Law and Sustainable Development since Rio - Legal Trends in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management


ISSN 1014-6679
FAO
LEGISLATIVE
STUDY

73

 


Table of Contents


FAO Legal Office

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2002

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ISBN 92-05-104788-X

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© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


FOREWORD

1. INTRODUCTION

I. RIO AND THE LAW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
II. FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE DIRECTION OF LEGAL CHANGE SINCE RIO
III. THE PROCESS OF LEGAL CHANGE

3.1. Analysing the Substance of the Law
3.2. Analysing the Law in Action
3.3. Weighing the Importance of Legal Change
3.4. Finding an Appropriate Solution

REFERENCES

2. FOOD

I. INTRODUCTION
II. RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

2.1. International Framework: Key Developments

2.1.1. International Activities
2.1.2. Legal Developments

2.2. Recognition and Application of the Right to Food at the National Level

2.2.1. Constitutional Provisions
2.2.2. Framework Legislation
2.2.3. Case Law
2.2.4. Non-judicial Implementation

III. LAW ON FOOD CONTROL, FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS

3.1. International Framework: Key Developments

3.1.1. World Trade Organization Agreements
3.1.2. Codex Alimentarius

3.2. National Framework: Main Trends

3.2.1.Empirical Trends
3.2.2. Legislative Trends
3.2.3. Guidelines for Food Legislation

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

3. ANIMALS

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK

2.1. Empirical Trends

2.1.1. Animal Movement and Trade
2.1.2. Economic and Structural Factors
2.1.3. Political and Social Instability
2.1.4. Climate Variability and Change

2.2. International Developments

2.2.1. World Trade Organization Agreements
2.2.2. Office international des épizooties
2.2.3. Codex Alimentarius Commission
2.2.4. Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases
2.2.5.Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

2.3. Regional Organizations

2.3.1. Andean Community
2.3.2. Caribbean Community
2.3.3. Economic Community of Cattle and Meat
2.3.4. Economic Community of West African States
2.3.5. European Union
2.3.6. Southern African Development Community
2.3.7. Southern Common Market

III. NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Animal Health
3.2. Veterinary Profession
3.3. Veterinary Drugs
3.4. Animal Feeds

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

4. PLANTS

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK: KEY DEVELOPMENTS

2.1. Plant Protection

2.1.1. WTO Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
2.1.2. Revision of the International Plant Protection Convention
2.1.3. Phytosanitary Standards Under the IPPC
2.1.4. Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases
2.1.5. Regional Plant Protection Organizations
2.1.6. Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region

2.2. Pesticides

2.2.1. FAO Pesticides Management Guidelines
2.2.2. Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
2.2.3. Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

2.3. Seeds and Plant Variety Protection

2.3.1. 1991 UPOV Act
2.3.2. WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

III. TRENDS IN REGIONAL AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Regional Developments

3.1.1. Plant Protection
3.1.2. Pesticides
3.1.3. Seeds and Plant Variety Protection

3.2. National Trends

3.2.1. Plant Protection
3.2.2. Pesticides
3.2.3. Seeds and Plant Variety Protection

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

5. AGROBIODIVERSITY

I. INTRODUCTION
II. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY ON PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
III. CORE OF THE TREATY

3.1. Underlying Principles
3.2. Groundbreaking Provisions

IV. IMPLEMENTING THE TREATY

4.1. Paving the Way: Interim Arrangements
4.2. Promoting Compliance: National Legislation
4.3. A Pioneering Effort: The Syrian Arab Republic's Draft Law

4.3.1. Access Under the Treaty
4.3.2. Access Other Than Under the Treaty
4.3.3. Sustainable Use and Benefit Sharing
4.3.4. Farmers' Rights

V. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

6. WATER

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
III. TRENDS IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Growing Incorporation of Water Resources into the Public Domain
3.2. Checking Government Authority to Allocate and Re-allocate Water Resources for Use

3.2.1. Environmental Impact Assessment Requirements
3.2.2. Water Planning Mechanisms, Processes and Instruments
3.2.3. Minimum Flow Requirements
3.2.4. Reserving Volumes or Flows

3.3. Fostering Controlled Trading in Water Rights
3.4. Charging for Water Abstraction
3.5. Curbing Water Pollution
3.6. User Participation in the Management of Water Resources
3.7. Growing Attention to the Interface Between Statutory and Customary Water Rights

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

7. FISHERIES

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2.1. Capture Fisheries
2.2. Aquaculture

III. TRENDS IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Legislative Trends in Capture Fisheries

3.1.1. From Open Access to Limited Access
3.1.2. Towards the Use of Property Rights
3.1.3. From Development to Sustainable Utilization
3.1.4. Improved Enforcement
3.1.5. Requiring Fisheries Management Planning
3.1.6. Increased Participation and Devolution of Functions
3.1.7. Food Safety Regulation for Fish and Fish Products
3.1.8. Legislative Implementation of International Fisheries Instruments

3.2. Legislative Trends in Aquaculture

3.2.1. New Legal Frameworks for the Control of Aquaculture
3.2.2. Aquaculture and Sustainable Development
3.2.3. Coastal Aquaculture as Part of Integrated Coastal Management
3.2.4. Towards Coordinated Authorization Processes
3.2.5. Increasing Environmental Restrictions
3.2.6. Preventing Fish Diseases
3.2.7. Food Safety and Health Issues
3.2.8. Regulating Sea Ranching
3.2.9. Enforcement and Self-Regulation

