problem of effort management
6.2 Problems with catch management

7. THE PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH AND FISHING EFFORT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT
8. WHERE CAN YOU SEE EXAMPLES OF EFFORT MANAGEMENT AND CATCH MANAGEMENT IN ACTION?
9. REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5: THE USE OF SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION IN THE DESIGN OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

1. INTRODUCTION
2. WHAT DATA AND INFORMATION DO I NEED?

2.1 What information is needed to help make a decision?
2.2 Where do I get the information and how can I use it?

3. HOW MUCH FISH SHOULD BE CAUGHT: HARVESTING STRATEGIES AND REFERENCE POINTS?

3.1 Basic harvesting strategies
3.2 The classic reference point: maximum sustainable yield
3.3 Reference points based on fishing mortality rate
3.4 Reference points based on size-limits
3.5 Multi-species and ecosystem-based reference points
3.6 Economic and social reference points

4. WHAT TOOLS CAN BE USED TO GENERATE INFORMATION TO ADVISE MANAGEMENT?

4.1 Single-species methods
4.2 Multi-species methods
4.3 Considering the benefits to society

5. HOW IS THE INFORMATION USED TO DEVELOP A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY?

5.1 What sort of biological information is needed?
5.2 What sort of ecological information is needed?
5.3 What sort of social and economic information is needed?

6. THE ROLE OF THE SCIENTIST: PROVIDING OBJECTIVE INFORMATION
7. HOW SHOULD DECISION-MAKERS AND THE PROVIDERS OF INFORMATION WORK TOGETHER?
8. PRESENTING INFORMATION TO DECISION-MAKERS
9. WHAT ABOUT UNCERTAINTY?
10. UNCERTAINTY AND THE PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH
11. CONCLUSIONS
12. RECOMMENDED READING
APPENDIX: RISK ASSESSMENT
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 6: USE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES: LIMITING ACCESS AND HARVESTING THROUGH RIGHTS-BASED MANAGEMENT

1. WHAT ARE USE RIGHTS?
2. WHY ARE USE RIGHTS RELEVANT TO FISHERY MANAGEMENT?
3. HOW DO USE RIGHTS RELATE TO OTHER RIGHTS IN FISHERIES?
4. WHAT FORMS OF USE RIGHTS ARE THERE?

4.1 Territorial Use Rights
4.2 Limited Entry
4.3 Effort Rights (Quantitative Input Rights)
4.4 Harvest Quotas (Quantitative Output Rights)

5. HOW ARE USE RIGHTS IMPLEMENTED?

5.1 Are use rights already in place?
5.2 What is the ‘best’ set of use rights?
5.3 What is the underlying policy framework?

6. SYNTHESIS
7. REFERENCES AND RECOMMENDED READING

CHAPTER 7: PARTNERSHIPS IN MANAGEMENT

1. INTRODUCTION: PARTNERSHIPS SOLVE PROBLEMS, BUT ARE LITTLE KNOWN BY MANAGERS
2. PARTNERSHIPS OF SMALL AND LARGE SCOPE
3. PARTNERSHIPS OF SMALL AND LARGE SCALE
4. PARTNERSHIPS WITH DUAL OR MULTIPLE PARTIES
5. PARTNERSHIPS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT: ACCOUNTABILITY
6. UNUSUAL PARTNERSHIPS SOLVING PARTICULAR EQUITY PROBLEMS: LINKING OFFSHORE FISHERIES TO COASTAL COMMUNITIES
7. POWER DIFFERENTIALS OF DIVERSE ACTORS ON REGIONAL BOARDS
8. CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE PARTNERSHIPS

8.1 Characteristics of the partners
8.2 Characteristics of the partnership or the institution created through the partnership
8.3 Characteristics of the resource(s)

9. COMMUNITY PARTNERS MAY ADD VALUE TO THE RESOURCE
10. CONCLUSION
11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
12. REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8: FISHERY MONITORING, CONTROL AND SURVEILLANCE

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 What is monitoring, control and surveillance?
1.2 A historical perspective
1.3 The role of MCS in fishery management

2. THE MCS SOLUTION

2.1 Strategy and plan
2.2 Key strategic considerations

3. CORE COMPONENTS

3.1 Before fishing
3.2 While fishing
3.3 During landing
3.4 Post landing

4. FACILITATING FOR MCS

4.1 Administrative options
4.2 Information management and sharing
4.3 Management system

5. ENSURING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

5.1 Assessing MCS performance
5.2 Cost analysis

6. CONCLUSION
7. RECOMMENDED READING

CHAPTER 9: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT PLANS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. DESIGNING A MANAGEMENT PLAN

2.1 What should a management plan contain?
2.2 International fisheries policy requirements
2.3 National/State fisheries policy requirements
2.4 Fishery-specific requirements
2.5 Who should design a management plan?
2.6 Timetable for developing a management plan

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT PLANS
4. REVIEWING AND AMENDING MANAGEMENT PLANS

4.1 Mechanisms for review
4.2 Review strategy
4.3 Changing management measures without amending the FMP

5. FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLANS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ECOLOGI-CALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ESD)
6. EXAMPLES OF MANAGEMENT PLANS

6.1 The Australian Northern Prawn Fishery (NPF) Management Plan
6.2 The Barbados fisheries management plan
6.3 Queen Conch Fishery Management Plan for Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands
6.4 Western Australia plan for developing new fisheries

7. CONCLUSIONS: HOW DOES A MANAGEMENT PLAN HELP TO ACHIEVE THE MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES OF A FISHERY?
8. REFERENCES

8.1 Web resources

GLOSSARY

AUTHORS’ ADDRESSES AND SHORT BIOGRAPHIES

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