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

8. LAND

I. INTRODUCTION
II. LAND RIGHTS IN INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
III. THEMES IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Strengthening Private Individual Rights

3.1.1. Rebalancing the Role of Private Actors and the State
3.1.2. State vs. Private Ownership
3.1.3. Variations in the “Bundle” of Private Rights
3.1.4. Improving Land Administration

3.2. Accommodating Customary and Indigenous Rights Within National Legal Frameworks

3.2.1.Legal Recognition of Customary Rights, with Special Reference to Africa
3.2.2. Strengthening the Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples
3.2.3. Common Threads and Common Concerns

3.3. Facilitating Access to Land

3.3.1. Privatization, Restitution and Other Redistributive
3.3.2. Rethinking Restrictions on Leasing
3.3.3. Improving Women's Access to Land

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

9. GENDER

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS

2.1. International Gender-related Conferences
2.2. International Human Rights Instruments
2.3. International Environmental Instruments
2.4. International Labour Conventions and Declarations

III. NATIONAL LAW

3.1. Impact of International Instruments on National Legal Systems
3.2. Gender Equality in Constitutions
3.3. Family and Succession Law

3.3.1. Legal Capacity
3.3.2. Rights in Family Property
3.3.3. Inheritance Rights

3.4. Rights to Land and Other Natural Resources

3.4.1. Women and Land Law
3.4.2. Women's Rights Within Agrarian Reform Programmes
3.4.3. Rights to Other Natural Resources

3.5. Rights of Women Agricultural Workers
3.6. Women in Rural Cooperatives
3.7. Credit, Extension and Training

3.7.1. Access to Credit
3.7.2. Agricultural Extension and Vocational Training

3.8. Means of Implementation

3.8.1. Courts
3.8.2. Human Rights Commissions and Gender-specific Institutions
3.8.3. Customary Dispute Resolution Authorities

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

10. FORESTRY

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK: KEY DEVELOPMENTS

2.1. Instruments Derived from Rio

2.1.1. Agenda 21 and the Forest Principles
2.1.2. Convention on Biological Diversity and Forests
2.1.3. Framework Convention on Climate Change and Forests
2.1.4. Convention to Combat Desertification and Forests

2.2. Post-UNCED International Processes
2.3. Trade-related Agreements

III. MAJOR TRENDS IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Forest Management

3.1.1. Sustainability Concerns
3.1.2. Planning Tools

3.2. Forest Conservation

3.2.1. Environmental Values
3.2.2. Protection Measures

3.3. Forest Utilization

3.3.1. Licensing Requirements
3.3.2. Contractual Arrangements

3.4. Privatization in Forestry

3.4.1. Private Forests
3.4.2. Private Forestry

3.5. Devolution and Decentralization

3.5.1. Promotion of Local Management
3.5.2. Limitations on Local Management

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
ANNEX

11. WILDLIFE

I. INTRODUCTION
II. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK: KEY DEVELOPMENTS

2.1. Overview of the Main International Agreements

2.1.1. Species-based Treaties
2.1.2. Area-based Treaties
2.1.3. Convention on Biological Diversity

2.2. A Regional System: European Union Law

III. MAJOR TRENDS IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

3.1. Wildlife Protection and Management

3.1.1. Hunting Regulations
3.1.2. Management Planning
3.1.3. Species-based Protection
3.1.4. Area-based Protection
3.1.5. Protection of Biodiversity
3.1.6. Game Ranching and Breeding
3.1.7. Assessment of Processes Harmful to Wildlife

3.2. Ownership of Wildlife and Related Rights and Obligations

3.2.1. Legislative Approaches to Ownership of Wildlife
3.2.2. Compensation and Protection of Persons and Property

3.3. Institutions, People and Wildlife

3.3.1. Information, Consultation and Advisory Bodies
3.3.2. Agreements Between Individuals or Communities and the Public Administration
3.3.3. Devolution of Authority
3.3.4. Socio-cultural Issues

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

12. MOUNTAINS

I. INTRODUCTION
II. MAJOR INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ON MOUNTAINS

2.1. Treaty Law

2.1.1. Absence of a Worldwide Mountain-focused Convention
2.1.2. A Regional Mountain-specific Accord: The Alpine Convention

2.2. Soft Law

2.2.1. A Global Mountain Platform: Chapter 13 of Agenda 21
2.2.2. A Draft World Charter for Mountain Populations
2.2.3. Other Non-binding Instruments: Some Illustrations

III. MAIN FEATURES OF DOMESTIC MOUNTAIN LAW

3.1. Scope and Objectives
3.2. Institutional Frameworks
3.3. Economic Incentives

3.3.1. Mountain Funds
3.3.2. Mountain Agriculture
3.3.3. Mountain Tourism
3.3.4. Local Products

3.4. Social Policies

3.4.1. Infrastructure and Communications
3.4.2. Culture, Education and Health

3.5. Environmental Protection

IV. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
Annex 1 - Main Examples of Domestic Legislation Specific to Mountains
Annex 2 - Status of Signatures and Ratifications of the Alpine Convention and its Additional Protocols

13. REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS

FOOD
ANIMALS
PLANTS
WATER
FISHERIES
LAND
FORESTRY
WILDLIFE AND PROTECTED AREAS
AGRICULTURE
ENVIRONMENT

AFTERWORD

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